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What is Pollution?
Undesirable change in the physical,
chemical, or biological characteristics of
the air, water, or land...
TOPIC :
DISTINGUISH BETWEEN POINT & NON POINT
SOURCES POLLUTION
What is mean by Point Source?
Pollution originating from a single point such
as pipes, ditches, wells, vessels, and conta...
Examples for Point Source Pollution
Water pollution from an oil refinery wastewater
discharge outlet.
Noise pollution fr...
What is Non-Point Source Pollution ?
Pollution that occurs when rainfall, snowmelt, or
irrigation runs over land or throu...
Nonpoint-source pollution is the cumulative result of our
everyday personal actions and our local land use policies.
Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is water
pollution affecting a water body from diffuse
sources.
Nonpoint source pollutio...
RIVERS, STREAMS, RESRVOIRS AND BAYS IDENTIFIED AS HAVING
BEEN IMPACTED BY NON-POINT-SOURCE POLLUTION
Management Strategies & Issues
Point Source
• Easier to monitor emissions
at source
• Easier to control emissions
at sourc...
CHAPTER5.1.3
TOPIC :
MAJOR SOURCES OF POLLUTIONS
What is Pollutants?
A pollutant is a waste material
that pollutes air, water or soil.
Types of Pollution
1.Salination
• Cause :Irrigation
• Effects :Plants die, impacts on agriculture and
societies food produ...
Types of Pollution
3.Toxic Spills and leaks
• Cause: Industrial accidents & Dumping
• Effects :Can be fatal e.g-Bhopal
4.S...
TOPIC :
DETECTION AND MOINTORING POLLUTION
CHAPTER5.2.1
TOPIC :
TWO DIRECT METHODS OF MOINTORING OF
POLLUTION
Aim of Monitoring
To protect the environment from the adverse effects
of pollution, many nations worldwide have enacted
l...
AIR POLLUTION
• Why do we monitor air pollution?
• The information we collect is used to help us
review and assess air qua...
What is Particulate Matter?
• There are things floating around in the air.
Most of them, you cannot even see.
• They are a...
• Particulate matter is a form of air pollution from a
variety of sources.
• It consists of fine particles that can stay i...
Monitoring and a Analysing Air Pollution
Full chemical and physical characterisation of
aerosol.
Determination of size-f...
MOINTORING PRIVATE WATER SUPPLIES AND DRINKING WATER
The quality of drinking water is of
paramount importance to us all. ...
METHODS OF CHECKING WATER QUALITY
Typical tests carried out include:
1. Trace metal analysis.
2. Nutrient analysis.
3. Cat...
The sound tube in Melbourne, Australia, designed to reduce
roadway noise without detracting from the area's aesthetics
Montoring Noise Pollution
Sound is measured in decibels. As the
pressure (in pascales Pa) varies so much from
that which ...
CHAPTER5.2.2
TOPIC :
BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)
&
ASSESS POLLUTION LEVELS IN WATER
What is Biochemical Oxygen Demand?
Biochemical oxygen demand is a measure of the quantity
of oxygen used by microorganism...
Procedure
• . The sample bottle which was stored in the paper
bag and should be placed in the dark and
incubated for five ...
LEVELS
• Moderately polluted rivers may have a BOD
value in the range of 2 to 8 mg/L.
• Municipal sewage that is efficient...
TOPIC :
INDIRECT METHODS OF MEASURING
POLLUTION LEVELS USING A BIOTIC INDEX
What is Biotic Index?
Biotic index is a scale for showing the quality of an
environment by indicating the types of organi...
CHAPTER5.3.1
TOPIC :
POLLUTION MANAGEMENT
Industrial Wastewater
Some industrial facilities generate ordinary domestic
sewage that can be treated by municipal facil...
Paul Muller
Nobel Prize for his discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT.
What is DDT?
DDT (from its trivial name,
dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is one of the most well-
known synthetic pestic...
