1. Important International Environmental Agreements
The table below gives the list of important
environmental conventions of the world:
List of Environmental Conventions
Name Year of Establishment
Ramsar Convention 1971
Stockholm Convention 2001
Convention on Biological Diversity 1992
Bonn Convention 1979
Vienna Convention 1985
Montreal Protocol 1987
Kyoto Protocol 1997
United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC)
2. List of Environmental Conventions
Name Year of Establishment
Rio Summit 1992
Basel Convention 1989
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety 2000
Nagoya Protocol 2010
Kigali Amendment 2016
Minamata Convention 2013
Rotterdam Convention 1998
3. Ramsar Convention
• It is called the Convention on Wetlands
• It was adopted in the city of Iran, Ramsar in 1971.
• It came into force in 1975.
• Ramsar Convention, 1971 Ramsar Convention is a
convention on wetlands
• that was signed in 1971 in the Iranian city of Ramsar.
• The negotiations for the convention started in the 1960s
by the different countries and NGOs for the protection
of wetlands and their resources.
• Finally, it came into force in 1975.
• There are 42 Ramsar Sites in India
4. Stockholm Convention
• It is a convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
• It was adopted in 2001 in Geneva, Switzerland.
• It came into force on 17th May 2004.
Stockholm Convention is a global treaty that was
adopted by the Conference of Plenipotentiaries in 2001
• It was introduced to protect human health from
harmful POPs suspended in the air for a long period of
• The convention aims to reduce or eliminate the use of
POPs through the active measures of the member states.
5. What are Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)?
Persistent Organic Pollutants are carbon-based organic chemical
substances that display the following properties once they are released
into the environment:
• Lifespan – They remain in the environment for long periods of time
counted in years.
• Distribution – The natural carriers like soil, water and air distribute it
throughout the environment
• Food Chain – They become a part of the food chain by getting
accumulated in the fatty tissue of living organisms including humans
• Toxicity – They are termed as toxic for both humans and wildlife.
• Bioaccumulation – The POPs get accumulated in the fatty tissues and
its concentration gets magnified. The species including at the higher
level of the food chain absorb greater concentrations of POPs and
• Effect – The exposure to POPs can cause: Cancer
• Damage to the central and peripheral nervous
• Reproductive disorders, and
• Disruption of the immune system
• Endocrine disruptors
7. Objectives & Aims of the Stockholm Convention
• To implement control measures for the POPs
• To develop and implement action plans for
unintentionally produced chemicals
• To develop inventories of the chemicals’ stockpiles
• To review and update the National Implementation Plan
• To include the new chemicals in the reporting
• To include the new chemicals in the programme for the
• It is a convention on International Trade in Endangered
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
• It was adopted in 1963.
• It came into force in 1975.
CITES (shorter name for the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and
Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is
a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals.
It was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963
at a meeting of members of the International Union for
Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
The convention was opened for signature in 1973 and
CITES entered into force on 1 July 1975.
11. • Its aim is to ensure that international trade
in specimens of wild animals and plants.
• does not threaten the survival of the species
in the wild, and it accords varying degrees
• to more than 35,000 species of animals and
• In order to ensure that the General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
was not violated, the Secretariat of GATT
was consulted during the drafting process
12. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
• It is a convention for the conservation of biological diversity.
• It was adopted in 1992
• It came into force in 1993.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), known informally
as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty. The convention has
three main goals: the conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity);
the sustainable use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of
benefits arising from genetic resources.
Its objective is to develop national strategies for the conservation
and sustainable use of biological diversity, and it is often seen as the key
document regarding sustainable development.
The convention was opened for signature at the Earth
Summit in Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992 and entered into force on 29
December 1993. It has two supplementary agreements, the Cartagena
Protocol and Nagoya Protocol.
• Its objective is to develop national strategies
for the conservation and sustainable use of
biological diversity, and it is often seen as the
key document regarding sustainable
• The convention was opened for signature
at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro on 5
June 1992 and entered into force on 29
• It has two supplementary agreements, the
Cartagena Protocol and Nagoya Protocol.
14. Bonn Convention
It is a Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species
of Wild Animals.
It was adopted in 1979.
It came into force in 1983.
The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory
Species of Wild Animals, also known as the Convention on
Migratory Species (CMS) or the Bonn Convention, is an
international agreement that aims to conserve migratory
species throughout their ranges.
