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A Crise Do Império Português

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A Crise Do Império Português

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A Crise Do Império Português

  1. 1. O Império Português e a Concorrência Internacional Carlos Jorge Canto Vieira Versão 2.0 Janeiro 2012
  2. 2. A Crise do Império Português <ul><li>Motivos que levaram à crise (I): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersão dos territórios (África, Ásia e América); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despesas muito elevadas: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compra de produtos; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compra de armamento; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Construção de navios; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Construção de Fortalezas; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manutenção; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pagamento de funcionários e soldados. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. A Crise do Império Português <ul><li>Motivos que levaram à crise (II): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distância e Duração das viagens; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrupção; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ataques de piratas e de corsários. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. D. Sebastião e o Projecto para África <ul><li>Século XVI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duas correntes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manutenção do Império do Oriente; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Criação de um Império no Norte de África. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Sebastião opta pela Segunda: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quer criar um grande Império em Marrocos; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>04 de Agosto de 1578 – Batalha de Álcácer-Quibir; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O rei morre em batalha. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Problema da Sucessão <ul><li>Sucessão a D. Sebastião - 1578 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problemas: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O rei não tinha filhos; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O rei não tinha irmãos; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O rei tinha um tio que, para além de ser idoso, era membro da Igreja Católica. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardeal D. Henrique sucede a D. Sebastião. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apenas se adiou o problema… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Problema da Sucessão <ul><li>Sucessão a D. Henrique – 1580 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problemas: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O rei não tinha filhos; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O rei não já tinha irmãos; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teria que ser um sobrinho – Qual deles? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D. Filipe II de Espanha </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D. Catarina de Bragança Netos de D. Manuel I </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D. António Prior do Crato </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Candidatos ao trono <ul><li>D. Filipe II de Espanha </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Era o rei mais poderoso do Mundo; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tinha o apoio: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Da Alta Nobreza e do Alto Clero: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Queriam novos cargos </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Da Burguesia: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Queriam o acesso a novos mercados </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Candidatos ao trono <ul><li>D. Catarina de Bragança. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Era “apenas” uma duquesa; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tinha o apoio: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Da Antiga Nobreza Portuguesa. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Candidatos ao trono <ul><li>D. António, Prior do Crato </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Era filho ilegítimo do Infante D. Luís; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Era um membro do clero. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tinha o apoio: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do Povo; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foi derrotado na batalha de Alcântara e exilou-se em Paris. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Cortes de Tomar - 1581 <ul><li>Objectivo -> Aclamar Filipe II como rei de Portugal. </li></ul><ul><li>Promessas do novo monarca: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manutenção da Independência Nacional; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O cargo de vice-rei/governador seria para um português; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Os cargos da administração, das finanças, da justiça, militares e eclesiásticos seriam para portugueses; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Não seriam retirados territórios a Portugal; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manter-se-ia o uso da moeda e da língua portuguesa. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. O Novo Império Espanhol
  12. 13. Império Holandês <ul><li>Grande desenvolvimento da agricultura, indústria têxtil, da construção Naval e do comércio do Mar do Norte; </li></ul><ul><li>Defendiam o Mare Liberum (Hugo Grócio) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opunha-se ao Mare Clausum (mar fechado) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualquer país tinha o direito a navegar pelos mares; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualquer país tinha o direito de fazer comércio com qualquer povo/zona do mundo. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Império Holandês <ul><li>Importância dos Holandeses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eram grandes intermediários entre o Norte e o Sul da Europa; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>os seus barcos eram fretados para transporte de mercadorias; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amesterdão tornou-se a principal cidade comercial europeia; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a burguesia holandesa era activa e empreendedora; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>criaram-se Companhias comerciais para fazer face à concorrência ibérica, com poderosas frotas marítimas, defendidas por navios de guerra; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Companhia índias Orientais - Rota do Cabo - especiarias, porcelana, chá e sedas; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Companhia índias Ocientais . = comércio do açúcar e escravos. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Império Inglês <ul><li>Grande potência colonial a partir da 2ª metade do século XVII: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a larga experiência marítima dos ingleses; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>os ataques de piratas e corsários ingleses, nos séc. XVI e XVII, aos barcos e territórios dos países ibéricos; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1558/1603: Isabel I - os ingleses queriam dominar e fazer comércio nas regiões descobertas; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>com o princípio do Mare Liberum vão conquistar territórios nas Antilhas, Golfo da Guiné e antigas feitorias portuguesas no Oriente; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>comércio: açúcar, rum e escravos; </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Império Inglês <ul><li>Vitória sobre os Espanhóis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derrota da Armada Invencível </li></ul></ul>Trajecto da Armada Invencível
  16. 17. Império Inglês <ul><li>Acto de Navegação : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>o transporte de mercadorias de outros países e das colónias inglesas, para Inglaterra só poderia ser feito por navios ingleses ou pelos navios de origem dos produtos. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectivos: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>arruinar a frota holandesa e desenvolver a construção naval e a marinha mercante inglesas. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. O Comércio Mundial <ul><li>Fonte: Custódio Largatixa, Manual do 8º ano, Santillana, 2008 </li></ul>
  18. 19. O Comércio Triangular
  19. 20. Fim da União Dinástica <ul><li>Problemas com a União. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perda de Territórios; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perda de Navios; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Armada Invencível. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soldados Portugueses nos exércitos espanhóis; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aumento de Impostos; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice-rei Espanhol (Duquesa de Mântua); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portugal passa a província de Espanha; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revoltas populares. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Guerra da Restauração <ul><li>01 de Dezembro de 1640 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolta de nobres; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aclamação de um novo rei: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D. João, Duque de Bragança. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Início de uma nova dinastia: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dinastia de Bragança. </li></ul></ul></ul>Coroação de D. João IV. 1908, óleo sobre tela, 325 x 285 cm Museu Militar, Sala Restauração, Lisboa, Portugal
  21. 22. Guerra da Restauração <ul><li>Guerra da Restauração </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1640-1668 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batalhas: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ameixial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Montes-Claros </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linhas de Elvas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Castelo Rodrigo </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Guerra da Restauração <ul><li>Acção de D. João IV. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acordos com a Inglaterra; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reorganização do exército; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construção de novas Fortalezas na zona de fonteira; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desenvolveu a industria de armamento; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reorganização da administração do estado; </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Praça-forte de Almeida
  24. 25. Guerra da Restauração <ul><ul><li>Guerra com a Holanda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recuperação de: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Luanda; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S. Tomé; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Norte do Brasil. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. O Brasil <ul><li>Engenhos -> Grandes Propriedades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engenho: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local onde se encontravam os aparelhos destinados ao fabrico do Açúcar; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Utilizavam mão-de-obra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>escrava. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 27. O Brasil <ul><li>Os Engenhos - Esquema </li></ul>
  27. 28. O Brasil <ul><li>A Acção dos Bandeirantes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explorar o território brasileiro; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marcação de Fronteiras; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capturar escravos fugidos; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descoberta de ouro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e diamantes. </li></ul></ul>

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