DDT and malaria
Those in favor of the use of DDT to combat
malaria argue that:
• It is an efficient method to eradicate ma...
• In 1962, the book Silent Spring by American
biologist Rachel Carson was published.
• It catalogued the environmental imp...
• The book suggested that DDT and other
pesticides may cause cancer and that their
agricultural use was a threat to wildli...
• The US ban on DDT is cited by scientists as a
major factor in the comeback of the bald
eagle (the national bird of the U...
Why DDT was banned?
By the early 1970s, however, serious questions
were being raised about the environmental
effects of D...
• DDT was banned because it was discovered that it
was a carcinogen and caused bio magnification).
• For example, the gras...
DDT and the environment
• Among the diverse effects of DDT on the
health of animals, many highlight:
• Problems in reprodu...
• In 2006 the World Health Organization announced that it
would return to using DDT as an insecticide to eradicate
malaria...
Debating a global ban on DDT
For
• Research has linked DDT to
premature births, low birth
weight and abnormal mental
devel...
CHAPTER5.4
TOPIC :
EUTROPHICATION
CHAPTER5.4.1
TOPIC :
Process of Eutrophication
January/February
Formative
• Date : 7.02.2014
• Syallabus:Pollution
Management
• Marks :40
• Format :Paper 2
February Summ...
1. The process by which a body of water
acquires a high concentration of nutrients,
especially phosphates and nitrates.
2....
• This bloom of algae disrupts normal ecosystem
functioning and causes many problems.
• The algae may use up all the oxyge...
Process(Positive Feedback):
• Increase in inputs of nutrients (nitrates and
phosphates) which enter the lake
• Increase in...
Effects of Eutrophication:
• Death of fish and other organisms.
• Loss of species diversity.
• Breaking down of food chain...
Strategies
• Cause: Agriculture
• Strategy :Contour Ploughing to reduce run-off
• Reduce aces of livestock to water resour...
Minimize the amount of nutrients being released into
the system by:
1. Limiting production/use of detergents containing
ph...
Evaluating Eutrophication Management
strategies
• Difficulties of influencing human behavior
without legislation
• Catchme...
5.5 Solid domestic waste
What is Solid Domestic Waste?
• Any organic matter, including sewage,
industrial, and commercial wastes, from
municipal wa...
Type of S Solid Domestic Waste
1. Paper
2. Glass
3. Metals
4. Plastics
5. Organic waste from kitchen or garden
6. Potentia...
Evaluate pollution management strategies for
solid domestic (municipal) waste.
Causes Reduce •Reduce packaging
Reuse •Choo...
Effects Incineration •Easy and Quick
•Release greenhouse
gases such as methane
which could be used
for powering
•Release t...
5.6 Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone
Gas percentage
Nitrogen 78.1
Oxygen 20.9
Argon 0.9
Carbon dioxide 0.04
Water Variable
Trace Gases >0.002
Composition
• Troposphere -
0-12km thick;
• 75% of all gases in atmosphere;
• all weather happens here;
• temperature falls with altit...
5.6.3: Explain the interaction between ozone and
halogenated organic gases.
• Halogenated organic gases(e.g. CFC) are very...
How ozone is depleted by CFC’s:
• UV radiation breaks off a chlorine atom from a
CFC molecule.
• The chlorine atom attacks...
5.6.4 State the effects of ultraviolet radiation on living
tissues and biological productivity.
• Increase in mutation rat...
Management Strategies for the Ozone
Layer
1. Limit private vehicle driving
• A very easy way to control ozone depletion
wo...
2. Use eco-friendly household cleaning products
• Usage of eco-friendly and natural cleaning
products for household chores...
• 4. Developing stringent regulations for
rocket launches
• All types of rocket engines result in
combustion by products t...
• 5. Banning the use of dangerous nitrous
oxide
• Governments across the world should take a
strong stand for banning the ...
• National and international organizations
in reducing the emissions of
ozone-depleting substances.
