ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ 2.foot notes

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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ 2.foot notes

  1. 1. ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත ෙහේවෙග් mdol igyka ( Foot Notes ) & -1 Wail, Pierre ,The nature of human values, UNESCO,Paris,1990,p.47.2 ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, Do,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,p.33-39.3 llport,G.W,Vernon, P.E.,& Lindzey, G., A Study of values, Houghton,Miffin Company,Bowton, 1960, p.43.4 Rokeach, Milton ,The nature of human values, The Free Press,New York,1973,p.39.5 ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, Do ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, p.40.6.Bandura,A,Social Learning theory, Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs,1977,p.61.7 Bandura A.and R.H.Walters,Holt Social Learning and personaity development, Rinchart & Winston,New York,1963,p.13-22.8 Bandura,A,Educational Psychology,Prentice Hall,New Delhi,1978,p.329 Bandura A,and Walters, R.H,Holt,Social Learning and personaity development, Rinchart & Winston, New York,1963,p.13-22.10 The Development of Moral Values in Children,Eysenk,Brith Journal of Psychology,London,1971,p.3411lZMwdrpzps"flatatiamS"ixjsOdk prAhdj"l;!D m@ldYk"ud;f,a"41 msg12,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 42 msg13 Skinner B.F,An experimental analysis, ,N.J.Prentice Hall Englewood Ciffs,1953,p.54.14.ghs,r Ata ta iudcj, olakg ;snQ jsoHd;aul oshqKqjg wkql~,j mrsKduSh pska;kh yev.efiknj jsYajdi lf<ah TzkEu ixialD;shl wjsoHd;aul ,CIKj,ska tu ixialD;shg .efkk cj;djf.a isl`uzme;`uzj, uq.aO nj o m@lgjkafka hehs olajhs huz ixialD;shla oshqKq hehs ms<s.ekSug n,mdkqfha ck;djf.a ;rAldkQl~, nqoaOshhs w;drAlsl wjsoHd;aul is;`uz me;`uz;`,ska nsys jkqfhao fkdoshqKq ;dCIKsl Ys,aml@uhs kj mrsKdujdoS pska;kh js.@ylsrSu iZoyd ghs,rA jsiska yZ|=kajdfokq ,enQ ixl,am folls tkuz ixikaokd;aul l@uh (Comparative method) yd ixialD;sl meje;au (Cultural Survival). Primitive Culture,E.B.Tylor,John Murry,187115 Skinner, B.F,The Behavior of Organism, New York,1916,p.42.16tosrsixy"ohd"fmfrArd"Z{dkodi"ufkdajsoHd jsurAYk"j;aud m@ldYlfhda"foysj,"2005"77 msg17,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 77 - 78 msgq18,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 78 msg19,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 78 - 79 msgq20,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 79 - 80 msgq21 George, F. H,Cognition, Methuen & Co. Ltd, First published, 1961,p.1122 , ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, Do ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, p.1223,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, Do ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, p 1324,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, Do ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, p. 1425,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, Do ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, p. 1526,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, Do ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, p. 1727 t=mZeh` kAlAmA mA an<s`sevZn mA prmZprAy,mA itfkfrAy mA pfxksmZpdAen`n.mA tk`keh`t=, mA aAkAr prfvftk`kt,mA dfxZXf nfj~ODAnk`Kn`tfyA mA BbZbr{ptAy mA smeNA enA gr{tf. wx.`;a;r ksldh"1 ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,du iq;a;" nq cuq" 337-343 msgq28,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,29,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,30,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,31k f;k NslafLd fyd;s - hdj;d NslaLf; jsiaix Ouzux iudodh - NslaLq fyd;s k ;dj;d fhdO mqZ[aZ[x p mdmx p - ndysFjd n@yauprshx jd iXzLdh f,dfl pr;s - ifj NslaLQ;s jqpzp;s ixhq;a; ksldh 1"NslaLl iq;a;"nqcuq"326 msg32 i. fihH:dms kdu laLS il`fKd fhk fhfkj fv;s im;a;dydfrda p fv;s" tj fuj NslaLq ika;`gzfGd fyd;s ldhmrsydrsfhk pSjfrk l`pzPsmrsydrsfhk msKavmdf;k fhk fhfkj mlalu;s iudofhj mlalu;s ucACOsu ksldh 1" uyd;Kayd ixLh iq;a;" nq cq uq" 628 msg ii. inzn mdmiai wlrKx - l`i,iai Wmiuzmod ips;a; mrsfhdomkx - t;x nqoaOdkidikx Lka;s mrux ;fmd ;s;slaLd ksnzndKx mrux joka;s nqoaOd 83
  2. 2. kys mnzncsf;d mrEm>d;s iufKd fyd;s mrx jsfyGhkaf;d wkqmjdfod wkQm>df;d - md;sfudlafL p ihkdikx u;a;Z[aZC|=;d p N;a;iausx - mka:x p ihkdikx wOsps;af; p wfhdf.d - t;x nqoaOdkidikx wdkkao ffu;@sh ysus"n,xf.dv"YdlHuqkSka|@djodkh fyj;a isoaOdrA:f.#;u nqoaO prs;h"iuhjO!k m@ldYk" fld<U" 1986"161 msg33fid Ouzux fofi;s wdos l,HdKx ucAfCO l,HdKx mrsfhdaidk l,HdKx id;a: ijHZ[ackx flj, mrsmqKaKx mrsqoaOx n@yauprshx mldfi;s oS> ksldh 1" iduZ[aZ[M, iq;a;" nqcuq" 108 msgqj34 hf;d p fLd idrsmq;a; bfOlpzfpz wdijgzGdkShd Ouzud ixf> md;`Njka;s" w: iJ:d idjldkx islaLd mox mZ[aZ[dfm;s" woaodi;s md;sfudlaLx f;iZ[afZ[j wdijgzGdkShdkx Ouzudkx mgs>d;dh mdrdcsld md,s"nqcuq"22 msgqj35 mdrdcsld md,s"nqcuq"54 msgqj36 "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "37 hkakQyx hdks uhd NslaLQkx mZ[aZ[;a;dks islaLdmodks ;dks fkix md;`fudlaLqoafoix wkqcdfkhHx fid f;ix Njsiai;s wfmdi: luzux uyd j.a. md,s 1"nqcuq"250 msgqj38 uyd j.a. md,s 11"nqcuq"764 msgqj39 k ys fjfrk fjrdks - iuka;S O ;`odpkx wfjfrk p iuzuka;s - ti Ouzfud ikka;fkd Ouzumo jsjrKh"rkafodfUz isrsjdpsiair ysus yd fudr.,af,a isrsZ[dfKdNdi;siai ysus"bJ|@d uq|@Kd,h" uSgshdf.dv"1956"9 msgqj40 mfr p jscdkka;s - uhfu;a: hudufi fh p ;;a: jscdkka;s - ;f;d iuzuka;s fuO.d "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "11 msgqj41 wlafldpzPs ux wjOs ux - wcsks ux wfydis fu fh p ;x Wmkhayka;s - fjrx f;ix k iuzu;s "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "6 msgqj42 wlafldpzPs ux wjOs ux - wcsks ux wydis fu fh ;x k Wmkhayka;s - fjrx f;iQmiuzu;s "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "7 msgqj43 k mfrix jsf,dudks - k mfrix l;dl;x w;a;fkd j wfjlafLhH - l;dks wl;dks p "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "90 msgqj44 ;Z[ap luzux l;x idOq - hx lFjd kdkq;mam;s hiai m;Sf;d iqufkd - jsmdlx mgsfij;s "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "123 msgqj45 wkj;iai ps;a;iai - wkkajdy; fp;id mqZ[aZ[ mdm mySKiai - kF:s cd.rf;d Nhx "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "68 msgqj46 iiaisJ|@shdks iu:x .;dks - wiaid h:d idr:skd iqoka;d mySKudkiai wkdjiai - fojd ms ;iai msyka;s ;dosfkd "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "172 msgqj "" "" "" "" ""47 tu "" "" "" "" "71 msgqj48 hiaidkqNdjf;d" hlaLd - fkj oiafika;s ysxikx huzNsfpzjdkhqZ[ackaf;d - r;a;skaosjukaosf;d iqLx iqm;siq;af;d p - mdmx lsZ[aps k miai;s tajudos .`fkdfma;x - mrs;a;x ;x NKdufy isxy, .s iys; msrs;a foaYkd iy fndaOs mQcd" yxje,af,a l,HdKjxi ysus" Y@S cskr;k NsCIq wNHdi jsoHd,h" .x.drduh" 1981"12 msgqj49 lrKSh u;a: l`if,k - hx ;x ika;x mox wNsifupzp ilafld WcQ p iQcQ p - iqjfpd piai uq|= wk;sudks ( ksrAjdKh ,nd .ekSug jSrAhh jvkakd jQ mqoa.,hd jsiska hula l< hq;` kuz th fkdue<sj l< hq;` jkafkah fy;u lSlre wjxl mqoa.,fhl` jsh hq;`h tfiau uD|= ksy;udks ldreKsl mqo.,fhl` jSu o wjYHh ) " " "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "13 msgqj50 ika;`iaifld p iqNfrd p - wmam lspzfpd p i,a,yqljq;a;s ika;ska|@sfhd p ksmfld p - wmam .nzfNd l`f,iq wkkq.soafOd ( i;`gq is;a we;af;l` fjz flfkl`g nrla fkdjkakd jQ mqoa.,fhl` fjz w,am jQ lD;Hhka we;s wfhl` fjz ixisZ|=kq .;s .`Ke;af;l` o fjz bJ|@shhka ixisZ|=kq fnfyjska m@ikak fmkqula we;s wfhl` o fjz Z{dK iuzmkak mqoa.,fhla o fjz l`, msrsiays ( mrsjdr iuzmf;ys )" jxYfhys" mruzmrdfjys Wiia nj is;uska thska udkh fkd Wmojd .;af;l`"fkd we,qfkl` njg m;a fjz ) "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "13 msgqj 84
  3. 3. 51 kp Lqoaox iudpfrA - lsxpsfhak jsZ[aZC|+mfrA Wmjfohahqx ( kqjKe;shkaf.a fodaIhg ,lajk iqZM jrolaj;a fkdlrkafkl` fjz ) "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "13 msgqj52 iqLsfkd jd fLzusfkd fydka;` - inzfnz i;a;d Yjka;` iqLs;;a;d ( f,dj ish,qu i;`ka ksrANh Ndjfhka ji;ajd tfiau iqjm;a fjzjd ksrka;rfhka u iqjm;a jQ is;skau ld,h f.j;ajd ) "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "13 msgqj53 fh flps mdK N~;;a:s - ;id jd :djrd jd wkjfiid oS>d jd fh uyk;d jd - ucACOsud riai ldKql:Q,d ( flf,ia we;s yd ke;s osla jQ uy;a jQ uOHu m@udK jQ iQCIu wKq iy.; jQ yd jsYd, jQ ish,q ;ek jikd jQ ffcj m@cdj ) "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "14 msgqj54 osgzGd jd fhaj woaosgzGd - fha p |+frA jika;s wjs|+frA N~;d jd iuzNfjziS jd - inzfnz i;a;d Njka;` iqLs;;a;d ( weig fmfkk yd fkdfmfkk <Z. fuka u |=r jikd jQ yg.kakd ,o fukau yg.ekSu msKi fya;` m@;H Ou!hka fiajkh lruska isgskakd jQ ish,qu ffcj m@cdj ks|=la fj;ajd ) "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "14 msgqj55 kmfrd mrx ksl`nzfnz: - kd;suZ[afZ[: l;a: ps kx lxps nHdfrdikd mgs> iZ[aZ[d - kdZ[aZ[uZ[aZ[iai |=laL uspzfPhah ( flfkl`g ;j flfkla jxpdjka fkdflfr;ajd flfkl`g ;j flfkl` jsiska wjuka fkdflfr;ajd fl@daO iy.;j oafjzIh msrsKq is;lska ;j flfkl`yg |=la mSvd we;s lsrSug lsis|= flfkl` fkdleu;s fj;ajd ) "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "14 msgqj56 ud;d h:d kshx mq;a;x - wdhqid tal mq;a; ukqrlafLz tjuzms inzn N~f;iq - udkiuzNdjfh wmrsudKx ( ujla ish mK fuka ;u tlu mq;` rlskakd fia ish,qu ffcj m@cdj jsIfhys fu;a is; m;`rkq uekjs ) "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "14 msgqj57 fu;a;x p inzn f,dliausx - udk iuzNdjfh wmrsudKx WoaOx wfOdp ;srshx p - wiuzndOx wfjzrx wim;a;x ( Wv o hg o iri o tajdfhys fjki |=re fldg oud ( iSud iuzfNaoh bj;alr ) ish,q wdldrfha |=lalror yd ffjr is;a |=re jk wdldrhg f,dal jdiS yeu fok fj; uyd fu;a is; m;`rjkq uekjs ) "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "15 msgqj58 ;sgzGx prx ksiskafkda jd - ihdfkd jd hdj ;iai js.;usoafOd t;x i;sx wOsgzfGhah - n@yau fu;x jsydrx bOudyq ( isgsk" wejsosk" ysZosk" ksokd yd fkdksokd wjia:djkays oS ieu l,aysu fuz ms<snZoju isysfhka hq;` jkq uekjs nU jsyrKh hkq fuz msrsis|= mej;`ug jHjydr lrkq ,nk kduhhs ) "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "15 msgqj59 osgzGsxp wkqm .uzu iS,jd - oiaifkak iuzmkafkd ldfuziq jsfkhah f.Ox - kyscd;` .nzNfihahx mqkfrA;S;s ( usiosgq njla fkdf.k iS,fhka wdrAh orAYkfhka hq;`j ldufhys .scqnj yer fy;u h<s;a lsisod fuf,dj W;a;m;a;s jYfhka fkdmeusfKkafkah ) "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "15 msgqj60 wx.`;a;r ksldh" Pll ksmd;h" nq c uq 591 msgqj61 ucACOsu ksldh" i<dh;k j.a." nq c uq" 227 msgqj62 ksiairKx fy;x wdjqfid jHdmdoiai hosox fu;a;d fpzf;d jsuq;a;s" ksiairKx fy;x wdjqfid jsfyidh hosox lreKd fpzf;d jsuq;a;s" ksiairKx fy;x wdjqfid wr;shd hosox uqos;d fpf;d jsuq;a;s" ksiairKx fy;x wdjqfid rd.iai hosox WfmalaLd fpzf;d jsuq;a;s ucACOsu ksldh" i<dh;k j.a." nq c uq" 228 msgqj63 plaLq jsZ[aZ[hHdkx rEmdkx bgzGdkx lka;dkx ukdmdkx ufkdrudkx f,daldusimgsixhq;a;dkx wmamgs,dnxjd wmamgs,dNf;d iukqmiaif;d" mqnzfn jd mgs,oaOmqnznx w;S;x ksreoaOx jsmrsK;x iukqiairf;d mqnzfnz jd mgs,oaOmqnznx w;S;x kreoaOx jsmrsK;x iukqiairf;d WmamcAc; fodukiaix hx tajrEmx fodukiaix box jqpzp;s f.yis;x foduiaix wx.`;a;r ksldh" wgzGl ksmd;h" 798 msgqj64"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""65 ;f;d Fjx NslaLq bux iudOsx ijs;laluzms ijspdrx NdfjhHdis" wjs;laluzms jspdru;a;x NdfjhHdis" wjs;laluzms wjspdrx NdfjhHdis" imams;sluzms NdfjhHdis" ksmamS;sluzms NfjhHdis" id;iy.;uzms NdfjhHdis" WfmalaLd iy.;uzms NdfjhHdis h N.j;a nq|=ks uuz nq|=kaf.a huz Ou!hla wid yqol,dj .Khd flfrka fjkaj wm@u;a;j flf,ia ;jk jShH! we;sj ksjka msKsi fufyhk is;a we;sj jdih lruzo tnZ|= Ou!hla ug ieljska jod< uekjehs tla NsCIq kula Ou! foaYkdj msKsi nq|=ka wheosfhah ta NsCIq fmr;a nq|=kaf.a Ou!h wid Bu /fZoa uyKqjuz lrkakg fldys;a fkdfha tfyhska Tyqg N.j;a nq|=yq tfiah fud>mqreIh we;euz flfkla ug Ou! foaYkd msKsi whos;s Ou!h foiQ l, ud u ,qyqneZosh hq;` fldg is;;shs kskaod jodrd h<s ry;a njg fya;` iuzm;a we;s ta NsCIqyg wjjdo lrk fiala fufia jod< fial 85
