nethravathi siri genetics polytene chromosomes salivary gland chromosomes cancer drosophila melanogaster scanning electron microscope [sem] transmission electron microscope [tem] fluorescent microscope phase-contrast microscope optical parts mechanical parts generic construction of microscope resolving power comb pattern in poultry coat color in mice grain color in maize recessive epistasis dominant epistasis lampbrush chromosomes • gene frequency female selection pranayama meditation yoga central dogma gene expression holistic health human genetics holistic introduction to genetics major branches of genetics kernel color in wheat quantitative inheritance post mating isolating mechanisms premating isolating mechanisms sympatric speciation allopatric speciation speciation speciatio molecular phylogenetic tre . evolution at molecular level: nucleotide sequenc (modern theory of evolution neo-darwinism / synthetic theory mutation theory darwinism lamarckism construction of a typical fermenter characteristic features of a fermenter history of fermenter fermenter “jumping genes copia elements retro transposons (class i elements) 2. enhancers (uas) 3. silencers 4. insulators promoters eukaryotic rna polymerase prokaryotic trancription eukaryotic transcriptio transcription in eukaryote molecular mechanism of crossing over holiday mode fat soluble vitamins water-soluble vitamins vitamins . b chromosome matrix is asymmetrical ellipsoidal chromomeres. lampbrush chromosomes chromosomal puffs /balbiani rings polytene chromosome . giant chromosome special types of chromosome 2. radioactive isotope isotope scintillation counter measurement of radioactivity - geiger muller [gm] somatic crossing over germinal crossing over introduction of crossing over radial loops of 30-nm fibre and metaphase chromoso scaffold 300nm linker dna lowest level of chromosome organization nucleosome model of chromosome non- epistasis gene interaction (9:3:3:1) epistasis gene interaction supplementary gene interaction (9:3:4) complementary gene interaction (9:7) gene interaction source of illumination samplevisualization condens comparative account on different types of microsco applications working principle advantages zernike microscope. magnificaton use of microscopes in cytology the history of microscopes functions of peroxisomes ultrastructure and composition peroxisomes microbodies or microsomes ribosomes functions of ribosomes discovery of ribosomes occurrence of ribosomes ultrastructure and composition of ribosome protein factory of the cell. 6. sulphatases 5. lipases 4. phosphatases 3. glycosidases proteases 1. nucleases lytic enzyymes lysosome functional cycle 50 enzymes lysosomal integral membrane proteins (limp). lysosomal associated membrane proteins (lamp) occurrence responsible mainly for intracellular and extracell christian de duve lysosomes formation of primary lysosomes lipid packaging and secretion protein targeting synthesis and secretion of glycoproteins • secretion of proteins 1. cisternae 2. tubules 3. golgi vesicles 4. larg camillo golgi chemical composition and functions ultrastructure golgi complex t h morgan’s experiment for complete linkage in ma the number of linkage groups present in an individ 3. linkage groups in maize (zea mays) linkage groups in drosophila melanogaster linkage groups in humans hutchinson • thomas h morgan • bateson & punnett significance of linkage chemicals and nutrition sex radiation temperature age factors affecting linkage- distance between genes types of linkage-complete linkage and incomplete l maize and man linkage group- drosophila linkage group linkage preparation of the specimen for tem electron microscope stereo microscope darkfield microscopes brightfield microscopes compound microscope simple microscope limit of resolution (d) magnifying power principle: magnification and resolving power applications of microscopes history of microscopy white x white ccpp x ccpp purple ccpp white x yellow wwyy x wwyy white wwyy black x albino ccaa x ccaa agouti ccaa rose x pea rrpp x rrpp walnut rrpp fruit color in cucurbita pepo purple x white rrpp x rrpp purple rrpp flower color in lathyrus odoratus non- epistasis complementary gene interaction epistasis supplementary gene interaction gene interactions • bateson 2. inter-allelic gene interactions 1. intra- allelic gene interactions problems erythroblastosis foetalis fisher-race theory wiener theory rho k landsteiner rh factor abo blood groups allele multiple alleles synthetic dna sequence genome genetics synthetic biology convention on biologival diversity kyoto protocol montreal protocol international agreements aecc environmental studies transgenic animal production knockout mouse fluroscent transgenic animals application special chromosomes holokinetic chromosomes b-chromosomes indian science tradition india cholesterol reduction chromium vitamin c ayurveda therapy supernumerary chromosomes maize grass hopper b chromosomes accessory chromosomes ellipsoidal chromomeres structure of lampbrush chromosomes mrna transcription lateral loops test tube chromosomes chromomeres • diplotene stage (meiosis-prophase-i) • test tube brush chromosomes’ • (amphibians) oocytes • fleming • red eyed females white eyed males disruptive selection importance of virgin flies hth motif inducible operon lac operon lac i operon monod jacob cytological studies bridges active site for transcription chromonemata giant chromosome ecdysone balbani chromocentre diplotene stage dipterans endoreduplication puffs larval anatomy environment and genetics polyphenism dna methylation and diet chi sex-linked inheritance square reciprocal cross f1 generation importance of virgin females culturing of d.melanogaster culture media interaction of genes x-z and y-z planes pinhole aperture marvin minsky confocal laser scanning microscopy (clsm) theories of cancer genesis positive and negative selection embryonic stem cell method microinjection transfection transgene transgenic organism experiment immunotheraphy tumor suppressor genes oncogenes radiation pollution human health john craig venter synthetic genomics medicine gooseberry facebook astrocytes play a key role in drosophila mushroom mushroom body in drosophila brain. weizmann institute of science axon pruning yaniv hakim
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