January/February
Formative
• Date : 7.02.2014
• Syallabus:Pollution
Management
• Marks :40
• Format :Paper 2
February Summ...
What is Montreal Protocol?
• The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the
Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Co...
1987 Montreal Protocol –Important agreements
• Froze production and consumption of CFC’s with goal
of zero production by y...
• In 1995, the United Nations named September
16 the International Day for the Protection of
the Ozone Layer .
International Treaties
• The Vienna Convention on the Protection of
the Ozone Layer Signed in 1985, this treaty is
the pre...
• United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Ozone Secretariat The Ozone Secretariat
coordinates implementation of and me...
5.7 Urban air pollution
What is Photochemical smog ?
• Photochemical smog is formed when
primary pollutants react with
ultraviolet light to create...
The Formation of Smog
• Photochemical smog (or just smog for short) is a
term used to describe air pollution that is a res...
Effects of Photochemical smog
• Photochemical smog is composed of primary
and secondary pollutants.
• Primary pollutants, ...
LEVEL Strategy
Cause Cars, Buses
and taxis
Reduce demand for private cars through public transport
Promote cycle & bus lan...
Most Polluted World Cities by PM
Particulate
matter,
μg/m³ (2013)
City
169 Cairo, Egypt
150 Delhi, India
128 Kolkata, Indi...
1) Acid rain is generally formed by the presence
of gases like sulfur di oxide, Nitrogen Oxides
and C02.
2) These gases mi...
• Natural –Marine algae,Volcanoes,Forest Fires
• Man Made-
• PowerStation,
• Refineries,
• Industries,
• Transport,
• Dome...
SO2 &Nitrogen oxides
are released from power
station,industry and car
exhausts
Gases are dispersed by
wind
Gases undergo c...
LAND ECOSYSTEM:
• Soil biology and chemistry can be seriously
damaged by acid rain.
• Some microbes are unable to tolerate...
Human health effects
• Acid rain does not directly affect human health.
• The acid in the rainwater is too dilute to have
...
• Acid rain causes a cascade of effects that harm
or kill individual fish, reduce fish population
numbers, completely elim...
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IB ESS Topic 5 Pollution Management

  1. 1. What is Pollution? Undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of the air, water, or land that can harmfully affect the health, survival, or activities of human or other living organisms.
  2. 2. TOPIC : DISTINGUISH BETWEEN POINT & NON POINT SOURCES POLLUTION
  3. 3. What is mean by Point Source? Pollution originating from a single point such as pipes, ditches, wells, vessels, and containers. A point source is a single identifiable localized source of something. Sources of pollution which can be traced to a specific place or location, such as pipes, ditches, channels, sewers, tunnels, and containers .
  4. 4. Examples for Point Source Pollution Water pollution from an oil refinery wastewater discharge outlet. Noise pollution from a jet engine. Light pollution from an intrusive street light Thermal pollution from an industrial process outfall. Radio emissions from an interference-producing electrical device.
  5. 5. What is Non-Point Source Pollution ? Pollution that occurs when rainfall, snowmelt, or irrigation runs over land or through the ground, picks up pollutants, and deposits them into rivers, lakes, and coastal waters or introduces them into ground water. Pollution released from diffuse sources e.g. Pesticides from fields or many single sources such as the exhausts of cars in a city
  6. 6. Nonpoint-source pollution is the cumulative result of our everyday personal actions and our local land use policies.
  7. 7. Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is water pollution affecting a water body from diffuse sources. Nonpoint source pollution can be contrasted with point source pollution, where discharges occur to a body of water at a single location.