The Agreement was signed under the auspices of
the United Nations Environment Programme and is concerned
with conservation of wildlife and habitats on a global scale.
15. The CMS is the only global, and United Nations-based,
intergovernmental organization established exclusively for
the conservation and management of terrestrial, aquatic
and avian migratory species.
The CMS, and its Agreements, determine policy and
provide further guidance on specific issues through their
Action Plans, resolutions, decisions and guidelines.
Signed in 1979 in Bonn, West Germany, the
Convention entered into force in 1983.
As of September 2020, there are 131 Member States to
The depositary is the Government of the Federal Republic of
16. WHAT IS THE AIM OF THE CONVENTION AND OF THE
The objective of the Bonn Convention is the
conservation of migratory species of wild animals worldwide.
Wild animals require special attention
because of their importance from the environmental,
ecological, genetic, scientific, recreational, cultural,
educational, social and economic points of view.
Conservation of migratory species particularly requires
international cooperation to ensure protection across their
17. Vienna Convention
It is a convention for the Protection of Ozone Layer.
It was adopted in 1985.
It came into force in 1988.
The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) is
an international agreement regulating treaties between states.
Known as the "treaty on treaties",
it establishes comprehensive rules, procedures, and guidelines for
how treaties are defined, drafted, amended, interpreted, and
18. • An international treaty is a written
agreement between international law
subjects reflecting their consent to the
creation, alteration, or termination of their
rights and obligations.
• The VCLT is considered a codification
of customary international law and state
practice concerning treaties.
19. During the 1970, research indicated that man-
made chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) reduce and convert ozone molecules in the
CFCs are stable molecules composed of carbon, fluorine,
and chlorine that were used prominently in products such as refrigerators.
The threats associated with reduced ozone pushed the issue to the forefront of
global climate issues and gained promotion through organizations such as
the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations.
The Vienna Convention was agreed upon at the Vienna Conference of
1985 and entered into force in 1988.
The Vienna Convention provided the framework necessary to create
regulatory measures in the form of the Montreal Protocol.
20. In terms of universality, it is one of the most
successful treaties of all time, having been ratified by
197 states (all United Nations members as well as
the Holy See, Niue and the Cook Islands) as well as
the European Union.
While not a binding agreement,
it acts as a framework for the international efforts to
protect the ozone layer;
however, it does not include legally binding reduction
goals for the use of CFCs, the main chemical agents
causing ozone depletion.
21. The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the
Convention on Biological Diversity
is an international treaty governing the movements
of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from
modern biotechnology from one country to another.
It was adopted on 29 January 2000 as a supplementary
agreement to the CBD and entered into force on 11 September
The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the
Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their
Utilization (ABS) to the Convention on Biological Diversity
is another supplementary agreement to the CBD.
22. • It provides a transparent legal framework for the effective
implementation of one of the three objectives of the CBD:
• the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the
utilization of genetic resources.
• The Nagoya Protocol was adopted on 29 October 2010
in Nagoya, Japan, and entered into force on 12 October 2014.
• 2010 was also the International Year of Biodiversity, and the
Secretariat of the CBD was its focal point.
• Following a recommendation of CBD signatories at Nagoya,
the UN declared 2011 to 2020 as the United Nations Decade
on Biodiversity in December 2010.
• The convention's Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020,
created in 2010, include the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
23. • It is an international environment protocol on substances that deplete
the Ozone Layer.
• It was adopted in 1987.
• It came into force in 1989.
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone
Layer, also known simply as the Montreal Protocol,
It is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by
phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible
for ozone depletion.
Open for signature on 16 September 1987, it was made pursuant
to the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer,
which established the framework for international cooperation in
addressing ozone depletion.
The Montreal Protocol entered into force on 1 January 1989, and
has since undergone nine revisions, in 1990 (London), 1991 (Nairobi), 1992
(Copenhagen), 1993 (Bangkok), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), 1998
(Australia), 1999 (Beijing) and 2016 (Kigali).
24. As a result of the international agreement, the ozone hole in
Antarctica is slowly recovering.
Climate projections indicate that the ozone layer will
return to 1980 levels between 2050 and 2070.
The Montreal Protocol's success is attributed to its
effective burden sharing and solution proposals.
