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Skill Acquisition - Considerations for Sport Part 2

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This presentation discusses the science and application of how to effectively teach and correct movement patterns through the use of language (Explicit Coaching Framework). Based on the science of attentional focus, this presentation will showcase a framework for designing effective instruction, cues and feedback. Considerations for the impact these strategies have on skill acquisition and choking under pressure will be discussed.

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Skill Acquisition - Considerations for Sport Part 2

  1. 1. Part2
  2. 2. 2 Cueing Coach=Teacher
  3. 3. Explicit Coaching & Focus process Reflect & Prime Focus Intention & Action Feedback
  4. 4. Attentional Focus The conscious effort of an individual to focus their attention through explicit thoughts and feelings in an effort to execute a task with superior performance = Cueing
  5. 5. Internal Focus Primary focus on the body (e.g., muscle) and associated movement process (e.g., hip extension) = Body Focus
  6. 6. External Focus Primary focus on movement outcome (e.g., jump high) and associated affect on the environment (e.g., push the ground away) = Outcome Focus
  7. 7. External Focus | Analogy Making reference to a familiar scenario that embodies the skill you are trying to teach. Using the player’s familiar to teach them something unfamiliar.
  8. 8. External Focus | Holistic cues Making reference to how the entirety of the movement should feel – leveraging the player’s proprioceptive sense .(e.g. smooth, fast, light, etc.)
  9. 9. The science of cueing Mediating Factors & Research
  10. 10. + + + + + + + + + + + Narrow | Internal Broad | Internal Close | External Far | External Normal Focus
  11. 11. Narrow | Internal Broad | Internal Close | External Far | External Normal Focus No evidence to support its effectiveness Possible benefit compared to narrow Internal Conclusive evidence confirming effectiveness Conclusive evidence confirming effectiveness Benefit as experience level increases
  12. 12. Implement Based | Discrete
  13. 13. Non-Implement Based | Discrete
  14. 14. Non-Implement Based | Continuous
  15. 15. Mediators & Research – Key Findings Implement Based (Discrete) Batting & Pitching Non-Implement Based (Discrete) Jumping & Sliding Non-Implement Based (Continuous) Running Focus Type INT Focus EXT Focus (Close) EXT Focus (Far) NORM Focus INT Focus EXT Focus (Close) EXT Focus (Far) NORM Focus INT Focus EXT Focus (Close) EXT Focus (Far) NORM Focus Novice No Yes* No No No Yes Yes* No No Yes* Un- known No Expert No Yes Yes* Yes No Yes Yes* No No Yes* Un- known Yes* Winkelman, 2016 (Dissertation)
  16. 16. Internal cues constrain the motor system by asking the person to focus on a Simple part at the expense of the complex whole. . External cues Direct attention towards relevant movement features, allowing the body to self-organize a preferred movement solution – analogous to constraint-based drills.
  17. 17. Internal Cue Caterpillar External Cue Butterfly 1.Use analogies/holistic cues if external cue lacks the desired nuance 2.Explain using an internal cue and then convert to external/analogy 3.Place tape on joints and reference the tape rather than the body
  18. 18. The science of cueing Attentional Focus & Choking
  19. 19. Choking The act of performing at a level far below one’s ability due to a pressure induced change in the way one normally controls and executes a movement = Extreme Underperformance
  20. 20. Extreme underperformance = Choking State Flow State = Extreme performance Attention Normal Performance
  21. 21. Distraction Theory Explicit Monitoring Outcome pressure Monitoring Pressure Task Type choking occurs because attention needed to perform the task is directed at task-irrelevant thoughts & worries Choking occurs because players focus (internally) on automatic skill processes, disrupting performance When a reward and/or punishment is attached to the outcome of the skill (e.g. money/Grades) When performance is being monitored, judged or compared to others (e.g. Coach, crowd or competitor) Rule-Based: Cognitively demanding/Working Memory Procedural: Automatic and controlled implicitly DeCaro et al. (2011)
