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An Architecture for the Development of Ambient Intelligence Systems Managed by Embedded Agents

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Presented at 30th International Conference on Software Engineering & Knowledge Engineering (SEKE) at San Francisco (USA).

1st July, 2018

Instagram: @prof.pantoja

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An Architecture for the Development of Ambient Intelligence Systems Managed by Embedded Agents

  1. 1. An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 30th International Conference on Software Engineering & Knowledge Engineering (SEKE) • 1. Federal Center for Technological Education (CEFET/RJ), Brazil • 2. Fluminense Federal University (UFF), Brazil • 3. Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), Paris, France Carlos Eduardo Pantoja1,2 Heder Dorneles Soares2 José Viterbo2 Amal El-Fallah Seghrouchni3 July 1st, 2018
  2. 2. OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. Background 3. The Proposed Approach 4. Work In Progress 5. Conclusion
  3. 3. 3An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents • Ubiquitous Systems  Ubiquitous Computing or pervasive computing is the capability of embedding intelligence in everyday objects in a way that the person who interacts with this object reduces the level of interaction with the device or even does not notice them. [Weiser, 2002]  Ambient Intelligence (AmI) • Internet of Things (IoT) • Agents [Wooldridge, 2000]  agents are autonomous and cognitive entities from artificial intelligence. • Multi-Agent Systems [Wooldridge, 2009]  Agents can collaborate with other agents and they have common or conflicting goals. Besides they are situated in an environment. 1. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. 4An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 1. INTRODUCTION: DOMAINS The domain of this work!!
  5. 5. 5An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents • Early AmI works deal with the automation of common things in home or office  the classical automated coffee pot that sends information about the age, availability and, temperature of the coffee.  It uses sensors and actuators, a computer, and a UNIX workstation  a simple reactive solution connected to the Internet  no intelligence applied in the solution.  a list of information and services about a room when the user enters it. If the users enter the kitchen, the refrigerator shows a list of fridge items or a list of recipes using Internet browsers. It do not consider (above all because of the technological limitations of that time):  communication between devices  embedded technologies  complex processing or autonomous reasoning, • With Internet of Things (IoT), it became possible to enhance and interconnect daily objects together to perform pervasively actions 1.1. PROBLEM SETTING: AmI (Early Works)
  6. 6. 6An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents • AmI Systems + Traditional Programming Languages  based on logic and programming languages such as Java  approaches were bonded to a specific domain  rebuilding the system from the scratch or even to change the hardware employed  platforms and hardware technologies were also limited  rarely consider inference rules to provide a better understanding of the user behavior  presented a centralized multi-agent solution (even with inference rules)  a central server is responsible for hosting the agents  or presented a distributed multi-agent system  agents were distributed in a closed environment 1.1. PROBLEM SETTING: AmI + Agents (Early Works)
  7. 7. 7An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 1.1. PROBLEM SETTING: AmI + Agents (Early Works) 2003 2009
  8. 8. 8An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 1.1. PROBLEM SETTING: AmI + Agents (Early Works) 2003 2009
  9. 9. 9An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents • AmI Systems + Agent-Oriented Programming Languages (AOPL)  several frameworks for the development of MAS emerges  java-based agent frameworks play an important role in the development of MAS  looks like applications available in smartphones nowadays  using sensors on a large scale  notifying about daily tasks  some works apply the agent approach in simulated solutions  do not consider inference rules  one agent per device 1.2. PROBLEM SETTING: AmI + Agents
  10. 10. 10An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 1.2. PROBLEM SETTING: AmI + Agents 2003 2013
  11. 11. 11An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 1.2. PROBLEM SETTING: AmI + Agents 2003 2013
  12. 12. 12An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents • AmI Systems + MAS + IoT should:  present a distributed and heterogeneous devices are responsible for the reasoning of an entire environment pervasively  can enter or leave this ambient in a scalable way  still act independently from the technological architecture employed • Embedded Systems  exploit existent architectures and middleware to facilitate the communication between hardware and a MAS  use a central processing unit for controlling from distance  one agent per device  conceptual works consider agents working as things in network:  One agent is responsible for a thing in a Agents of Things (AoT) network  The possibility of employing MAS for controlling things (blue sky paper) 1.3. PROBLEM SETTING: AmI + Agents + IoT