  8. 8. RIVERS, STREAMS, RESRVOIRS AND BAYS IDENTIFIED AS HAVING BEEN IMPACTED BY NON-POINT-SOURCE POLLUTION
  9. 9. Management Strategies & Issues Point Source • Easier to monitor emissions at source • Easier to control emissions at source • Responsibility easily established and managed by law • Localized effects can be managed • Non Point Source • Monitoring requires extensive survey techniques • Emissions control requires widespread changes • Responsibility shared amongst many requiring greater effort to enforce change • Effects are spread over a wider area
  10. 10. CHAPTER5.1.3 TOPIC : MAJOR SOURCES OF POLLUTIONS
  11. 11. What is Pollutants? A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil.
  12. 12. Types of Pollution 1.Salination • Cause :Irrigation • Effects :Plants die, impacts on agriculture and societies food production 2.Pesticides • Cause :Spraying of crops • Effects :Concentrates higher up food chain
  13. 13. Types of Pollution 3.Toxic Spills and leaks • Cause: Industrial accidents & Dumping • Effects :Can be fatal e.g-Bhopal 4.Sewage • Cause :Waste from toilets & drains • Eutrophication, low oxygen in water 5.Sulphur dioxide • Cause :Burning coal for heat or electricity generation • Effects :Acid rain
  14. 14. TOPIC : DETECTION AND MOINTORING POLLUTION
  15. 15. CHAPTER5.2.1 TOPIC : TWO DIRECT METHODS OF MOINTORING OF POLLUTION
  16. 16. Aim of Monitoring To protect the environment from the adverse effects of pollution, many nations worldwide have enacted legislation to regulate various types of pollution as well as to mitigate the adverse effects of pollution
  17. 17. AIR POLLUTION • Why do we monitor air pollution? • The information we collect is used to help us review and assess air quality in the borough, to measure whether air quality standards are being met, to provide good local information for policy decisions and provide the community with information on the air it breathes.
  18. 18. What is Particulate Matter? • There are things floating around in the air. Most of them, you cannot even see. • They are a kind of air pollution called particles or particulate matter. • In fact, particulate matter may be the air pollutant that most commonly affects people's health.
  19. 19. • Particulate matter is a form of air pollution from a variety of sources. • It consists of fine particles that can stay in the air for days or weeks until removed by rainfall • It can measured by leaving sheets of glue coated paper with a grid drawn on them for a standard amount of time. • Possible errors could be any spray from cars,people or animals up onto the paper direcctly from the ground
  20. 20. Monitoring and a Analysing Air Pollution Full chemical and physical characterisation of aerosol. Determination of size-fractionated chemistry (particle diameter 100 nm to 20 mm) and supporting reactive gas measurements. Supporting meteorological data and modelling. Expert interpretation of measurements.
  21. 21. MOINTORING PRIVATE WATER SUPPLIES AND DRINKING WATER The quality of drinking water is of paramount importance to us all. The pollution and consumer section is a leading provider of independent water analysis.
  22. 22. METHODS OF CHECKING WATER QUALITY Typical tests carried out include: 1. Trace metal analysis. 2. Nutrient analysis. 3. Cation/Anion analysis. 4. Pesticides and related substances. 5. Heavy metal analysis. 6. Physical parameters. 7. Microbiological indicators.
  23. 23. The sound tube in Melbourne, Australia, designed to reduce roadway noise without detracting from the area's aesthetics
  24. 24. Montoring Noise Pollution Sound is measured in decibels. As the pressure (in pascales Pa) varies so much from that which can be just heard (ie 20 Pa) to that which caused pain (ie 100 Pa) and because the ear responds (not linearly).
  25. 25. CHAPTER5.2.2 TOPIC : BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) & ASSESS POLLUTION LEVELS IN WATER
  26. 26. What is Biochemical Oxygen Demand? Biochemical oxygen demand is a measure of the quantity of oxygen used by microorganisms (e.g., aerobic bacteria) in the oxidation of organic matter. Natural sources of organic matter include plant decay and leaf fall.  It is used as a measure of the degree of water pollution BOD can be used as a gauge of the effectiveness of wastewater treatment plants
  27. 27. Procedure • . The sample bottle which was stored in the paper bag and should be placed in the dark and incubated for five days at 20 degrees Celsius, which is approximately room temperature. • If no incubator is available, place the sample bottle and bag into a "light-tight" drawer or cabinet. • After five days, determine the DO level of the sample by repeating steps five and six of the treatment procedure and all steps of titration and cleanup.