  4. 4. uyK tfia kuz ;d jsiska fufia yslaush hq;`h uf.a is; wOHd;aufhys u ia:s; - iqmia:s; jkafkah Wmka ,dul wl`Y, Ou! is; w,ajd fkd f.k isgskafkah uyK ;d jsiska fufia yslaush hq;`h "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""66 ;iaud;sy f; NslaLq tjx islaLs;nznx wcACO;a;x fu ps;a;x Gs;x Njsiai;s" iqiKaGs;x" kpqmamkakd mdmfld wl`i,d Ouzud ps;a;x mrshdodh Giaika;S ;s tjxys f; NslaLq islaLs;nznx "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""67 hf;d fLd f; NslaLq wcACO;a;x ps;a;x Gs;x fyd;s iqiKaGs;x" kjqmamka;d mdmld wl`i,d Ouzud ps;a;x mrshdodi ;sgzGka;s ;f;d f; NslaLq tjx islaLs;nznx fu;a;d fu fpf;d jssuq;a;s Ndjs;d Njsiaika;s nyq,Sl;d hdkSl;d jF:ql;d wkqgzGs;d mrsps;d iqiruoaOd ;s tjx ys f; NslaLq islaLs;nznx hs ffu;@S jyfhka Ndjkdj jodrk ,oafoah jodrd h,s hf;d fZLd NslaLq whx tjx Ndjsf;d fyd;s nyq,Slf;d ;f;d Fjx NslaLQ bux iudOsx ijs;laluzms ijspdrx NdfjhHdis fm WfmalaLd iy.;uzms NdfjhHdis "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""68 hf;d fLd f; NslaLq whx iudOs tjz Ndjsf;d fyd;s nyq,slf;d" ;f;d f; NslaLq tjuzms islaLs;nznx lreKd fpf;d jsuq;a;s uyK huzz l,l ;d jsiska fuz uQ, iudOsh fufia ffu;@S jYfhka jvk ,oafoao" wl, f;da tmuKlska i;`gg fkdmeusK fuz uQ, iudOsh fiiq mGjs lisKdos wruqKqj, p;`Ial – mZ[apl OHdkhkag muqKqjuska ips;l! – ijspdrdos jYfhka jvj hs jod<y h<s lreKdos fiiq n@yau jsydr mQj!x.u jQ Ndjkdj wkH wruqKqj, p;`Ial mZ[apl jYfhka jevsh hq;`fjz "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""69 ixhq;a; ksldh" fndcACOx. ixhq;a;" nq c uq 885 msgqj70 GdkdGdkx jsmdlZ[p – u.a.x inznF:.duskx wfklOd;`fhd f,dfl - wOsuq;a;sZ[ap mdKskx cdkd;s bJ|@shdkZ[ap - mfrdmrshkx uqkS COdkdos ixlsf,idos - Z[dKx jscAcd;a;hx ;:d ( fuh oY n, kus ) fjircAcdks p;a;drs - nqoaO;af; wdijlaLfh wka;rdfh j kShdfk - fhys nqoafOd jsidrfod ( fuh p;`ffj!YdroH kus ) bJ|@sh mfrdmrsh;a; Z[dKh wdihdkqih Z[dKh hul mdgsysr Z[dKh uyd lreKd iudm;a;s Z[dKh inznZ[aZC|=; Z[dKh wkdjrK Z[dKh ( fuh Ivz widOdrK Z{dk kus ) lsZ[dKuoaOdiq wkd.;dosiq - ;sluzuZ[dKx js.;x jsiqoaOx wydks PFoiai j foikdh - iudOs m.a.dy jsuq;a;s OSkx ojd rjd wmaMq;fuj kF:s - fj.d;jHdjg ps;a;;d j fkjF:s ;iaimamgs>xpqfmlaLd – f; fydka;s wgzGsri nqoaO Ouzud jsiqoaOs u.af.d" ixia muqKqfjz nqoaOo;a; f:r" ;@smsgl uq|@Kd,h" fldgqj" fld<U" 1920" 218-234 msgq71 w;a;~mudh inzfnzix - i;a;dkx iqLldu;x miaisFjd luf;d fu;a;x - inzn i;af;iq Njfh iqLS NfjhHx ksoa|=lafLd - wyx kspzpx wyx jsh ys;d p fuz iqLS fydka;` - ucACO;a;d pd: fjrsfkd buuzys .dulafL;a;uzyS - i;a;d fydka;` iqLS iod ;f;d mrxp rcAfciq - plaljdf<iq cka;`fkd iuka;d plaljdf<aiq - i;a;dkkaf;aiq mdKsfkd iqLsfkd mq.a.,d N~;d - w;a;Ndj.;d ishqx ;:d b;a:s mqudfpzj - wrshd wkrshd msp foajd krd wmdhgzGd - ;:d oiosidiq pd;S ( ;ud Wmud jYfhka i,ld il, i;a;ajhkaf.a iemf;ys leue;a; kqjKska n,d l@ufhka ish,q i;a;ajhka flfrys fu;a is; m;`rejkafkah ) ( uu ish,q l,ays iemj;a fjuzjd ks|=la fjuzjd ud fuka ys;jka;fhda o ueoy;a wh o ffjrS i;a;ajfhda o iemj;a fj;a jd ) ( fuz .uz fmfofiys o ishq,a i;a;ajfhda yeu l,ays iqjm;a fj;a jd ta .uz fmfofika wkH jQ .uzys o fl;ays o rdcHhkays o ilajf<ys o i;a;ajfhda yeu l,ays iemj;a fj;a jd ) ( fiiq ilajf<ys o wkka; ilajf<ys o i;a;ajfhda o m@dKSyq o mqoa.,fhda o N~;fhda o wd;auNdj we;a;yq o iemj;a jQjdyq fj;a jd ) 86
  5. 5. ( ish,q ia;@Syq o ish,q mqreIfhda o wdrAhfhda o wkdrAhfhda o fojsfhda o ukqIHfhda o wmdfhys jkakd jQ i;a;ajfhda o tfiau oi osidfjys i;a;ajfhda o iqjm;a fjz jd ) ffu;@S Ndjkd"foa wdkkao is,ajd yd isrs,a fyajdjiuz"Ndjkd mrAIoh"nKavdrkdhl wkqiaurK wdhqrAfjzo mrAfhaIKdh;kh"kdjskak"uyr.u"x msgqj72 wyx wfjzfrd fydus - wkSf>d fydus wnznHdmcAfcd fydus - iqLS w;a;dkx mrsyrdus inzfnz i;a;d wfjzrd fydka;` - wkS>dfydka;` wnznHdmcAcd fydka;` - iqLS w;a;dkx mrsyrka;` inzfnz i;a;d iqLmam;a;d - wfjzrdj wkduhd oS>dhqld wZ[aZ[uZ[aZ[x - mshd mmafmdka;` ksnznq;sx ( uu wffjr we;af;la fjus wkS> iajNdjh we;af;la fjus wjHdmdoh we;af;la fjus iqj fiaa wd;auNdjh mrsyrKh lrkafkla fjus ) ( ish,q i;aFjfhda wffjr we;af;da fj;ajd wkS> iajNdjh we;af;da fj;ajd wjHdmdo we;af;da fj;ajd iqj fia wd;auNdj mrsyrKh lrkafkda fj;ajd ) ( ish,q i;aFjfhda iqj we;af;da fj;ajd wffjr iajNdjh we;af;da fj;ajd oSrA>dhqIal we;af;da fj;ajd ksrAjdKh fj; t<fUkafkda fj;ajd ) "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""73 wmdoflys fu fu;a;x - fu;a;x osmdoflys fu p;`mamfoys fu fu;a;x - fu;a;x nyqmamfoys fu udux wmdofld ysxis - udux ysxis osmdofld udux p;`mamdfod ysxis - udux ysxis nyqmamdfod inzfnz i;a;d inzfnz mdKd - inzfnz N~;d p flaj,d inzfnz N|@dks miaika;` - udlxps mdm ud.ud inzfnz i;a;d iqLmam;a;d - wfjzrd p wkduhd oS>dhqfld wZ[aZ[uZ[aZ[x - mshd mmafmdka;` ksnznq;sx ( mdo ke;s i;ajhka fj; fu;a is; me;sfrAjd fomd we;s i;aFjhka fj; fu;a is; me;sfrAjd i;r mdohka we;s i;aFjhka fj; fu;a is; me;sfrAjd fndfyda meohka iys; i;aFjhka fj; fu;a is; me;sfrAjd ) ( mdo ke;s i;aFjhkayg ysxid fkd flfrAjd fomd we;s i;aFjhkayg ysxid fkd flfrAjd i;r mdohka we;s i;aFjhkayg ysxid fkd flfrAjd fndfyda mdohka we;s i;aFjhkayg ysxid fkd flfrAjd ) ( ishZM N~;fhda ishZMu mK we;s i;`ka iy ;ksju yeisfrkakdjQ ishZM i;aFjfhda mym;u ols;ajd mjsgq uZ.lg fkdt<fUzjd ) ( ishZM i;aFjfhda iqjm;a fjzjd ffjr ke;s fj;ajd Tjqfkdjqka Tjqfkdjqkag m@sh fj;ajd m@sh jQ ksjKg t<fUkafka fj;ajd ) frda. iqjhg Ndjkd" mr.iaf;dg iqOuzu ysus" Y@S ,xld fn#oaOdf.dal ixjsOdkh" fudfrdka;`vqj" 2000" 16"17 msgq74 Lka;s mrux ;fmd ;s;slaLd - ksnzndKx mrux joka;s nqoaOd wx.