Which helped mitigate regional conflicts of interest,
compared to the shortcomings of the global regulatory
approach of the Kyoto Protocol.
However, global regulation was already being installed
before a scientific consensus was established, and overall
public opinion was convinced of possible imminent risks with
the ozone layer
25. The Vienna Convention and the Montreal
Protocol have each been ratified by 196 nations and
the European Union, making them the first universally
ratified treaties in United Nations history.
Due to its widespread adoption and
implementation, the Montreal Protocol has been hailed
as an example of exceptional international cooperation,
with Kofi Annan describing it as "perhaps the single
most successful international agreement to date"
26. The treaty is structured around several groups of halogenated
hydrocarbons that deplete stratospheric ozone.
All of the ozone depleting substances controlled by the Montreal
Protocol contain either chlorine or bromine (substances containing
only fluorine do not harm the ozone layer).
Some ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are not yet controlled by
the Montreal Protocol, including nitrous oxide (N2O)
For each group of ODSs, the treaty provides a timetable on which
the production of those substances must be shot out and eventually
This included a 10-year phase-in for developing
countries identified in Article 5 of the treaty.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Phase-out Management Plan
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) Phase-out Management Plan (HPMP)
Terms and purposes
27. Phasing out ODS
• Parties to the Montreal Protocol must freeze,
reduce and phase out their production and
consumption of ODS according to a specific step-
wise schedule. –
– Production Control
– Consumption Control
– Trade, Import, export and reimport control
– Adaptation to Ozone Friendly technology
– Training and Capacity Building
28. INDIA’S COMMITMENT TO THE
19th June 1991 : India became a Party to the Vienna
• 17th September 1992 : India became a Party to the
Montreal Protocol and ratified the London
• 3rd March 2003 : India ratified Copenhagen
Amendment (1992), Montreal Amendment (1997) and
Beijing Amendment (1999).
• November 1993 : India’s Country Programme was
• January 2006 : India’s Country Programme was
29. ODS PHASE OUT-INDIA’S
As of January 1, 2010, the production and consumption of
CFCs, CTC and Halons were phased out completely as per
the Montreal Protocol time schedule, except the use of
CFCs in Metered Dose Inhalers (MDIs) under the Essential
Use Nominations (EUN)
CFC Phase out
• Freeze of CFC Production and Consumption in July 1999 at
ODP tonnes and 6681 ODP tonnes respectively
• 50% reduction of CFC Production and Consumption in 2005.
• Accelerated Phase out of CFCs from , 17 months prior to
the Montreal Protocol Schedule, except use of pharma
grade CFCs for manufacture of MDIs in 2008 and 2009.
30. ODS PHASE OUT-INDIA’S
CTC Phase out
• Freeze of CTC Production and Consumption at ODP tonnes
and ODP tonnes respectively in 2005.
• 85% reduction of CTC Production and Consumption by the
end of year 2005. 100% reduction as on 1.1.2010
• Freeze of Halon production and consumption on 1.1.2002
• Total phase out of Production and Consumption of Halons
and Methyl Chloroform Production and Consumption w.e.f
• So far India has successfully met all the obligations of the
31. Phase-out Schedule for INDIA as per
Ozone-depleting substance Total Phase-out by CFCs
Methyl Chloroform 2015
Methyl Bromide 2015
32. Results to date
• The Montreal Protocol is working. There is clear evidence of a decrease in the
atmospheric burden of ozone- depleting substances in the lower atmosphere and in
• Some early signs of the expected stratospheric ozone recovery are also
• Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). Nitrogen trifluoride was added for the second
compliance period during the Doha Round.
• The Protocol was based on the principle of common but differentiated
• it acknowledged that individual countries have different capabilities in
combating climate change, owing to economic development, and therefore
placed the obligation to reduce current emissions on developed countries on the
basis that they are historically responsible for the current levels of greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere.
• depleting substances soon after 2006, it would advance by about 15 years
(from around 2050 to 2035) the global ozone layer recovery to pre-1980 levels 16
33. 8. Kyoto Protocol
It is an international protocol to reduce greenhouse gas
It was adopted in 1997.
It came into force in 2005.
The Kyoto Protocol was an international treaty which
extended the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC).
That commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions, based on the scientific consensus ( part one)
global warming is occurring and (part two) that human-
made CO2 emissions are driving it.