  28. 28. LEVELS • Moderately polluted rivers may have a BOD value in the range of 2 to 8 mg/L. • Municipal sewage that is efficiently treated by a three-stage process would have a value of about 20 mg/L or less. • Untreated sewage varies, but averages around 600 mg/L
  29. 29. TOPIC : INDIRECT METHODS OF MEASURING POLLUTION LEVELS USING A BIOTIC INDEX
  30. 30. What is Biotic Index? Biotic index is a scale for showing the quality of an environment by indicating the types of organisms present in it.  It is often used to assess the quality of water in rivers. It is measured from 1 to 10 and corresponds to the six water quality classes.  A scale showing the quality of an environment by the types of organisms which inhabit it. Biotic index can show cleanliness of the river.".
  31. 31. CHAPTER5.3.1 TOPIC : POLLUTION MANAGEMENT
  32. 32. Industrial Wastewater Some industrial facilities generate ordinary domestic sewage that can be treated by municipal facilities. Industries that generate wastewater with high concentrations of conventional pollutants (e.g. oil and grease), toxic pollutants (e.g. heavy metals, volatile organic compounds) or
  33. 33. Paul Muller Nobel Prize for his discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT.
  34. 34. What is DDT? DDT (from its trivial name, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is one of the most well- known synthetic pesticides. It is a chemical with a long, unique, and controversial history. In 1939 DDT was used with great success in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops DDT was made available for use as an agricultural insecticide and its production and use duly increased.
  35. 35. DDT and malaria Those in favor of the use of DDT to combat malaria argue that: • It is an efficient method to eradicate malaria in Europe and has practically done just that in India. • They defend the effectiveness of the substance given the low cost of use and the fact that there are no issues with patents.
  36. 36. • In 1962, the book Silent Spring by American biologist Rachel Carson was published. • It catalogued the environmental impacts of indiscriminate DDT spraying in the United States and questioned the logic of releasing large amounts of chemicals into the environment without a sufficient understanding of their effects on ecology or human health History of DDT ban
  37. 37. • The book suggested that DDT and other pesticides may cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly birds. • Its publication was a seminal event as regards the environmental movement and resulted in a large public outcry that eventually led, in 1972, to a ban on the agricultural use of DDT in the United States
  38. 38. • The US ban on DDT is cited by scientists as a major factor in the comeback of the bald eagle (the national bird of the United States) and the peregrine falcon from near-extinction
  39. 39. Why DDT was banned? By the early 1970s, however, serious questions were being raised about the environmental effects of DDT. Reports indicated that harmless insects, fish, birds, and other animals were being killed or harmed as a result of exposure to DDT.
  40. 40. • DDT was banned because it was discovered that it was a carcinogen and caused bio magnification). • For example, the grass that the cows eat is sprayed with DDT and the cow eats it. • Then the cow's milk is infected with DDT. • The people drink the milk and get DDT in their system and as the DDT moves up the food chain, it gets increasingly concentrated and more dangerous. It accumulates in the adipose cells of the organism.