`;a;r ksldh" ;sl ksmd;"nqcuq"132 msgqj75Lka;s n,x n,dKslx - ;uyx n@Eus n@dysuKx oS> ksldh"uyd j.a."nqcuq31 msgqj76Lka;Hd NSfhHd k jscAc;s Ouzumoh"n@yaujsydr Ndjkd"36 msgqj77l:x p NslaLfjz NslaLq fu;a;d iy.f;k fp;id tlx osix trs;ajd jsyr;s fihH:dms tlx mq.a.,x mshx ukdmx osiajd fu;a;diy.f;ak tjfuj inzni;af;iq fu;a;dh tr;s ( uyfKks" NsCIq f;fuz ffu;S@ iy.; is;ska flfia tla os.la m;`rejd fjfia o m@sh ukdm tla mqoa.,fhl` oel fu;a lrkakd fia ish,q i;`ka flfrys fu;a m;`rejkafkah ) jsNx. mlrKx"wmamuZ[aZ[d jsNxf.d"nqcuq206 msgqj78 l;fuys mZ[apydldfrys wfkdOsfid trKd fu;a;d fpf;d jsuq;a;s Ndfj;nznd inzfn i;a;d – fm – inzfn mdKd – fm – inzfn N~;d – fm – inzfn mq.a.,d – fm – inzfn w;a;Ndj mrshd mkakd wfjrdfydka;` wnHdmcAcd fydka;` wkS>d fydka;` iqLS w;a;dkx mrsyrka;` ( ljr mia wdldrhlska wfkdOs trK jYfhka ffu;@S jevsh hq;` o ish,q i;aFjfhda ish,q m@dKSyq ish,q N~;fhda" ish,q mqoa.,fhda"ish,q wd;auNdj mhH!dmkakfhda" wffjr" wkS> fj;ajd" iqjfia wd;auNdj mrsyrKh flfr;ajd) mgsiuzNsod u.a.x"fu;a;d l:d"nqcuq"316 msgqj79 inzn osid wkqmrs.uzu fp;id - fkjcACO.d msh;r u;a;kd ljzps tjx msfhd mq:q w;a;d mfrix - ;iaud k ysxfi mrx w;a;ldfud ( is;ska ish,q os.a fidhd ne,qj o ta lsis osf.l ;ukag jvd m@sh jQfjla fkd ,efnkafkah Tjqfkdjqkag ;u ;ukaf.a YrSr fjk fjku m@shh tnejska ;ukayg ys; leue;af;a wkHhkayg ysxid fkdlrkafkah ) ixhq;a; ksldh"fldai, ixhq;a;"nqcuq"46 msgqj80 jsiqoaOs u.af.d" ixia muqKqfjz nqoaOo;a; f:r" ;@smsgl uq|@Kd,h" fldgqj" fld<U" 1920" 218-234 msgq 87
  6. 6. 81 boska hful`yg ffjrS mqoa.,fhda ke;akuz ;ud iajNdjfhkau uyd mqreI cd;sl nejska wkF:! ;rkakdyq flfrys o ffjrS ixZ{d fyda kQmoS kuz Tyq jsiska oeka uf.a Ndjkdj uOHia:hd flfrys lu!KH jsh ffjrS mqoa.,hd flfrys boska Ndjkdj isoaO lrushs jHdmdr fkdl< hq;`h hful`g ffjrS mqoa.,fhda we;akuz Tyq iZoydh muKs fuys ffjrS mqoa.,hd flfrys fu;a jevsh hq;` hehs lshk ,oafoa uyd mqreI cd;slhd psrld, mrspfhka iuDoaO jQ CIdka;s – ffu;@S – lrKd wdoS .`K iukajs; nejska Wodr woyia we;af;ah ish,a, bjik iq,q jQ fy;fuz nd,dmrdOh ;Km;lg o fkd ;lkafkah "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" ""82 tu "" "" "" ""83 ( 1 ) WNf;d oKvflk fpmsNslaLfj llfpk fpdrd Tjrld wx.ux.dks Tlkaf;hHqx" ;;@dms fhd ufkd mfodfihH k fu fid f;k idiklfrd ( 2 ) ;iafij f;k mdmsfhd - fhd l`oaOx mgslcACO;s l`oaOx wmamgsl`cACOkaf;d - ix.dux fc;s |=cAchx WNskakuF:x pr;s - w;a;fkd p mriai p mrx ixl`ms;x CoFjd - fhd if;d Wmiuzu;s ( 3 ) ika;sfu NslaLfj Ouzud im;a;lka;d im;a; lrKd fldOkx wd.pzPka;s bF:sx jd mqrsix jd l;fu i;a; $ fl@daOfhka hla; jQ mqreIh" fuz wdldrfhka f;fuz ;ukayg wjjdo lr.kakg Tjoka |=kakd fkdfjzo$ flfiao h;a boska f;da lsmqfKla jkafkys kuz nq|=rcdKkajykafiaf.a Ydikh fkdlrkafkla jkafkah lsmqKyqg fmr<d lsmqfKys kuz ta lsmqK mqoa.,hdg;a jvd f;da mdmsIGfhlaj fkdosksh yels ix.@duh fkd oskkafkah ima; wOslrK Ou!hka ;udu uka flfrys we;s lr .kafkah fidfydka fmfk,a, nZ|= jkafkah "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""84" bO NslaLfj mi;a;d im;a;iai tjx bpzP;s wfhdj;dhx |=nznKafKd wiaid;s;s ;x lsiai fy;`$k NslaLfj im;af;d im;a;iai jKaKj;dh kJo;s fldOkdhx NslaLfj mqrsimq.a.f,d fldOdNsN~f;d fldOmfrf;d lsZCpdms fid fyd;s iqkydf;d iqjs,s;af;d lmams; flai uiHq Tod;jF:jifkd w:fLd fid |=nnKafKdj fyd;s fldOdNsN~f;dwhx NslaLfj mGfud Ouzfud mi;a; lkaf;d im;a;lrfKd fldOkx wd.pzP;s bF:sx jd mqrsix jd mqk p mrx NslaLfj im;af;d im;a;iai tjx bpzP;s wfydj;dhx |=laLx ihafhHd;s – fm – k fNd.jd wiaid;s – fm – k hijd wiaid;s;s – fm – k us;a;jd wiaid;s – fm – k ldhiai wiaid;s – fm – k ldhiai ;x lsiai fy;`"k NslaLfj im;af;d im;a;iai iq.;s .ufkk kJo;s fldOdkx NslaLfj mqrsi mq.a.f,d fldOdNsN~f;d fldOmfrf;d ldfhk |=pzprs;x pr;s jdpdh |=pzprs;x pr;s" ukid |=pzprs;x [rsFjd ukid |=pzprs;x prsFjd ldhiai fNaod mruzurKd wmdhx |=.a.;sx jsksmd;x ksrhx WmamcAc;s fldOdNsN~f;d"hs ( 1 ) uyfKks" boska fomi fmd,q ,Q lsh;lska kmqre jQ fidre ;u isrer wjhj lm;a kuz tys oS mjd hfula is; |+IH lr .;af;a kuz fy;u udf.a Ydikh lrkafkla fkdfjz ( 2 ) hfula lsmqKyqg fmr<d lsfma kuz fy;u m<uq lsmqKyqg;a jvd mdmsIaGfhls lsmqKyqg fmr<d fkdlsfmkafka fkd osksh yels hqoaOhla oskqfha jkafkah wkHhd lsmqKd oel hfula isys we;sj bjid kuz fy;u ;ukayg o wka whg o hk fomigu jev idokafkah ( 3 ) uyfKks" i;`frl` jsiska ;u i;`rdg lrkq leu;s jQ fuz Ou! if;la fl@daO lrk iq,q ia;@sh lrd fyda mqreIhd lrd fyda bfnzu meusfKkafkah ljr Ou! if;lao h;a $ 1 uyfKks" wfyda! fuz |=j!K! fjz kuz uekje hs i;`rd i;`rd .ek is;kafkah l`ula fyhskao" uyfKks" i;`rd ;u i;`rdf.a jK! iuzm;a;sh kqreiafkah uyfKks" fl@daOYS,S mqqoa.,hd boska osh kd mshd iqjZo js,jqka .,ajd ysi /jq,a wkaouz ;nd msrsis|= iq|= ms<s yeZo isgsfha kuq|= |=j!K! u jkafkah uyfKks" fl@daOYS,S ia;@sh lrd fyda mqreIhd lrd fyda meusfKk m<uqjk im;a; lrK Ou!hhs 2 uyfKks" wfyda! fuz |=lfia jikafka kuz uekjehs i;`rd i;`rd .ek is;kafkah l`ula fyhskao" uyfKks" i;`rd ;u i;`rdf.a iqL jdih kqreiafkah 3 uyfKks" wfyda! fuz uyfKks" wfyda! fuz Okj;a fkdjkafka kuz uekjehs i;`rd i;`rd .ek is;kafkah l`ula fyhskao"i;`rd ;u i;`rdg Okj;a nj kqreiafkah 4 uyfKks" wfyda! fuz uyfKks" wfyda! fuz WmfNda. mrsfNda. jia;` we;af;la fkd jkafka kuz uekjehs i;`rd i;`rd .ek is;kafkah l`ula fyhskao" uyfKks" i;`rd ;u i;`rdf.a WmfNda. mrsfNda. jia;` we;s nj kqreiafkah 5 uyfKks" wfyda! fuz uyfKks" wfyda! fuz hi msrsjr we;af;la fkdjkafka kuz uekjehs i;`rd i;`rd .ek is;kafkah l`ula fyhskao" uyfKks" i;`rd ;u i;`rd yg hi msrsjr we;s nj kqreiafkah 6 uyfKks" wfyda! fuz uyfKks" wfyda! fuz us;@hka we;af;la fkdjkafka kuz uekjehs i;`rd i;`rd .ek is;kafkah l`ula fyhskao" uyfKks" i;`rd ;u i;`rdf.a us;@hka we;s nj kqreiafkah 7 uyfKks" wfyda! fuz uyfKks" wfyda! fuz urKska u;` iaj.!fhys kQmoskafka kuz uekjehs i;`rd i;`rd .ek is;kafkah l`ula fyhskao" uyfKks" i;`rd ;u i;`rd f.a iajf.!d;am;a;sh kqreiafkah uyfKks" fl@daOYS,S mqoa.,hd lhska jpkfhka is;ska |=Yaprs; lrkafkah fldg ld nqka urKska u;` wmdfhys Wmoskafkah ( 4 ) uyfKks" fo fldk .sks wejs< .;a ueo wiQps jel`Kq fidfydka fmfk,a, .fuz or jevla fyda lef,a or jevla fyda fkd lrkafkah uyfKks" fuz fl@daOYS,S mqoa.,hd o tnZ|= he hs lshus 88
