8. Four Planning Questions for Instruction Which strategies will help students practice, review, and apply that knowledge? Which strategies will provide evidence that students have learned that knowledge? What knowledge will students learn? Which strategies will help students acquire and integrate that knowledge?
17. As a result of what we do today, you will be able to demonstrate that you: Understand the technique of foreshadowing in mysteries. Can revise writing to improve use of descriptive adverbs. Learning Goals
Notas do Editor
Review slide with participants.
For #1, it makes sense that setting instructional goals helps students focus their attention on information specifically related to the goals. But, it also can mean that students don ’t learn other information related to the content being studied because they ignore information that is not specifically related to the defined goals. For #2, when instructional goals or objectives are too specific, students ’ learning is limited. It’s important to identify the knowledge that students will be learning at a somewhat general level (specific but flexible) so that students can identify their own more specific learning goals related to that knowledge. For a learning objective or goal to be specific but flexible, it must not be too broad or too specific. Examples are provided for you in the chart above with goals that are too broad, too specific, and specific but flexible. Briefly discuss what makes a learning objective too broad, too specific, or specific but flexible.
For #3, research indicates that if you provide students with opportunities to adapt the learning goals you have set for them to their personal needs and desires, they are likely to learn more. Some teachers encourage students to write a “contract” for learning. This provides students with a great deal of control over their learning. Contracts can include the goals for learning as well as the grade the student will receive if he or she meets those goals. The goals for learning may include goals that the student sets as well as goals the teacher sets. Review the example on the bottom portion of the slide.
Allow participants to read the slide. These are activities or assignments that the students are going to complete today. They are not learning goals.
Allow participants to read the slide. These are learning goals.
Take a few minutes to allow participants to read the examples on the slide and think about which ones are learning goals and which are activities or assignments. After a couple of minutes, go over each example and have participants call out whether it is a learning goal or activity or assignment.
Communicating objectives effectively is probably just as important as designing them. Many teachers communicate the learning goals they set in both written and oral forms. Learning goals can be written on the board, on a bulletin board, and in a written handout as well as provided orally. If your students have not had much experience setting learning goals, you will need to model the process for them and provide support along the way. A good way to begin is to be sure that the goals you set for student learning are specific but flexible. Both short and long term goals need to be clearly visible to students and in language they can understand. When you communicate student learning goals to parents, you provide an important way for parents to be involved in their children ’s education. If parents understand the learning objectives, they can provide appropriate support. One effective and simple method of communicating learning goals to parents is in a letter. Be sure to keep the message simple and avoid education jargon as much as possible.
Review the slide information as a wrap-up of what we have covered so far in setting objective and goals.
The research yielded 4 generalizations that can guide teachers in goal setting. Share a quote from John Hattie who reviewed 7,827 students on learning and instruction, “The most powerful single innovation that enhances achievement is feedback”. The four generalizations on feedback are listed on this slide and we ’ll look at each one in greater detail in next slides.
Providing students with an explanation of what they are doing that is correct and what they are doing that is not correct is the most effective type of feedback. Simply telling students that their answer on a test is right or wrong has a negative impact on achievement. Providing students with the correct answer has a moderate effect. The best feedback appears to involve an explanation of what is accurate and what is inaccurate in terms of student responses. In addition, asking students to keep working on a tack until they succeed appears to enhance student achievement.
The timing of feedback is critical to its effectiveness. Feedback that is given immediately after a test-like situation is best. The longer the delay, the less improvement there is in achievement.
The manner in which students receive feedback is important for student achievement. Feedback should reference a specific level of skill or knowledge. This means the feedback is criterion-referenced as opposed to norm referenced (not in reference to other students). Only giving the percentage of correct or incorrect answers is not usually very helpful in correcting a skill. When feedback relates specifically to the identified knowledge or skill, both the teacher and the student have a better understanding of what, if anything, needs to be done to improve student performance.
Feedback should not be considered something that only the teacher provides. Students can effective monitor their own progress by simply keeping track of their performance as learning occurs. For example, students might keep a chart of their accuracy, their speed, or both while learning a new skill. Since many students are not experienced at providing feedback, you will need to model and teach this to students as well as provide support throughout the process.