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Higher education and ethnocultural diversity

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This article tries to show a brazilian society cultural backgraound. Thus, we've tried to show a little of new civilizational paradigm. On it, we've tried to characterise the ethnocultural society composition. At the end, we've tried topresent the university policies of "affirmative actions".

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Higher education and ethnocultural diversity

  1. 1. HIGHER EDUCATION AND ETHNOCULTURAL DIVERSITY: affirmative action in Brazil JOSÉ WILSON RODRIGUES DE MELO FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TOCANTINS
  2. 2. New Civilizational Paradigm The consolidation of a globalized world society and the emergence of a new civilizational paradigm through the care of the poor, marginalized and excluded. If your problems are not calculated, still remain in prehistory. We have opened the new millennium, but not the new civilization and the era of eternal peace as all human, beings of creation and our splendid planet. L. BOFF (1999)
  3. 3. International Treaties Brazil participates in the international community being a signatory to various documents. These instruments aim to validate the recognition of certain rights around the globe. The CF 1988 ( BRAZIL , 1988) in Article 5 , § 2 , ​provides : "The rights and guarantees expressed in this Constitution do not exclude others deriving from the regime and from the principles adopted by it , or international treaties to which the Federal Republic of Brazil is a party . " The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948 ) ( UNESCO , 1948) is a reference example of both " intra " as living " between" states . The Convention on the Fight against Discrimination in Education, (UNESCO, 1960 ), The Conference on Education for All in Jomtien (UNESCO , 1990), The Hamburg Declaration (UNESCO , 1997), the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Durban Action Plan, a product of the Third World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and related Intolerance (UNESCO , 2001) etc., are references to important international acts recognized by Brazilian state. (MELO, 2008:185-6 ).
  4. 4. Federal Constitution - 1988 The Federal Constitution - CF 1988 (BRAZIL, 1988) establishes a recognition of the principle of the inherent right of all human beings equal. In its wake, the CF strives for equal rights under the law as a search for a more just society. By contradiction, Magna Law of the country, to take one (equal), it assumes the right to be different (multiple) as an enrichment factor of equality itself. (MELO, 2008: 180)
  5. 5. Racial Equalities The Law 12.711/2012, better known as the "law of quotas', governs the way to access universities and institutes of the federal network.
  6. 6. BRAZILIAN IDENTITY Brazilian identity is seated on the plurality, mixing or hybridism. Consequently, the identity got by ethnic origin tends to strengthen or weaken. That, if it approaches or moves away from the ideal claimed by political or cultural identity. A reality forged in the secular process of the society composition. This phenomenon, the proximity or remoteness of the identity ideal, also fluctuates, the position of the various groups located in social stratification. For too long, the ideal identification thickened into a promotion of "whitening" of national miscegenation. (MELO, 2008: 168).
  7. 7. Ethnocultural inclusion policies Brazil has been to broaden the policies of ethnocultural inclusion in recent years. The main merit of this factor is due to return to democracy. Thus, opportunities tend to increase. One of these is the public policy of 'affirmative action' mediated by the network of universities and federal technical institutes.
  8. 8. Young People from Public Schools Expand Access • The goal is to expand access of poor young people from public schools, as well as african-Brazilian and indigenous. Might infer that this law carries out the policy of social and ethnocultural inclusion. Social and Ethnocultural
  9. 9. Inequalities Affirmative Actions • The 'affirmative action' is located right where the principle of 'different needs to be treated differently' as a way to preserve the complex equality (Walzer, 1998). This contrast makes the existence of equality in democracy. This is finally a way to reduce inequalities: a constant in the structure of Brazilian society throughout history Ethnicity in Brazil
  10. 10. Equality in Diversity Michael WALZER (1997) theorizes the urgency of equality be taken beyond its literal sense (simple). Democracy as a system of possibilities establishes a dialectical relationship between equality and difference. Hence the rule of equality in diversity. When different is treated unequally break up the democratic imperatives. An understanding of equality presupposes a more complex dimension. (MELO, 2008 : 66).
  11. 11. Democracy Nowadays TAYLOR (1992) finds support in the discussions and actions of democracy in this context. Democracy as a transparent concept to the changing world in which we live. A concept that is different from equality towards similar, standardization, uniformity: the right to be equal to the difference. A complex analysis when defining equality tends to their common or literal, simplistic sense. TAYLOR says (1992:21): (...) Democracy has ushered in a politics of equal recognition, which has taken various forms over the years, and has now returned in the form of demands for the equal status of cultures and genders. (MELO, 2008: 61)
  12. 12. Advances Multicultural Policies • Advances in the years following the 1988 Federal Constitution, Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education - LDBEN, besides the establishment of the Secretariat for the Promotion of Racial Equality - SEPPIR, among other actions, mark the changes in society. Brazilian Ethnic Diversity