The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on
11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February
2005. There were 192 parties (Canada withdrew from the
protocol, effective December 2012) to the Protocol in 2020.
34. The Kyoto Protocol implemented the
objective of the UNFCCC to reduce the onset
of global warming by reducing greenhouse
gas concentrations in the atmosphere to "a
level that would prevent dangerous
anthropogenic interference with the climate
system" (Article 2).
The Kyoto Protocol applied to the seven
greenhouse gases listed in Annex A: carbon
dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide
(N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs),
perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur
35. Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). Nitrogen
trifluoride was added for the second compliance
period during the Doha Round.
The Protocol was based on the principle of
common but differentiated responsibilities:
it acknowledged that individual countries
have different capabilities in combating climate
change, owing to economic development,
therefore placed the obligation to reduce
current emissions on developed countries on the
basis that they are historically responsible for
the current levels of greenhouse gases in the
• Under the Protocol, 37 countries ("Annex
I countries") commit themselves to a
reduction of four greenhouse gases (GHG)
(carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide,
sulphur hexafluoride) and two groups of
gases (hydro fluorocarbons and per
fluorocarbons) produced by them, and all
member countries give general
37. At negotiations, Annex I countries
(including the US) collectively agreed to
reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by
5.2% on average for the period 2008-2012.
Since the US has not ratified the treaty,
the collective emissions reduction of Annex I
Kyoto countries falls from 5.2 % to 4.2%
below base year
38. • Each Annex I Party has a binding commitment to
limit or reduce GHG emissions and innovative
mechanisms have been established for Parties to
facilitate compliance with this commitment.
• Other commitments include:
– Each Annex I Party must undertake domestic
policies and measures to reduce GHG emissions
and to enhance removals by sinks;
– In implementing these policies and measures,
each Annex I Party must strive to minimize any
adverse impact of these policies and measures on
other Parties, particularly developing country
39. – Annex I Parties must provide additional
financial resources to advance the
implementation of commitments by developing
– Both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties must
cooperate in the areas of:
(a) The development, application and diffusion of
climate friendly technologies;
(b)Research on and systematic observation of the
(c) Education, training, and public awareness of
(d) The improvement of methodologies and data
for GHG inventories
40. The Protocol's first commitment period started in 2008
and ended in 2012.
All 36 countries that fully participated in the first
commitment period complied with the Protocol.
However, nine countries had to resort to the flexibility
mechanisms by funding emission reductions in other
countries because their national emissions were slightly
greater than their targets.
The financial crisis of 2007–08 helped reduce the
The greatest emission reductions were seen in the
former Eastern Bloc countries because the dissolution of the
Soviet Union reduced their emissions in the early 1990s.
Even though the 36 developed countries reduced their
emissions, the global emissions increased by 32% from 1990
41. A second commitment period was agreed to in 2012
to extend the agreement to 2020, known as the Doha
Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol,
in which 37 countries had binding targets:Australia,
Union , Belarus, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Liechtenstein, Nor
way, Switzerland, and Ukraine.
Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine stated that they
may withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol or not put into
legal force the Amendment with second round targets.
Japan, New Zealand, and Russia had participated in
Kyoto's first-round but did not take on new targets in the
second commitment period.
42. Other developed countries without
second-round targets were Canada (which
withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol in 2012)
and the United States (which did not ratify).
As of October 2020, 147states had accepted
the Doha Amendment.
It entered into force on 31 December
2020, following its acceptance by the
mandated minimum of at least 144 states,
although the second commitment period
ended on the same day of the 37 parties with
binding commitments, 34 had ratified.
43. Negotiations were held in the framework
of the yearly UNFCCC Climate Change
Conferences on measures to be taken after
the second commitment period ended in
This resulted in the 2015 adoption of
the Paris Agreement, which is a separate
instrument under the UNFCCC rather than an
amendment of the Kyoto Protocol.
44. Recent advances in Kyota protocol
• May 2011: Russia, Japan and Canada told the G8
they would not join a second round of carbon cuts
under the Kyoto Protocol.