  41. 41. DDT and the environment • Among the diverse effects of DDT on the health of animals, many highlight: • Problems in reproduction and development. • Possible defects on the immune system and premature death of birds. • Effects on the liver and kidney. • Reduction in the quality and quantity of microscopic animals in phytoplankton
  42. 42. • In 2006 the World Health Organization announced that it would return to using DDT as an insecticide to eradicate malaria (and to kill the mosquitos that transmit the disease). • The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) called for the elimination of 12 compounds that "can kill people, damage the nervous and immune systems, cause cancer and reproductive disorders and interfere with normal infant and child development," among those was DDT. • Due to its characteristics, according to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) from May of 2005, DDT was classified as one of these compounds: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN DDT
  43. 43. Debating a global ban on DDT For • Research has linked DDT to premature births, low birth weight and abnormal mental developments • Alternative methods of pest control exist • Spraying cannot eradicate the mosquitoes • The ecological effects are well documented Against • WHO states DDT is safe if used properly • Alternatives are not as effective • Annual deaths from malaria are still over 1 million • Previous decisions to ban DDT saw a resurgence of mosquitoes and rise in deaths from malaria in many countries
  44. 44. CHAPTER5.4 TOPIC : EUTROPHICATION
  45. 45. CHAPTER5.4.1 TOPIC : Process of Eutrophication
  46. 46. January/February Formative • Date : 7.02.2014 • Syallabus:Pollution Management • Marks :40 • Format :Paper 2 February Summative • Date : 14.02.2014 • Syllabus: Global Warming • Marks :50 • Format :Paper 1 &2
  47. 47. 1. The process by which a body of water acquires a high concentration of nutrients, especially phosphates and nitrates. 2. These typically promote excessive growth of algae. 3. As the algae die and decompose, high levels of organic matter and the decomposing organisms deplete the water of available oxygen, causing the death of other organisms, such as fish.
  48. 48. • This bloom of algae disrupts normal ecosystem functioning and causes many problems. • The algae may use up all the oxygen in the water, leaving none for other marine life. This results in the death of many aquatic organisms such as fish, which need the oxygen in the water to live. • The bloom of algae may also block sunlight from photosynthetic marine plants under the water surface.
  49. 49. Process(Positive Feedback): • Increase in inputs of nutrients (nitrates and phosphates) which enter the lake • Increase in algae productivity in the lake • Massive increase in algae • Increase in dead organic matter due to increase in decomposer as there are more algae for food • Higher rate of decomposition as the decomposers respiration • Increase in oxygen demand but decline in oxygen level • Death of organisms
  50. 50. Effects of Eutrophication: • Death of fish and other organisms. • Loss of species diversity. • Breaking down of food chains. • Increased turbidity (cloudiness of water) • Death of aquatic plants
  51. 51. Strategies • Cause: Agriculture • Strategy :Contour Ploughing to reduce run-off • Reduce aces of livestock to water resources • Reduce amount of fertilizer applied • Cause :Domestic • Strategy :Phosphate free washing powder • Dry composting toilets
  52. 52. Minimize the amount of nutrients being released into the system by: 1. Limiting production/use of detergents containing phosphates 2. Create buffer zones between agricultural land and water sources 3. Prevent animal waste from leaching into groundwater and rivers/streams Treat the polluted area by: 1. pumping air into the water source 2. divert or treat sewage properly 3. dredge (dig up) contaminated sediments 4. physically remove algae blooms
  53. 53. Evaluating Eutrophication Management strategies • Difficulties of influencing human behavior without legislation • Catchment management agreements may be difficult to monitor • Consequences of bio manipulation may not be predictable • Phosphate mainly transfers through detergent, sewage and surface and surface run off as it is non soluble
  54. 54. 5.5 Solid domestic waste
  55. 55. What is Solid Domestic Waste? • Any organic matter, including sewage, industrial, and commercial wastes, from municipal waste collection systems. Municipal waste does not include agricultural and wood wastes or residues
  56. 56. Type of S Solid Domestic Waste 1. Paper 2. Glass 3. Metals 4. Plastics 5. Organic waste from kitchen or garden 6. Potentially hazardous materials
  57. 57. Evaluate pollution management strategies for solid domestic (municipal) waste. Causes Reduce •Reduce packaging Reuse •Choose second hand materials or reusable containers Recycle •Choose materials that can be recycled Composting •Organic can be composted at source •Choose biodegradable materials
  58. 58. Effects Incineration •Easy and Quick •Release greenhouse gases such as methane which could be used for powering •Release toxic pollutants Landfill •Might pollute groundwater through leeching •Facing less available space Sealed landfill •Prevent leeching but higher costs •Limited space Composting •Can turn organic wastes into resources
  59. 59. 5.6 Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone
  60. 60. Gas percentage Nitrogen 78.1 Oxygen 20.9 Argon 0.9 Carbon dioxide 0.04 Water Variable Trace Gases >0.002 Composition
  61. 61. • Troposphere - 0-12km thick; • 75% of all gases in atmosphere; • all weather happens here; • temperature falls with altitude • Stratosphere - 12-50 km thick • temperature increases with altitude (gets warmer!) • horizontal winds (jet stream) • contains ozone layer • Mesosphere - 50-80km thick • temperature falls with altitude • meteor showers happen here • Thermosphere - ionosphere here (reflects radio waves for communications) • can be very very hot (2000 C+) !