  7. 7. "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""85"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""86"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""87 fufia jEhuz fldg;a fl@daOh fkdixisfZoa kuz blans;sj ;udu ;udgu wjjdo lr.; hq;`h ;udgu wjjdo lr .kafka fuz wdldrfhks i;`rdg kqUf.a lhg |=la muqKqjkakg yels fj;;a kqUf.a is;g |=la meusKjSfuz yelshdjla fkdue; is;g |=la muqKqjd.kqfha ;ud jsiska uh tjka ;;ajhla ;snsh oS kqU kqU jsiska u kqUf.a is;g |=la muqKqjd .kqfha ukao$ ujz mshka kE ys;j;`ka yd us;`rka w;ayer oud ;ukag wys;j;a jQ i;`re jQfjl` fkd yrskafka ukao$ rCId lrkq ,nkakd jQ iEu oS,d oS .`Khlau jskdY lr oukq ,nkakd jQ i;`rd ;udf.a <fhys oud k<jk ;d uy;au fudavfhls Tyq jsiska ;udyg kmqrla lf,a hehs lsmsfha uq;a" ;ud ;ukayg lr.kakd jQ kmqr rsis jkafka ukao$ ;d fldam lrjkakg i;`rd jsiska tu kmqr lf,ah tu ksid ;d fldam jSfuka Tyqf.a wNsu;h bgq lrkqfka ukao$ ;udf.a lsmSfuka ;u i;`rdg |=la f.k osh fkdyel " " "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""88 mZCoapsfu wdjqfid wd>d;mgsjskhd hF:NslaLqfkd Wmamkafkd wd>df;d inznfid mgsjsfk;nzfnd wkHhkag |=la meusKjSu msKsi m<uqj ;uka o fldamh keue;s |=flka mSvs; jsh hq;`h i;`rd fldamh ksid wo fkduZ. jegqks kuz th wkq.ukh lr fldam .kakd kqU o wkq.ukh lrkqfha tu wys;lr udrA.huh huzlsis oafjzIhlska i;`rd f;dmg ysxid mSvd lf<a kuz ;ek ;ek wjsosk n,af,l` fuka fjfyi fkdjS ta oafjzIh u kid,kak huzlsis mxpialJOhlska hqla; jQ i;`rd Tng oafjzI lf,ys kuz tu mxpialJOh fudfyd;lska jskdYjS .sfhah ta ksid oeka ta jskdY jS .sh mxpialJOh flfrys oafjzI lrkafka ukao$ ishZM |=lg fya;`j ;ukag ;uduh |=la fok flfkla rys;j Tyq ldg kuz |=la fokako$ ta ksid Tyqg lsfmkafka ukao$ "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""89 tuzn, ukqIHh" f;dm Tyqg oafjzIlr lsis|= M,la fkdue; f;dmf.a oafjzI uQ,sl lu!h f;dmgu wk:!h msKsi mj;skafka fkdfjzo$ f;dm lu!h iajlSh fldg" odhdo fldg" W;am;a;s fldg" nJOq fldg yd ms<sirK fldg we;s wfhls f;dm lrK lu!hg f;dm u odhdo jkafkysh f;dmf.a fuz lu!h iuHla iuzfndaOsh fyda m@f;Hl fndaOsh fyda Y@djl N~ush fyda n@yau Ndjh fyda Yl@ Ndjh fyda pl@jrA;s Ndjh fyda m@foaY rdcHdoS w;`frka lsishuz iuzm;a;shla fyda isoaO lr fokakg iurA: ke; h,s|= l``ula lr foakg iurA: o h;a$ iiqfkka pq; fldg js>didodos Ndjh fyda krldos |=la fyda isoaO lr fokakg iurA:h fuz fl@daO lrk f;dm oE;ska .sks wZ.`re fyda wiqps fyda f.k wkayg oud .ikafkl` jeksh thska m<uq fldg u ;ud wmsrsis|= fjz |=.Zo lr ,kafkah fufia ;udf.a u lu!iajl;djh i,ld bka wk;`rej tf,iu wkHhkaf.a o lu!iajl;djh i,ld ne,sh hq;`h "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""90 Tyq lsmS f;dmg l`ula lrkafkao$ Tyqf.a lsmqu Tyqgu wkrA:h i,id,hs Tyqo f;dmfia u lu!iajl;djh" lu!odhdoh" lu!fhdaksh" lu!nJOqh" Tyqf.a lu!h Tyqg nq|=" mfianq|=" nq|=ijz" mojs fyda n@yau – Yl@ - pl@jrA;s" m@foaY rdcHdos iuzm;a fyda isoaOlr fokakg iurA: o ke; yqfola Ydikfhka neyer fldg mshd js>didodos Ndjh fyda krldos |=la fyda isoaO lr fokakg iurA:h f;dmg fuz kmqr lrk fy;u Wvq iq<Z.g |+,s .id ,kafkl` fia ;udgu |=la muqKqjd .kafkah nq|=yq o fuz jodf<dah "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""91 fhd wmam|=gzGiai kriai |=iai;s iqoaOiai fmdiiai ksrx.Kiai ;fuj nd,x mpzfp;s mdmx iqLqfud rfcd mgsjd;x j Ls;af;d "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""92 " k fid NslaLfj i;af;d iq,NrEfmd fhd k ud;d N~;mqnzfnd – fhd k ms;d N~;mqnzfnd – fhd k N.skS – fhd k mq;af;d – fhd k Os;d N~; mqnzfnd " uyfKks" fmr ujz mshka fkdjQ" ifydaor ifydaorS fkdjQ mq;@ |=ys;D fkd jQ i;aFjfhla oel.; yels fkdfjz hhs nq|=yq jod<y tnejska fuz fmr oi uila l`iska Wiq, u< uQ fiuz fidgq wE iZ|=ka fia fkd ms<sl`,a j my lruska f<ys ,d k,juska welfhka jvd f.k fmdaIKh lf<ah msh j wcm" ixl`m:dosfhys f.dia fj<oduz lruska ud ksid osjs o fkd ;ld hqo nsuz jeo hqo lruska" kej; uqyq|= huska" ;j o fkdfhl`;a ish .Kka |=Ialr l@shd lruska mq;` /l .ksushs fkdfhla Wmdfhka Okh /ia lr .ksuska ud fmdaIKh lf<ah tfiau ifydaor ifydaorS j mq;@ |=ys;D j fuz wkaouska u Wojz Wmldr lf<ah Tyq flfrys is; |+IH lr .ekSu kqiq|=iq hehs is;d fl@aO ixisZ|=jd .; hq;`h "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""93"fu;a;dh NslaLfj fpf;djsuqla;shd wdfijs;dh Ndjs;dh nyq,Sl;dh hkSl;dh wkqgzGs;dh mrsps;dh iqiudroaOdh tldoidksixid mdgslxLd" l;fu tldoi $ iqLx iqm;s" iqLx mgsnqcACO;s" k mdmlx iqmskx misi;s" ukqiaidkx msfhdfyd;s" wukiaidkz msfhdfyd;s" foj;d rlaLka;s" kdiai w.a.sjd jsixjd iF:x jd lu;s" ;`jgzgx ps;a;x iudOsh;s" uqLjKafKd jsmamiSo;s" wiuzuq<afyd ld,x lfrd;s" W;a;rsx wmamgs jscACOkaf;d n@yauf,dal~mf.dfyd;s " ldreKsl i;amqreIh" nq|=rcdKka jykafia jsiska fu;a;d ixl,amh m@cdkkfhys wdksixY uy;afldg jof<a fkdfjzo$ ta ksid Tn ;ukaf.a is; fu;a;d ixl,amfhka ixiZs|=jd fkd .kafka kuz ta ;dla Tn tu uy;a wdksixYj,ska neyer jkafkah Tn Tn .eku is;dj;a fuu wdksixY j,ka neyer fkdjkafka kuz b;d uekjs "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""94 tuzn, i;amqreIh f;dm Tyqg lsfmushs lshd l`ulg lsfmkafkyso$ kshg lsfmkafkyso" – fm – uQ;@hg lsfmkafkyso" tfia;a fkdfjz kuz ta flia wdosfhys mj;akd mD:qjs Od;`jg lsfmkafkyso" wnzOd;`jg lsfmkafkyso" f;fcdaO;`jg lsfmkafkyso" jdhq Od;`jg lsfmkafkyso" ialJO mio" wdh;k fodf<dio" O;` wgf,dio" ksid mj;akd yg fuz kuz we;af;lehs lsh;s lsu$ f;dm thska rEmialJOhg lsfmkafkyso$ 89