  13. 13. 13An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 1.3. PROBLEM SETTING: AmI + Agents + IoT 2013 2017
  14. 14. 14An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 1.3. PROBLEM SETTING: AmI + Agents + IoT 2013 2017
  15. 15. 15An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 1.3. PROBLEM SETTING: AmI + Agents + IoT 2013 2017
  16. 16. 16An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents • Architecture for the Internet of Smart Things (IoST):  a scalable architecture for the deployment of AmI Systems;  comprised by mobile and fixed devices enhanced by MAS  based on IoT technologies  mobile devices can enter or leave anytime.  an independent and embedded MAS representing a smart thing 1.4. ABSTRACT GOAL: AN ARCHITECTURE FOR IoST
  17. 17. 17An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 1.4. ABSTRACT GOAL: AN ARCHITECTURE FOR IoST Metering Devices Indoor Air Quality Sensors Soil Humidity Sensors IoT
  18. 18. 18An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 1.4. ABSTRACT GOAL: AN ARCHITECTURE FOR IoST Smart Thing Smart Thing Smart Thing Metering Devices Indoor Air Quality Sensors Soil Humidity Sensors Smart Thing IoT ST ST ST ST Smart Thing ST
  19. 19. 19An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents • The Smart Thing:  device composed of sensors and actuators  a MAS responsible for controlling the device  able of communicating with other devices apart of the technology employed in them  can enter or leave in the AmI system  self-configurable  able of informing their abilities and utilities to the other devices 1.5. GOALS: SMART THING
  20. 20. 20An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 1.5. GOAL: SMART THING IoT
  21. 21. OUTLINE 1. Introduction 3. The Proposed Approach 4. Work in Progress 5. Conclusion
  22. 22. 22An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 2. BACKGROUND: JASON + ARGO ARGO [Pantoja et al., 2016] is a customized architecture for Jason framework. • It is a special kind of agent responsible for controlling hardware devices (ATMEGA, PIC, Intel, etc.): • Javino [Lazarin and Pantoja, 2015]  Interface for communication between microcontrollers and high-level software with error detection. • Perceptions Filters [Stabile Jr e Sichman, 2015]  Perceptions Filters reduce the amount of information perceived by the agent at runtime. The Argo by Lorenzo Costa
  23. 23. 23An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 2. BACKGROUND: JASON + ARGO The modified reasoning cycle of an ARGO agent!
  24. 24. 24An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 2. BACKGROUND: CONTEXNET Controller Gateway Gateway Gateway Processing node Core SDDL (DDS Domain) . . . . . .2G/3G Network WiFi Gateway Processing node . . . GroupDefiner PoA-Manager Data Connection MR-UDP MR-UDP MR-UDP MR-UDP
  25. 25. OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. Background 4. Work In Progress 5. Conclusion
  26. 26. 26An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents • Available Attributes  Autonomy  The ST should perform independently of any technology outside of its architecture.  The ST should work properly if it has been moved to another AmI system.  The ST should perform its functionalities even if there is no communication available.  Communicability  ST are able of connecting at an IoT based infrastructure.  It should be able of communicating with other devices including ST themselves.  Context-awareness  Data processing can occur in the ST without obligation to send it to a central part.  They can use the result for decision making or send it to any device in the AmI System.  ST are also able of dealing with inference rules for discovering context situations  Self-configurable  ST are capable of setting up itself in an AmI system presenting its functionalities and how to communicate with it. 3. THE PROPOSED APPROACH: SMART THING (ST)
  27. 27. 27An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 3. THE PROPOSED APPROACH: SMART THING
  28. 28. OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. Background 3. The Proposed Approach 5. Conclusion
  29. 29. 29An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 4.1. HYBRID ARCHITECTURE FOR SMART THINGS • Layered Architecture [Pantoja et al., 2018b]  Hardware:  controls heterogeneous hardware devices (ATMEGA, PIC, etc.)  connected to sensors and actuators  Serial interface:  uses serial ports for exchanging data between hardware and software.  High-level programming language  uses a MAS using Jason framework • Possible Agents in a Smart Thing  Standard [Bordini et al.,2007]  Argo [Pantoja et al., 2016b]  Communicator [Pantoja et al., 2018a]  Augmented [Casals et al., 2017]
  30. 30. 30An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 4.1. HYBRID ARCHITECTURE FOR SMART THINGS The architecture capable of controlling different devices in a Smart Home scenario. This architecture is the same employed in the Smart Thing. However, there is no communication mechanism available with other devices!
  31. 31. 31An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 4.1. HYBRID ARCHITECTURE FOR SMART THINGS SMARTTHING1 SMARTTHING2 It is possible to provide a communication channel using ContextNet! The idea is to provide Smart Things managed by MAS to control specific parts of the solution. And make them capable of communicating with each other.