  62. 62. 5.6.3: Explain the interaction between ozone and halogenated organic gases. • Halogenated organic gases(e.g. CFC) are very stable under normal conditions but can liberate halogen atoms when exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere. • These atoms react with monatomic oxygen and slow the rate of ozone re-formation. Pollutants enhance the destruction of ozone, thereby disturbing the equilibrium of the ozone production system
  63. 63. How ozone is depleted by CFC’s: • UV radiation breaks off a chlorine atom from a CFC molecule. • The chlorine atom attacks an ozone molecule (O3), breaking it apart and destroying the ozone. • The result is an ordinary oxygen molecule (O2) and a chlorine monoxide molecule (ClO). • The chlorine monoxide molecule (ClO) is attacked by a free oxygen atom releasing the chlorine atom and forming an ordinary oxygen molecule (O2). • The chlorine atom is now free to attack and destroy another ozone molecule (O3). One chlorine atom can repeat this destructive cycle thousands of times.
  64. 64. 5.6.4 State the effects of ultraviolet radiation on living tissues and biological productivity. • Increase in mutation rates in DNA causing cancer • Can cause eye cataracts • Can damage the ability to carry out photosynthesis in plants and phytoplankton • Reduces primary production and therefore total productivity
  65. 65. Management Strategies for the Ozone Layer 1. Limit private vehicle driving • A very easy way to control ozone depletion would be to limit or reduce the amount of driving as vehicular emissions eventually result in smog which is a culprit in the deterioration of the ozone layer.
  66. 66. 2. Use eco-friendly household cleaning products • Usage of eco-friendly and natural cleaning products for household chores is a great way to prevent ozone depletion 3. Avoid using pesticides • Pesticides may be an easy solution for getting rid of weed, but are harmful for the ozone layer. The best solution for this would be to try using natural remedies, rather than heading out for pesticides.
  67. 67. • 4. Developing stringent regulations for rocket launches • All types of rocket engines result in combustion by products that are ozone- destroying compounds that are expelled directly in the middle and upper stratosphere layer – near the ozone layer.
  68. 68. • 5. Banning the use of dangerous nitrous oxide • Governments across the world should take a strong stand for banning the use of this harmful compound to save the ozone layer.
  69. 69. • National and international organizations in reducing the emissions of ozone-depleting substances.
  70. 70. January/February Formative • Date : 7.02.2014 • Syallabus:Pollution Management • Marks :40 • Format :Paper 2 February Summative • Date : 14.02.2014 • Syllabus: Global Warming • Marks :50 • Format :Paper 1 &2
  71. 71. What is Montreal Protocol? • The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer . • The treaty was opened for signature on September 16th, 1987,
  72. 72. 1987 Montreal Protocol –Important agreements • Froze production and consumption of CFC’s with goal of zero production by year 2000 • LEDC’s granted a longer time to implement the treaty • China and India have not met their quotas under the MP because of their rapid economic growth and high demand for refrigeration & AC’s • Good example of a successful international cooperative effort to alter human impact on the environment
  73. 73. • In 1995, the United Nations named September 16 the International Day for the Protection of the Ozone Layer .
