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Brainstorming is a group creativity
technique that was designed to generate a
large number of ideas for the solution of a
It is particularly helpful when you need to
break out of stale, established patterns of
thinking, so that you can develop new ways of
looking at things.
This can be when you need to develop new
opportunities, where you want to improve the
service that you offer, or when existing
approaches just aren't giving you the results
Used with your team, it helps you bring
the experience of all team members into
play during problem solving
There are four basic rules in
brainstorming. These are intended
to reduce the social inhibitions that occur
in groups and therefore stimulate the
generation of new ideas.
The expected result is a dynamic
synergy that will dramatically increase the
creativity of the group.
This method helps students to gain
the ability of scientific problem solving
and using it in the every area of life.
Whit this method,teachers aim is to
raise a youth which can solve
problems in scientific way not just
WHAT IS PROBLEM SOLVING
Problem solving is a process to
choose and use the effective and
benefical tool and behaviours among
the different potentialities to reach the
It contains scientific method,critical
and reflective thinking.
This method is used in the process of
solving a problem to generalize or to
STEPS OF PROBLEM SOLVING
1-Choosing the topic and emergence of
2-Delimitation of the problem.
3-Planning the application.
4-Preparing the working guide.
5-Providing the sources.
6-Examining the problem.
7-Getting a conclusion.
8-Disputating the topics,views and findings.
ADVANTAGES OF PROBLEM
It provides the active participation of the
students in teaching-learning activity.
It habituates student to study regularly and
It provides students o gain scientific view and
It makes students to be interested in learning.
It helps to improve the sense of responsibility
It provides students to face the problems boldly
and to deal with it in a scientific approach.
It helps students to adopt the view of
benefit from others ideas and to help
It predicates the learning to a more
logical and doughty foundation.
It improves the ability of making
proposes and putting forward the
It helps students to adopt the idea of
not to be hurry to make a decision.
DISADVANTAGES OF PROBLEM
It takes too much time.
It is not possible to apply this method
to all disciplines.
It can load some worldly burdensomes
It can be diffucult for students to
provide the materials and sources
which is required for solving the
Evaluating the learning can be difficult.
TECHNIQUES USED IN
PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD
It is like teaching with discovering
method.Cases are observed
carefully.The similarities and
dissimilarities are found.Then you can
reach the general rule or law with the
techniques "generalization" or "making
abstract" from the similarities.
It is reverse of induction
technique.Some general laws and
rules which are reached before are
given to the students and want them
to apply this method to different
singular case.The convenience of it
to the one of the case is controlled
What is Computer Assisted
Computer-assisted learning (CAL)
is an approach to teaching and
learning in which computer technology
is used as an aid to the presentation,
reinforcement and assessment of
material to be learned, usually
including a substantial interactive
Traditional Teaching vs.
The traditional teaching
environment is a
classroom: a single
teacher giving lectures to
a group of students who
are expected to use their
notes and textbook to
prepare for periodic
mastery of the subject.
The use of computers in
education shifts the focus
away from the teacher to
the students themselves
who learn through
experimentation on the
computer with the
teacher acting only as a
Difference between traditional
and Computer Assisted Learning
Traditional Teaching vs. CAL
Differences between traditional classroom learning
and Computer Assisted Learning
Advantages of CAL
It involves any student actively in the
It allows the learner to proceed at his own
Reinforcement of learning in such situations
is immediate and systematized.
The use of computers in this manner frees
faculty members or training coordinators to
devote more time to the personal, human
considerations of their students.
CAL is very useful in the realm of remedial
Disadvantages of CAL
The need for teachers and training directors
to move from accepted methods that work
to a new and relatively untried method.
The diversity of computing hardware and
CAL languages compete with little apparent
coordination from professionals in the
The cost of hardware, CAL course materials
(courseware), and individuals to help
implement the process.
Programmed learning, educational technique
characterized by self-paced, self-administered
instruction presented in logical sequence and
with much repetition of concepts. Programmed
learning received its major impetus from the work
done in the mid-1950s by the American
behavioral psychologist B.F. Skinner and is
based on the theory that learning in many areas
is best accomplished by small, incremental steps
with immediate reinforcement, or reward, for the
learner. This technique can be applied through
texts, so-called teaching machines, and
computer-assisted-instruction. No matter what
the medium, two basic types of programming are
used: linear, or straight-line programming, and
Linear programming immediately reinforces
student responses that approach the learning goal.
Responses that do not lead toward the goal go
Each bit of learning is presented in a “frame,” and
a student who has made a correct response
proceeds to the next frame.
All students work through the same sequence,
and a low rate of error is necessary to ensure
continued positive reinforcement of correct
Branching, or intrinsic, programming, was initially developed in
conjunction with the use of an electronic training device for
This technique provides the student a piece of information,
presents a situation requiring a multiple choice or recognition
response, and on the basis of that choice instructs the student to
proceed to another frame, where he or she learns if the choice
was correct, and if not, why not.
A student who responded incorrectly will either be returned to
the original frame, or routed through a subprogram designed to
remedy the deficiency indicated by the wrong choice.
A student who selects correctly advances to the next frame in
the program. This process is repeated at each step throughout
the program, and a student may be exposed to differing amounts
of material depending upon errors made.