• They argued that the Kyoto format did not require
developing countries, including China, the world’s
No. 1 carbon emitter, to make targeted emission
• Aug 2011: The European Union, the major
developing countries, and most African and Pacific
island nations declared that they would like to see
the Kyoto process extended as a process to, binding
international agreement that would take effect by
45. India and Kyota protocol
• India will not sign any legally binding global
agreement for emission reduction as the country
needs to eradicate poverty through economic
• India argues that since the CO2 in the
atmosphere is from developed countries
• it is their responsibility to cut down the
46. • However India will make all efforts to cut down on
green house gas emissions but that would be
• India being a developing country is still not stable
enough to take up global warming as the emission
cuts will slow down its development and cripple it
• ( huge investment for mitigatation of climate
change factors like GHE.Desertification,abiotic and
47. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
It is an international environmental treaty governing actions to
combat climate change through adaptation and mitigation efforts
directed at control of emission of GreenHouse Gases (GHGs) that
cause global warming.
It was adopted in 1992.
It came into force in 1994.
.The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC) established an international environmental treaty.
To combat "dangerous human interference with the climate system",
in part by stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the
It was signed by 154 states at the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as
the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. It
established a Secretariat headquartered in Bonn and entered into force
on 21 March 1994.
48. The treaty called for ongoing
scientific research and regular meetings, negotiations, and
future policy agreements
Designed to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate
change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and
to enable economic development to proceed in
a sustainable manner.
The Kyoto Protocol, which was signed in 1997 and ran
from 2005 to 2020, was the first implementation of measures
under the UNFCCC.
The Kyoto Protocol was superseded by the Paris Agreement,
which entered into force in 2016.
As of 2020, the UNFCCC has 197 signatory parties. Its
supreme decision-making body, the Conference of the Parties
(COP), meets annually to assess progress in dealing with
49. Rio Summit
It is a United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.
It was held in 1992 at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
The United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit,
the Rio Summit, the Rio Conference and the Earth Summit (Portuguese:
ECO92), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de
Janeiro from June 3 to June 14, 1992.
Earth Summit was created as a response for member states to
cooperate together internationally on development issues after
the Cold War.
Due to issues relating to sustainability being too big for individual
member states to handle,
Earth Summit was held as a platform for other member states to
Since the creation, many others in the field of sustainability show a
similar development to the issues discussed in these conferences,
including non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
50. The issues addressed included:
systematic scrutiny of patterns of production—
particularly the production of toxic components,
such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste
including radioactive chemicals
alternative sources of energy to replace the use
of fossil fuels which delegates linked to
global climate change
new reliance on public transportation systems in
order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in
cities and the health problems caused by polluted
air and smoke
the growing usage and limited supply of water
51. An important achievement of the summit was an agreement on
the Climate Change Convention which in turn led to the Kyoto
Protocol and the Paris Agreement.
Another agreement was to "not to carry out any activities on the
lands of indigenous peoples that would cause environmental
degradation or that would be culturally inappropriate".
The Convention on Biological Diversity was opened for signature
at the Earth Summit, and made a start towards redefinition of
measures that did not inherently encourage destruction of
natural ecoregions and so-called uneconomic growth.
Although President George H.W. Bush signed the Earth
Summit’s Convention on Climate, his EPA Administrator William K.
Reilly acknowledges that U.S. goals at the conference were difficult
to negotiate and the agency’s international results were mixed,
including the U.S. failure to sign the proposed Convention on
52. Twelve cities were also honoured by the Local Government
Honours Award for innovative local environmental programs.
These included Sudbury in Canada for its ambitious program to
rehabilitate environmental damage from the
local mining industry, Austin in the United States for its green
building strategy, and Kitakyūshū in Japan for incorporating an
international education and training component into its
municipal pollution control program.
The Earth Summit resulted in the following documents:
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
Moreover, important legally binding agreements (Rio Convention)
were opened for signature:
Convention on Biological Diversity
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
53. In order to ensure compliance to the agreements at Rio (particularly
the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and Agenda 21),
delegates to the Earth Summit established the Commission on
Sustainable Development (CSD).
In 2013, the CSD was replaced by the High-level Political Forum on
Sustainable Development that meets every year as part of the ECOSOC
meetings, and every fourth year as part of the General Assembly
Critics point out that many of the agreements made in Rio have not
been realized regarding such fundamental issues as
fighting poverty and cleaning up the environment.
Green Cross International was founded to build upon the work of the
The first edition of Water Quality Assessments, published by
WHO/Chapman & Hall, was launched at the Rio Global Forum.