  74. 74. International Treaties • The Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer Signed in 1985, this treaty is the precursor to the Montreal Protocol. • ,
  75. 75. • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Ozone Secretariat The Ozone Secretariat coordinates implementation of and meetings under the Montreal Protocol. • OzonAction UNEP’s Division of Technology, Industry, and Economics OzonAction Programme provides industry, government and other stakeholders in developing countries with information exchange services (including this web site), training and Networking of ODS Officers.
  76. 76. 5.7 Urban air pollution
  77. 77. What is Photochemical smog ? • Photochemical smog is formed when primary pollutants react with ultraviolet light to create a variety of toxic and reactive compounds.
  78. 78. The Formation of Smog • Photochemical smog (or just smog for short) is a term used to describe air pollution that is a result of the interaction of sunlight with certain chemicals in the atmosphere. • One of the primary components of photochemical smog is ozone. • While ozone in the stratosphere protects earth from harmful UV radiation, ozone on the ground is hazardous to human health
  79. 79. Effects of Photochemical smog • Photochemical smog is composed of primary and secondary pollutants. • Primary pollutants, which include nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, are introduced into the atmosphere via vehicular emissions and industrial processes. • Secondary pollutants, like ozone, result from the reaction of primary pollutants with ultraviolet light.
  80. 80. LEVEL Strategy Cause Cars, Buses and taxis Reduce demand for private cars through public transport Promote cycle & bus lanes. Promote cleaner fuels and hybrid or electrical models Electricity Reduce consumption of electricity through building design. Small scale green power on city buildings e.g. solar ,wind Release and transfer Cars, Buses and taxis Catalytic converters help reduce Nox emissions Electricity & industry Use cleaner fuels, Taller chimneys to break through inversion layers Effects Smog Prevention Design and plan city buildings to promote natural cooling and circulation Promote opening up and cleaning up of covered water courses to allow evaporative cooling Health Raise Awareness Activated charcoal mask
  81. 81. Most Polluted World Cities by PM Particulate matter, μg/m³ (2013) City 169 Cairo, Egypt 150 Delhi, India 128 Kolkata, India (Calcutta) 125 Tianjin, China 123 Chongqing, China 109 Kanpur, India 109 Lucknow, India 104 Jakarta, Indonesia 101 Shenyang, China
  82. 82. 1) Acid rain is generally formed by the presence of gases like sulfur di oxide, Nitrogen Oxides and C02. 2) These gases mix with water drops in the atmosphere to from a acid rain. 3) Concentrated acids are corrosive and destroy metal,wood,rocks and most other material that come in contact. What is Acid Rain?
  83. 83. • Natural –Marine algae,Volcanoes,Forest Fires • Man Made- • PowerStation, • Refineries, • Industries, • Transport, • Domestic heating CAUSES OF ACID RAIN
  84. 84. SO2 &Nitrogen oxides are released from power station,industry and car exhausts Gases are dispersed by wind Gases undergo chemical changes and react with water vapour Pollutants fall as dry acid particles Pollutants fall as acid rain Damage to Buildings, humans animals, trees rivers and lakes
  85. 85. LAND ECOSYSTEM: • Soil biology and chemistry can be seriously damaged by acid rain. • Some microbes are unable to tolerate changes to low pHs and are killed. Effects of acid rain on the followings
  86. 86. Human health effects • Acid rain does not directly affect human health. • The acid in the rainwater is too dilute to have direct adverse effects. • Increased amounts of fine particulate matter in the air do contribute to heart and lung problems including asthma and bronchitis
  87. 87. • Acid rain causes a cascade of effects that harm or kill individual fish, reduce fish population numbers, completely eliminate fish species from a waterbody, and decrease biodiversity WATER ECOSYSTEM

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