  22. 22. DLPFC PMC SMC M1 Novice Expert 01: Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) 02: Premotor Cortex (PMC) 03: Supplementary Motor Cortex (SMC) 04: Primary Motor Cortex (M1) “Focus On The Movement”Song, 2009 | Beilock, 2010
  23. 23. The Learning Brain of a Novice looks very similar to the Choking Brain of an Expert – the key – minimizing conscious focus on “movement steps” during skill execution Song, 2009 | Beilock, 2010 Consider how shifting your player’s focus outward as opposed to inward could support learning & mental Robustness Over time
  24. 24. DeCaro et al. (2011) Rule-Based Task (Math or Learning New Skill) + Outcome Pressure = Choking due to unneeded focus on thoughts & worries connected to the outcome (“what if I fail” or “What if I am not smart enough”) Distraction Theory
  25. 25. DeCaro et al. (2011) Distraction Theory Rule-Based Task (Math or Learning New Skill) + Monitoring Pressure = As monitoring pressure induces a self-focus of attention, there should be no ill effects as attention should be focused on the task
  26. 26. DeCaro et al. (2011) Procedural Task (Sport & Movement) + Monitoring Pressure = Choking due to unneeded focus on the movement action, constraining what would otherwise be controlled automatically Explicit Monitoring
  27. 27. DeCaro et al. (2011) Distraction TheoryExplicit Monitoring Procedural Task (Sport & Movement) + Outcome Pressure = As outcome pressure induces a focus on thoughts & worries, this should not impact implicitly controlled movement patterns
  28. 28. choking is a product of focusing one’s attention on the wrong cues in response to an outcome and/or monitoring pressure Underpinning choking is the interpretation of pressure as challenging or threatening Vine et al. (2013)
  29. 29. Experiment 1 | DT During Novice v Expert Experiment 2 | Streak Experts Experiment 3 | Pressure External 3 Experiment 4 | DT Between Novice v Expert Gray, R. (2004 & 2006) ↑ Tone ↓ ToneE1O N1O N 21% Error E 36% Error
  30. 30. Experiment 1 | DT During Novice v Expert Experiment 2 | Streak Experts Experiment 3 | Pressure External 3 Experiment 4 | DT Between Novice v Expert Gray, R. (2004 & 2006) ↑ Tone ↓ ToneE1O N1O Hitting Streak ↑ Errors Hitting Slump ↓ Errors
  31. 31. Experiment 1 | DT During Novice v Expert Experiment 2 | Streak Experts Experiment 3 | Pressure External 3 Experiment 4 | DT Between Novice v Expert Gray, R. (2004 & 2006) ↑ Tone ↓ ToneE1O N1O No Pressure 39% Error Pressure 18% Error
  32. 32. Experiment 1 | DT During Novice v Expert Experiment 2 | Streak Experts Experiment 3 | Pressure External 3 Experiment 4 | DT Between Novice v Expert Gray, R. (2004 & 2006) ↑ Tone ↓ ToneE1O N1O E ↓ Performance N No Change in Performance
  33. 33. n2O L Environment | irrelevant environment | external Skill | External Skill | internal Castaneda & Gray (2007) ↑ Tone ↓ Tone X REXPERTS NOVICES E1O E2O E3O N1O n3O
  34. 34. Using a combination of externally oriented cues and training sessions that mimic the pressure that one faces in competition are some of the best ways to inoculate against choking – The key is to create game context
  35. 35. The anatomy of cueing
  36. 36. Cue Anatomy Distance Proximal (Close) Distal (Far) Direction Toward/ Away Up/ Down Description Action Word (Verb) Analogy (Metaphor) Winkelman, 2016 (Dissertation)
  37. 37. “Drive the bar towards the ceiling as explosively as you can” Description Direction Distance Description
  38. 38. Distance - Close & Far “Focus on Exploding off The Ground” “Focus On driving toward the BALL”
  39. 39. Distance - Close & Far “Focus on … The BALL” “Focus on … The RECEIVER”
  40. 40. Direction - Toward & Away “Focus on sprinting Toward the Space or Line” “Focus on sprinting AWAY From the Line or Opponent”
  41. 41. Description - Action Verb & Analogy “Tighten your arms as if they were a handcuff tightening around a criminal’s Wrist” “Focus on wrapping your arms around the carrier”
  42. 42. 02 All cues & focus can be born out of asking the player the right question 05 Use internal cues to describe movement but not coach movement 03 Use external cues & analogies to teach & correct movement skills 04 Use external cues & analogies to protect against choking 06 Lead with intuition and reflect using science – balance Art & Science 01 Use language that is concise, memorable and tailored to the individual
  43. 43. @NickWinkelman Thank You

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