  8. 8. ke;fyd;a fjzokdialJOhg lsfmkafkyso" ixZ{d – ixialdr – jsZ{dk ialJOhg lsfmkafkyso" lsu f;dm plaLdh;khg lsfmkafkyso" – fm – Ouzudh;khg lsfmkafkyso" lsu f;dm plaLq Od;`jg lsfmkafkyso" – fm – ufkdaOd;`jg -Ouzu Od;`jg – ufkdajsZ[aZ[dK Od;`jg lsfmkafkyso" fufia O;` jsksrAfNd.h lr;au ysos w. wn fia wyie is;a;u fia fl@daOhg m@;sIaGd ia:dkhla fkd jkafkah "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""95 woka;oukx odkx - odkx inznF: idOlx odfkk mshjdpdh - Wkakuka;s kuka;s p ( odkh fkd oeuqKqjka oukh lrkafkah ish,q wF:!hka isoaO lrkafkah odkfhka o m@sh jpkfhka o odhlfhda Wiia fj;s m@;s.@dylfhda hgm;a fj;s ) "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "96 ( hfula huz lf,l f;fuzh" ys;j;dh" ueoy;a jQfhah" i;`rdh hk i;r fokd flfrys fuz uuh" fuz ys;j;dh hkdoS jYfhka fjfii olskafkao" fya tl, i;aFjhka flfrys ys; is;a we;af;ls hehs lsj hq;`h kshu ffu;@S ,dNsfhlsh" id;sYh l`i,a we;af;lsh fkd lsh hq;`h ) ( huz Tyq jsiska hf:dala; i;r iSud i;r nsZosk ,foao" tl, fya fojshka is; f,dalfhys iufia fu;a m;`rejkafkah hful`g fuz uuh fuz ys;j;dh hkdos jYfhka iSud fkd yefZ.ao fya mQj!hdg jvd uy;a Ndjkd jsfYaI we;af;la jkafkah ) " "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""97 w;a;ks yss; ucACO;af; - wysf; p p;`nznsfO hodmiai;s kdk;a;x - ys;ps;af;d j mdKskx k ksldu,dNS fu;a;dh - l`i,S;s mjqpzp;s hod p;iafid iSudfhd - iuzNskakd fydka;s NslaLqfkd iux tr;s fu;a;dh - inznx f,dlx ifojlx uydjsfifid mqrsfuk - hiai iSud k Z[dh;s "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""98 ish,q ;eklu irAj iuzmQrAKfhka irAj iudk iajNdjfhka il, f,dj jsmq, jQ uy;a.; jQ wm@udK jQ wffjr jQ wjHdmcAc jQ fu;a;d ixl,amh mqoa., prAhdj Okd;aulj ixialrKh flfrk mrsoafoka m@cdkkfhka hqla;j jdih lrkafkah hkqfjka wfkdaOsfidMrK fu;a;d ixl,amh wF:! olajk ,oS fuys olajk ,o wfkdaOsfidaMrKh kuz iSud rys; j me;srjSuhs fuys fuka u mgsiuzNsodfhys oelajqKq jsl`nznkdj o ,efnkafka wm!Kd m@dma;hdguh mgsiuzNsod u.a.fhys mia wdldrhlska wfkdaOsfidaMrK fu;a;d fpzf;da jsuq;a;sh o" i;a wdldrhlska TzOsfidMrK fu;a;d fpzf;da jsuq;a;sh o" oY wdldrhlska osid MrK fu;a;d fpzf;da jsuq;a;sh o" olajk ,oS thska i;aFjfhda m@dKSyq N~;fhda mqoa.,fhda yd wd;auNdj mhH!dmkakfhda jYfhka mZ[apjsO jQ wfkdOsfidMrK fpzf;d jsuq;a;sh uZ.ska fu;a;d ixl,amh m@cdkkh lsrSfuz kjuq l@ufjzohla oel.; yelsh fuys ish,q i;aFjfhda wffjr fj;ajd hkq tla wm!Kdjls wnHdmcACO fj;ajd hkq tla wm!Kdjls ( wnHdmcACO kuz jHdmo rys; njhs ) wkS> fj;ajd hkq tla wm!Kdjls tnejska fuz mo w;`frka huz huz mohla ;ukayg m@lg fjhs o ta ta mo f.k ffu;@sh me;srjsh hq;`h fuz mia wdldrfhys wm!Kd i;r jYfhka wfkdaOsfidMrK ffu;@sfhys wm!Kd jsiails wk;`rej ia;@Syq mqreIfhda wdhH!fhda wkdhH!fhda fojsfhda ukqIHfhda yd jsksmdlfhda jYfhka ima;jsO TzOsfidaMrK fu;a;d fpzf;da jsuq;a;sh uZ.ska o fu;a;d ixl,amh m@cdkkh lsrSfuz tla;rd l@uhla yZ|=kd.; yelsh fuz TzOsfid MrK ms<snZo i;a wdldrfhys i;r i;r jYfhka wm!Kd jsis wgls fuys ia;@Syq h mqreIfhdah hkqfjka ,sx. jYfhka olajk ,oS wdhH!fhdah wkdhH!fhdah hkq wdhH! mD:.ack jYfhka olajk ,oS fojsfhdah ukqIHfhdah hkq W;am;a;s jYfhka olajk ,oS B <.Zg fmros. mE< os. W;`re os. ol`Kq os. fmr wkq os. mE< wkq os. W;`re wkq os. ol`Kq wkq os. hg os. Wvq os. hk oYjsO osid MrK fu;a;d fpzf;da jsuq;a;sh fu;a;d ixl,amh m@cdkkh uZ.ska ixjrAOkh lsrSfuz ;j;a tla l@uhla f,i oelajsh yelsh fuz osid MrK ffu;@sfhys fmros. ish,q i;aFjfhda hkd oS kHdhfhka tla tla osidjl jsiai jsiai jYfhka foiShla o fmr os. ish,q ia;@Syq hkd oS kHdhfhka tla tla osidjl jsis wgla ne.ska jYfhka foish wiQjlaoehs ydrish wiQjla wm!Kd ,efnhs mgsiuzNsodfjys oelajQ ish,q wm!Kd mkaish jsis wgls "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" ""99 tu "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" ""100 tu "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" ""101 tu "" "" "" ""102"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""103 lsxixZ[afZ[dckd kq fLd udrsi fojd ukqiaid wiqrd kd.d .JOnznd fh pz[afZ[ ika;s mq:qldhd f; wfjrd woKavd wim;a;d wnHdmcAcd jsyfruq wfjrsfkd;s b;s fp fkix fyd;s w: p mk ifjfrd ioKafvd iim;a;d inHdmcAcd jsyrka;s ifjrsfkd;s bF:x ilafld fjdkusfJod N.jka;x mZ[ayx wmqpzPs ( ks|=ldKka jykai fojsfhdao usksiaiq o wiqrfhda o kd.fhda o .kaOrAjfhda o fuhska wkH huz fndfyda fofkla we;a kuz Tyq o hk fuz yeu fokdg fjr neZ|=uz ke;af;daj wdhqO oKav ufkdaoKav ke;af;daj mi us;`rka ke;af;daj foduzkia ke;af;daj wffjrS ( fldam ud;@ |= fkd Wmojkafkda ) j jikafkuqhs m@drA:kdjla fjhs tf;l`|= jqj;a Tyq ffjr we;a;dyq" oKav we;a;dyq mius;`rka we;a;dyq foduzkia we;a;dyq ffjrS jqjdyq fjfi;a ljr ixfhdackhla we;a;dyq ( ljr neuzulska neZ|=kdyq ) Tyq tfia fjfi;ao$ hkqhs fufia ila fojsZ|= N.j;a nq|=rcqkaf.ka fuz m<uq mekh jspdf<ah ) 90
  9. 9. oS> ksldh" uydj.a." ilalmZ[aZ[ iq;a;" nq c uq" 414"415 msgq104 biaidupzPrshiZ[afZ[dckd fLd fojdkusJo fojd ukqiaid wiqrd kd.d .JOnznd" fh pZ[afZ[ ika;s mq:qldhd" f; wfjrd woKavx wim;a;d wnHdmcAcd jsyfruq wfjrsfkd;s b;s fp fkix fyd;s w: p mk ifjrd ioKavd iim;a;d inHdmcAcd jsyrka;s ifjrsfkd;s ( fojsfhdao usksiaiq o wiqrfhda o kd.fhda o .kaOrAjfhda o wka huz fndfyda fofkla we;a kuz Tyq o hk fuz yeu fokdg fjr neZ|=uz ke;af;daj wdhqO oKav ufkda oKav ke;af;daj mi us;`rka ke;af;daj foduzkia ke;af;daj wffjrSj jikafkuqhs m@dra:kdjla fjhs tf;l`|= jqj;a Tyq fjr neZ|=uz we;af;daj oKv we;af;daj mi us;`rka we;af;daj foduzkia we;af;daj ffjrSj fjfi;a Tyq BrAIHd ud;aiH!h;a ixfhdack fldg we;a;yq ( BrAIHd ud;aiH! folska neZ|=kdyq ) tfia fjfi;a "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""105 biaid upzPrshx fLd fojdkusfJod mshdmamshksodkx mshdmamshiuqox mshdmamshcd;slx mshdmamshNjx" mshdmamsfh i;s biaidupzPrshx fyd;s mshdmamsfh wi;s biaidupzPrshx k fyd;s "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" 416"417 msgq106mdfKd k nka;nzfnd" woskakx kdo;nznx" lfuiquspzPd k prs;nznd" uqid k Ndis;nznd" ucAcdx k md;nznx h:d N~;a;Z[ap N`Z[ac:d;s oS> ksldh 111" plalj;a;s iSykdo