  13. 13. Network Federal Universities Federal University of Tocantins • The network of federal universities consists of 59 units arranged around the country. One is the Federal University of Tocantins UFT. This is present in the entire territory of the state. The headquarters is located in Palmas. University and Opportunity
  14. 14. University Multicultural Policies Ethnocultural Inclusion UFT pursues ethnocultural inclusion . It created the policy of 'affirmative action' (2004) where five percent of the vacancies displayed on the entrance exam are reserved for Indians. This year (2013) the african-Brazilian (Quilombolas) were integrated. A big win for this segment of the local population. UFT Affirmative Action
  15. 15. Universities Expansion Undergraduate and Graduate • Currently, the number of graduate students at the UFT is the estimate of 12 thousand. In rapid growth, there are graduate courses (master and doctorate) and specializations, etc. Added layers to the number of learners who are the collective of the courses offered in distance education format - EAD. Permanence Policies • Allow citizens to study in higher education has the objective of educational policy. Especially in the current context of the knowledge society. Countries seek to achieve this purpose several years ago, more precisely in the last four decades (Harvey, L., Drew, S., Smith, M., 2006). They highlight a significant number of students who have experienced failure and dropout in higher education. It became a challenge to achieve the prospect of democratization of the university and society.
  16. 16. Permanece in the University Obstacles and Challenges It is significant to optimize policies of permanence at the university. Thus, it is essential to good management of the obstacles and challenges in the field of hospitality, the integration of the academic success of the groups identified by cultural diversity. The democratization of society requires university. Multicultural policies represent advances in social development and human rights. Succes in Higher Education
  17. 17. A Unique Country in its Multiplicity Perhaps our history can be told with other letters in the day that the main pride of the nation be its people. This will, in turn, to enjoy the dignity of life as a citizen. Undoubtedly, this will not occur without effective changes in the actual school that the children of the poor people attend. Obviously, a number of other sectors will have to find articulated in the direction of that transformation. So possibly reach a modern Brazil with real conditions for inclusion of all people in the education and citizenship. A unique country in its multiplicity. (MELO, 2008: 188).
  18. 18. Unimultiplicity And... the future has the way at the unimultiplicity. Thus, each man is by himself the mankind house. Tom Zé, 2006 jwilsonrm@uft.edu.br
  19. 19. REFERENCES BOFF, L. (1999). Saber cuidar: ética do humano – compaixão pela terra. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes. BRASIL. (2012). Lei 12.711. de 29 de agosto de 2012. Dispõe sobre o ingresso nas universidades federais e nas instituições federais de ensino técnico de nível médio e dá outras providências. (D.O.U. 30/08/2012). BRASIL. (1996). Lei n. 9.394, de 20/12/96. Fixa diretrizes e bases da educação nacional. Brasília, Congresso Nacional. (DOU de 21 de dezembro de 1996). BRASIL. (1988). Constituição Federativa do Brasil. S.Paulo, Tecnoprint. GOMES, L. (1997). O currículo na escola básica: caminhos para a formação da cidadania. Rio de Janeiro: Qualitymark / Dunya Ed. MELO, J.W.R. (2008). Currículo e diversidade cultural no estado do Tocantins, Brasil: análises e perspectivas. Santiago de Compostela, (GZ), Espanha. Facultade de Ciencias da Educación : USC. (Tese de Doutoramento) Harvey, L., Drew. S. and Smith, M. (2006). The first-year experience: a review of literature for the Higher Education Academy, York : HEA . TAYLOR, C. (1992). Multiculturalism and the politics of recognition. Princeton: PUP UNESCO. (2002). Declaração Universal sobre a Diversidade Cultural. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001271/127160por.pdf, 20/10/2012. UNESCO. (2001). Convenção Mundial contra o Racismo, Discriminação Racial, Xenofobia e Intolerância Correlata. Declaração e Programa de Ação. Adotada em 8 de setembro de 2001 em Durban, África do Sul. http://www.mulheresnegras.org/doc/Declafinal.pdf, 20/10/2012. UNESCO. (1997). Declaração de Hamburgo sobre Educação de Adultos. V Conferência Internacional sobre Educação de Adultos – V CONFINTEA, julho de 1997. http://www.lpp-uerj.net/forumeja/documentos/declarac_hamburgo.pdf, 20/10/2012. UNESCO. (1994). Conferência Mundial sobre as Necessidades Educativas Especiais. Realizada de 7 a 10 de julho de 1994 na cidade de Salamanca, Espanha. Adotada por aclamação, nesta cidade, em 10 de julho de 1994. UNESCO. (1990). Declaração Mundial sobre Educação para Todos. Satisfação das Necessidades Básicas de Aprendizagem. Aprovada pela Conferência Mundial sobre Educação para Todos. Jomtien, Tailândia – 5 a 9 de março de 1990. http://www.unesco.org.br/publicacoes/copy_of_pdf/decjomtien, 20/10/2012. UNESCO. (1989). Convenção Internacional sobre os Direitos da Criança. Aprovada pela Resolução 44/25 da Assembléia Geral das Nações Unidas, em 20 de novembro de 1989. http://www.mj.gov.br/sedh/dca/convdir.htm, 20/10/2012. UNESCO. (1960). Convenção relativa à luta contra a discriminação no campo do ensino. Adotada e proclamada em 14 de dezembro de 1960, pela Conferência Geral da UNESCO, em sua 11ª Sessão, reunida em Paris de 14 a15 de dezembro de 1960. http://www.mj.gov.br/sedh/ct/legis_intern/conv_discriminacao_ensino.htm , 20/10/2012. UNESCO. (1948). Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos. Adotada e proclamada pela resolução 217 A (III) em 10 de dezembro de 1948. http://www.unesco.org.br/publicacoes/copy_of_pdf/decunivdireitoshumanos.pdf, 20/10/2012 WALZER, M. (1997). Las esferas de la justicia: una defensa del pluralismo y la igualdad. México, D.F.: Fondo de Cultura Económica TOM ZÉ (2006). Unimultiplicidade. http://tom-ze.letras.terra.com.br/imprimir-letra/919299/, 20/12/12 • The images were downloaded from google.com.br

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