  32. 32. 32An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents A A C C A MAS A MAS B ContextNet [Endler et al., 2011] SMART THING SMART THING 4.2. COMMUNICABILITY AND CONNECTIVITY
  33. 33. 33An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 4.2. COMMUNICABILITY AND CONNECTIVITY The modified reasoning cycle of Communicator agent!
  34. 34. 34An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 4.2. COMMUNICABILITY AND CONNECTIVITY Ex.: .sendOut ("788 b2b22−baa6 −4c61−b1bb− 33 01 cff1f5f878 ", achieve, decrease) preamble field size sender fffe 04 4 hex 2 hex up to 256 bytes field size 2 hex receiver up to 256 bytes field size 2 hex force up to 256 bytes field size 2 hex message up to 256 bytes kate 03 bob 07 achieve 08 Hello CN .sendOut(receiver, illocutionary forces, propositional content) The format of a message sent using Jason and ContextNet. Used to identify necessary attributes for both technologies.
  35. 35. 35An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents RECEIVERSENDER Add the preamble Calculate the size of all fields Mount the message Send the message using ContexNet Verify the preamble Is Ok? Discard message Verify the size of all fields Is Ok? Mount a message Start sending a message Process it as a Jason’s Message End of the processyes yes no no 4.2. COMMUNICABILITY AND CONNECTIVITY The process of sending and receiving a message.
  36. 36. 36An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 4.3 EXAMPLE 1
  37. 37. 37An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 4.3 EXAMPLE 2
  38. 38. 38An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents 4.3 EXAMPLE 3 (CEFET’s LAB)
  39. 39. OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. Background 3. The Proposed Approach 4. Work In Progress
  40. 40. 40An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents • This work presented:  an architecture for the development of AmI systems employing the agent approach and supported by an IoT middleware named ContexNet  it is possible to assemble devices, which have embedded MAS responsible for controlling sensors and actuators and for communicating with other devices  every device is an independent solution and it is free to enter and leave in the architecture • Future Works  To extend the architecture for providing organizational constructions.  A Self-configurable Smart Thing using logic programming language. 5. CONCLUSION
  41. 41. 41An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents [1] M. Weiser, “The computer for the 21st century,” IEEE pervasive computing, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 19–25, 2002. [2] D. Surie, O. Laguionie, and T. Pederson, “Wireless sensor networking of everyday objects in a smart home environment,” in Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing, 2008. ISSNIP 2008. International Conference on. IEEE, 2008, pp. 189–194. [3] H. D. Soares, R. P. de Oliveira Guerra, and C. V. N. de Albuquerque, “Ftsp+: A mac timestamp independent flooding time synchronization protocol,” in XXXIV Simpósio Brasileiro de Redes de Computadores e Sistemas Distribuídos - SBRC. Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2016, pp. 820–832. [4] M. Endler, G. Baptista, L. Silva, R. Vasconcelos, M. Malcher, V. Pantoja, V. Pinheiro, and J. Viterbo, “Contextnet: context reasoning and sharing middleware for large-scale pervasive collaboration and social networking,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Posters and Demos Track. ACM, 2011, p. 2. [5] G. Pardo-Castellote, “Omg data-distribution service: Architectural overview,” in Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, 2003. Proceedings. 23rd International Conference on. IEEE, 2003, pp. 200–206. [6] M. Wooldridge, An Introduction to MultiAgent Systems. Wiley, 2009 REFERENCES
  42. 42. 42An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents [7] C. Maciel, P. C. de Souza, J. Viterbo, F. F. Mendes, and A. El Fallah Seghrouchni, A Multi- agent Architecture to Support Ubiquitous Applications in Smart Environments. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2015, pp. 106–11647. [8] R. H. Bordini, J. F. H¨ubner, and M. Wooldridge, Programming MultiAgent Systems in AgentSpeak using Jason. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2007. [9] L. Silva, M. Endler, and M. Roriz, “Mr-udp: Yet another reliable user datagram protocol, now for mobile nodes,” Monografias em Ciência da Computação, nr, vol. 1200, pp. 06–13, 2013. [10] C. E. Pantoja, M. F. Stabile, N. M. Lazarin, and J. S. Sichman, “Argo: An extended jason architecture that facilitates embedded robotic agents programming,” in Engineering Multi- Agent Systems: 4th International Workshop, EMAS 2016, M. Baldoni, J. P. M¨uller, I. Nunes, and R. ZalilaWenkstern, Eds. Springer, 2016, pp. 136–155. [11] N. M. Lazarin and C. E. Pantoja, “A robotic-agent platform for embedding software agents using raspberry pi and arduino boards,” in 9th Software Agents, Environments and Applications School, 2015. [12] C. Savaglio, G. Fortino, and M. Zhou, “Towards interoperable, cognitive and autonomic iot systems: an agent-based approach,” in Internet of Thing REFERENCES
  43. 43. 43An Architecture for the Development of AmI Systems Managed by Embedded Agents ACKNOWLEDGMENTS THANK YOU! QUESTIONS? pantoja@cefet-rj.br viterbo@ic.uff.br amal.elfallah@lip6.fr

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