iq;a;" nqcuq" 104 msgqj107WmcACOdfhd NslaLfj ioaOsjsydrsluzys mq;a; ps;a;x WmgzGdfmiai;s ioOs jsydrsf;d WmcACOdhuzys ms;` ps;a;x WmgzGdfmiai;s uydj.a. md,s 1" nqcuq" 92 msgqj108msrejdkd fmd;a jykafia fyj;a uy msrs;a fmd;" mKavs; ia:jsr ( wm@ldYs;hs)" mS fcA lreOdr" ijsh mdk|=rd hka;@d,h" mdk|=r" 1934" 13-15 msgq109"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""110"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" 17-18 msgq111"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" 18 msgqj112ixhq;a; ksldh 5" wdKmdK j.a.h" fu;a; iq;a;"nqcuq" 245msgqj113 fu;a;d NslaLfj" Ndjs;d nyq,Sl;d uymaM,d fyd;s uydksixid l:x Ndjs;d p NslaLfj" Ndjs;d nyq,Sl;d uymaM,d fyd;s" uydksixid bO NdlaLfj NslaLq fu;a;d iy.;x i;siuzfndcACOZX.x Ndfj;s" jsfjl ksiais;x jsrd. ksiais;x ksfrdaO ksiais;x fjdi.a.mrsKdusx fm- fu;a;d iy.;x WfmalaLd iuzfndcACOZX.x Ndfj;s" jsfjl ksiais;x jsrd. ksiais;x ksfrdaO ksiais;x fjdi.a.mrsKdusx tjx Ndjs;d fLd NslaLfj" tjx nyq,Sl;d uyf;d fhd.lafLudh ixj;a;;S;s Ndjs;d fLd NslaLfj" tjx nyq,Sl;d uyf;d fhd.lafLudh ixj;a;;S;s ( uyfKks" ffu;@s ixZ{dj jvk ,oafoa nyq, lrk ,oafoa uy;a myiq jsyrK msKsi mj;shs uyfKks" flfia jvk ,o flfia nyq, lrk ,o ffu;@S ixZZ{dj uy;a myiq jsyrK msKsi mj;So h;a" uyfKks" fuys uyK jsfjzl ksiais; jsrd. ksiais; ksfrdaO ksiais; fjdi.a. mrsKduS fldg fu;a;d iZ[aZ[d iy.; WfmalaLd iuzfndcACOx.h jvhs uyfKks" fufia jvk ,o fufia nyq, lrk ,o fu;a;d ixZ{dj uy;a Myiq jsyrK msKsi mj;shs ) "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" 246 msgqj114ixhq;a; ksldh 5" talOuzu fmhHd,h"l,HdK us;a; iq;a;" nqcuq" 58 msgqj115 tl Ouzfud NslaLfj" nyqldfrd wrshiai wgzGZX.sliai iydiai Wmamdodh l;fud talOuzfud" hosox l<HdK us;a;;d" l,HdK us;a;iafi;x NlaLfj" NslaLqfkd mdgslZXLx wrshx wgzGZX.slx u.a.x nyq,Slfrd;s bO NslaLfj" NslaLq iuzud osgzGs Ndfj;s – fm- iuzud iudOSx Ndfj;s jsfjl ksiais;x jsrd. ksiais;x ksfrdO ksiais;x fjdi.a. mrsKdusx" tjx fLd NslaLfj ( uyfKks" wrs wg u. bmoSu msKsi tla oyula fndfyda Wmldr we;af;a fjz ljr tla oyul h;a fuz l,HdK us;@Fjhhs uyfKks" wrS wg uZ. jvkafkah" wrS wg uZ. nyq, lrkafkah hk fuh l,K us;`rka we;s uyKyq jsiska leu;s jsh hq;`hs uyfKks" l<K us;`rka we;s uyK flfia kuz wrS wg uZ. jvdo" wrS wg uZ. nyq, flfrAo h;a" uyfKks" fuz iiafkys uyK jsfjzlh weiqre l<" jsrd.h weiqre l< ksfrdaOh weiqre l< ksjkg k;`jQ iuzud osgzGsh jvhs iuzud iusOsh jvhs uyfKks" l,HdK us;`rka we;s uyK f;fuz fufia wrS wg uZ. jvhs wrS wg uZ. nyq, lrhs ) "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" 59 msgqj116ixhq;a; ksldh 5" iQrsh fmhHd,h" 161"l,HdK us;a; iq;a;" nqcuq" 50 msgqj117 iqrshiai NslaLfj" Wohf;d t;x mqnznZX.ux t;x mqnznjsus;a;x hosox wreK.a.x rjfuj fLd NslaLfj" NslaLqfkd wrshiai wgzGx.sliai u.a.iai Wmamodh t;x mqnznZX.ux" t;x mqnznksus;a;x" hosox l,HdK us;a;;d l,HdK us;a;iafi;x NslaLfj" NslaLqfkd mdgslZXLx" wrshx wgzGZX.slx u.z.x Ndfjiai;s" wrshx wgzGZX.slx u.a.x nyq,Slrsiai;S;s l:Z[ap NslaLfj NslaLq l,HdK us;af;d wrshx wgzGZX.slx u.a.x nyq,Slrsii;S;s l:Z[ap NslaLfj NslaLq l,HdKus;af;d wrshx wgzGZX.slx u.a.x nyq,Slrsiai;S;s l:Z[ap NslaLfj NslaLq l,HdK us;af;d wrshx wgzGZx.slx u.z.x Ndfj;s" wrshx wgzGZX.slx u.a.x Ndfj;s" wrshx wgzGZX.slx u.a.x nyq,Slfrd;s bO NslaLfj NslaLq iuzud osgzGsx Ndfj;s jsfjl ksiais;x jsrd. ksiais;x ksfrdaO ksiais;x fjdi.a. mrsKdusx iuzud ixlmamx Ndfj;s – fm- iuzud jdpx Ndfj;s" – fm- iuzud luzuka;x Ndfj;s – fm- iuzud wdcSjx Ndfj;s – fm- iuzud jdhdux Ndfj;s – fm- iuzud i;sx Ndfj;s – fm- iuzud iudOsx Ndfj;s jsfjl ksiais;x jsrd. ksiais;x ksfrd. ksiais;x fjdi.a.mrsKdusx tjx fLd NslaLfj" NslaLq l,HdKus;af;d wrshx wgzGZX.slx u.a.x nyq,Sldrd;S;s ( uyfKks" huz wrefKdaohla fjzo" Wodjk ysreg fuz mQj!x.u fjhs fuz mQrAj ksus;a; fjhs uyfKks tfihskau huz l,HdK us;`rka we;s njla fjzo" uyKyg wrS wgZ.s uZ. bmoSug fu mQj!x.u fjhs fuz mQj! ksus;a; fjhs uyfKks" wrS wgZ.s uZ. jvkafkh wrS wgZ.s uZ. nyq, lrkafkah hk fuh l,K us;`rka we;s uyKyq jsiska 91
  10. 10. leu;s jsh hq;`hs uyfKks" l,K us;`rka we;s uyK flfia kuz wrS wgZ.s uZ. jvdo" wrS wgZ.s uZ. nyq, flfrAo h;a" uyfKks" fuz iiafkys uyK jsfjzlh weiqre l< jsrd.h weiqre l< ksfrdaOh weiqre l< ksjkg kefuk iqZM iuH.a oDiagsh jvhs iuHla ixl,amh jvhs iuH.a jpkh jvhs iuH.a lrAudka;h jvhs iuH.a wdcSjh jvhs iuH.a jHdhduh jvhs iuH.a iauD;sh jvhs jsfjzlh weiqre l< jsrd.h weiqre l< ksfrdaOh weiqre l< ksjkg kefuk iqZM iuH.a iudOsh jvhs uyfKks" l,K us;`rka we;s uyK fufia wrS wgZ.s uZ. jvhs wrS wgZ.s uZ. nyq, flfrA ) "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" 51 msgqj118 mqrsiiai NslaLfj" Wohf;d t;x mqnznZX.ux t;x mqnznksus;a;x hosox wreKiai" tjfuj fLd NslaLfj" NslaLqfkd wrshiai wgzGZX.sliai u.a.iai Wmamdodh t;x mqnznZX.ux t;x mqnznksus;a;x hosox l,HdK us;a;;d l,HdKuss;a;iafi;x NslaLfj" NslaLqfkd mdgslZXLx wrshx wgzGZX.slx u.a.x Ndfjiai;s wrshx wgzGZX.slx u.a.x nyq,Slrsiai;S;s l:Z[ap NslaLfj NslaLq l,HdKus;af;d wrshx wgzGZX.slx u.a.x Ndfj;s wrshx wgzGZX.slx u.a.x nyq,lfrd;s" bO NslaLfj" NslaLq iuzudosgzGsx Ndfj;s rd.jskh mrsfhdidkx fodijskh mrsfhdidkx fudyjskh mrsfhdidkx –fm- iuzudiudOsx Ndfj;s rd. jskh mrsfhdidkx fodijskh mrsfhdidkx fudy jskh mrsfhdidkx" tjx fLd NlaLfj" NslaLq l,HdK us;af;d wrshx wgzGZX.slx u.a.x Ndfj;s wrshx wgzGZX.slx u.a.x nyq,Slfrd;S;s ixhq;a; ksldh 5" talOuzu fmhHd,h"|=;sh l,HdK fu;a; iq;a;" nqcuq" 54 msgqj119 ( uyfKks" huz wrefKdaohla fjzo" Wodjk ysreg fuz fmrgq fjhs fuz fmr ksus;s fjhs uyfKks" tfihskau huz l,HdK us;@Fjhla fjzo" uyKyg wrS wg uZ. bmoSug fuz fmrgq fjhs fuz fmr ksus;s fjhs uyfKks" wrS wg uZ. jvkafkah wrS wg uZ. nyq, lrkafkah hk fuh l,HdK us;@ uyKyq jsiska leu;s jsh hq;`hs uyfKks" l,HdK us;@ uyK flfia kuz wrS wg uZ. jvdo" wrS wg uZ. nyq, flfrAo h;a" uyfKks" fuys uyK rd. jskfhys mhH!djidkh jQ oafjzI jskfhys mhH!djidkh jQ fuday jskfhys mhH!djidkh jQ iuH.a oDIagsh jvkafkah rd. jskfhys mhH!djidkh jQ oafjzI jskfhys mhH!djidkh jQ fuday jskfhys mhH!djidkh jQ iuH.aa iudOsh jvhs uyfKks" l,HdK us;@ uyK fufia wrS wgZ.suZ. jvhs wrS wgZ.suZ. nyq, flfrhs ) "" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" 54 msgqj120wF:s ldfhd;sjd mkiai i;s mpzpqmgzGs;d fyd;s hdjfoj Z[dKu;a;dh m;smiai;s u;a;dh wksiaisfkd p jsyr;s k p lsz[aps f,dafl Wmosh;s tjuzms fLd NslaLfj NslaLq ldfh ldhdkqmiaiS jsyr;s oS> ksldh 11" uyd i;smgzGdk iq;a;" nqcuq" 440 msgqj121w;S;x kdkajd.fuhH - kmamgslZXzfL wkd.;x ho;S;x mySkx ;x - wmam;a;x p wkd.;x mpzpqmkakx p fhd Ouzux - ;F: ;F: jsmiai;S wixySrx wixl`mamx - ;x jsoajdukqN@Eyfh ucACOsu kshdl 11" Noafolr;ak iq;a;" nqcuq" 398 msgqj122 j,afmd< rdyq< ysus" nq|=ka jod< OrAuh" 101 msgqj123i.fhdp fu;a;x Ndjh;s - wmamudkx m;siaif;d ;sfkd ixfhdcfkd fydka;s - miaif;d WmOslaLhx ffu;@S Ndjkd"foa wdkkao is,ajd yd isrs,a fyajdjiuz"Ndjkd mrAIoh"nKavdrkdhl wkqiaurK wdhqrAfjzo mrAfhaIKdh;kh"kdjskak"uyr.u"13 msgqj ii. fhdys fldps NslaLfj bfu p;a;dfrd i;smgzGdfk tj NdfjhH ia; jiaidks" ;iai oajskakx M,dkx wZ[aZ[;rx M,x mdgslZXzlx osgzfGj Ouzfu wZ[aZ[d i;sjd Wmdosfii wkd.dus;d oS> ksldh 11" i;smgzGdk iq;a;" nqcuq" 498 msgqj124 bO uhayx Nkaf; tjx fyd;s ,dNd j; fu iq,oaOx j; fu" fhdyx tj rEfmys in@yaupdrSys ioaOsx jsydrduS;s ;iai uhayx Nkaf; bfuiq wdhiaukaf;iq fu;a;x ldhluzux mpzpqmgzGs;x wdjs fpj rfyd p fu;a;x ldh luzux mpzpqmgzGs;x wdjs fpzj rfyd p fu;a;x ufkdluzux mpzpqmgzGs;x wdjs fpj rfydap ;iai uhayx Nkaf; tjx fyd;s hkakQkdyx ilx ps;a;x kslaLsFjd bfuix fhj wdhiauka;dkx ps;a;iai jfik j;af;hHka;s fid fLd wyx Nkaf; ilx ps;a;x kslaLsmsFjd bfuixfhj wdhiauka;dkx ps;a;iai jfik p;a;dus kdkd ys fOd fkd Nkaf; ldhd tlZ[ap mk uZ[afZ[ ps;a;ka;s ( Nd.Hj;`ka jykai fuz ms<snZoj ug fuz jeks fohla is;sks uu fuz jeks in@yaupdrSka jykafia,d iuZ. jdih lsrSu ug uy;a ,dNhg fya;`jk lreKls tfiau th ud yg b;du;au |=rA,N jdikdjls tfiau ,dNhls fufia is;;a is;;au ud yg fuz in@yapdrSka jykafia,d ms<snZoj w;s uy;a jQ ffu;@S mQrAjl m@cdkkhla yg .eksks tu m@cdkkh ksidu tu in@updrSka jykafia,d wNsuqLfhys oS fukau wkNsuqLfhys oS o fu;a;d ixl,amh iukajs; jQ prAhduh l@shdldrluz iuQyhh yg .eksks tu fu;a;d ixl,amh m@cdkkh jSu fya;`fjka ud yd tlg jdih lrkakd jQ uf.a in@yaupdrS NsCIQka jykafia,d iuZ. l:d nfyoS ud ;`< yg .kakd ,oafoa fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iukajs; jQ jdpsl l@shdldrluz iuQyhhs fuu jdpslj yg .kakd ,o fu;a;d ixl,amfhka iukajs; jQ jpkh Wkajykafia,d wNsuqLfhys muKla fkdj Wkajykafia,d wkNsuqLfhysoS;a uu Ndjs;d lf<us fuz uZ.ska uu ;j ;j;a fu;a;d ixla,mh m@cdkkh lr .;sus tu fu;a;d ixl,am m@cdkkh uf.a ;j ;j;a oshqKqj msKsiu fya;` jsh wjidkfhys oS fu;a;d ixl,amh jv jvd;a ;j ;j;a uekjska m@.`K j;au uf.a in@updrS NsCIqka jykafia,d wruqKq lr Wkajykafia,d wNsuqLfhys muKla fkdj wkNsuqLfhys mjd is;ska is; fu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgq fldgf.k is;kakg jSus is;ska jv jvd;a fu;a;d ixl,amhu muKla flaJ|@ fldgf.k udf.a in@updrS NsCIQkajykafia,d ms<snZoj w;s uy;a fu;a;d ixl,amfhka iukajs; jQ is;ska is;kakg yqre mqrq|=q jQ udf.a is;g jegyqfka ud iy uf.a in@yaupdrS NsCIQka jykafia,d YrSr j,ska fjka fjka mqoa.,hka jqj;a is;ska tlu mqoa.,fhlah hk wdl,amhhs ) ucACOsu ksldh" uyd hul j.a.h" pQ< f.daisX. iq;a;" 494-507 msgq125"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""126"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" 92
  11. 11. 127"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""128ud;d ms;d osid mqnznd - wdprshd olaLsKd osid mq;a;odrd osid mpzPd - us;a;dupzPd p W;a;rd odi luzuldrd fygzGd - WoaOx iuKn@dyauKd t;d osid kuiafihH - w,u;af;d l`f, .syS oS> ksldh 111" isZ.d,l iq;a;" nqcuq" 308 msgqj129 l:Z[ap .ym;s mq;a;" wrshidjfld Poaosid mgspzPdos fyd;s oS> ksldh 111" isZ.d,l iq;a;" nqcuq" 302 msgqj130"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" 302-308 msgq131"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""132"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""133"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""134"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""135"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""136"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""137"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""138"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""139"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""140"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""141"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""142"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""143"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""144"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""145"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""146"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""147"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""148"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""149"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""150"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""151"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""152"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""153"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""154"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""155 jsiqoaOs u.af.d" ixia muqKqfjz nqoaOo;a; f:r" ;@smsgl uq|@Kd,h" fldgqj" fld<U" 1920" 218-234 msgq156"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""157"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""158"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""159"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" ""160"" "" "" "" "" tu "" "" "" "" 93

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