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  1. 1. Sport PR and the Media Jose Mourinho S t u d e n t I D : 3 7 7 6 2 5 2 S p o r t M a r k e t i n g C o v e n t r y U n i v e r s i t y L u c y j 2 @ u n i . c o v e n t r y . a c . u k 3 / 2 2 / 2 0 1 4 Joshua James Lucy Because of what happened at a recent press conference, Chelsea FC's Manager, Jose Mourinho has recently been accused of being the ‘not so special one’ (Telegraph. 2014). The use of theoretical models will help the writer identify the relationship between Mourinho and the media. I will deconstruct the incident using these models and offer conclusions and suggest recommendations in relation to the incident.
  2. 2. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 1 | P a g e Contents Stage 1.........................................................................................................................................2 Introduction............................................................................................................................. 2 Stage 2.........................................................................................................................................3 Situational Analysis................................................................................................................... 3 PESTEL & SWOT Analysis........................................................................................................3 Benchmarking....................................................................................................................... 3 Marketing Mix & Promotional Mix.......................................................................................... 4 Stakeholder Mapping................................................................................................................ 5 The Media – Dangerous.........................................................................................................5 Roman Abramovich – Definitive............................................................................................. 5 General Public - Dormant.......................................................................................................5 Categorising Publics.................................................................................................................. 6 All-Issue Publics..................................................................................................................... 6 Apathetic Publics................................................................................................................... 6 Single-Issue Publics................................................................................................................ 6 Hot-Issue Publics................................................................................................................... 6 Stage 3 & 4...................................................................................................................................7 Conclusion & Recommendations ............................................................................................... 7 Conclusion One..................................................................................................................... 7 Recommendation One...........................................................................................................7 Conclusion Two..................................................................................................................... 7 Recommendation Two...........................................................................................................7 Appendices ..................................................................................................................................9 References................................................................................................................................. 18 Online References................................................................................................................... 18 Academic References.............................................................................................................. 19 Video References (BT Sport Promotion of the Game & Special Moment).................................... 19
  3. 3. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 2 | P a g e Stage 1 Introduction The assignment will be split into several stages to help structure the report; Stage 1 shows a description of the key feature and/or critical incident which the report will be based on. Stage 2 will show the writer deconstructing the case study through the use of relevant theoretical models to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of all selected key features and/or critical incidents. Stages 3 & 4 will propose conclusions and recommendations based on findings from the report. I will critically analyse the importance of Chelsea FC developing a good working relationship between themselves and the media. More specifically, I will be using Chelsea's Manager, Jose Mourinho as the primary case study and identify what implications he has on the club's Public Relations (PR). The report will identify where Chelsea FC sits today as a business in the global market. To achieve this, I will be employing the use of theoretical models which will give the reader a clearer understanding of the organisation (Chelsea FC), and later on in the report will help to support my conclusions and recommendations. In England, Chelsea FC, are currently 1st in the Premier League table, meaning they are in the driving seat when it comes to media attention. Mourinho, is known for his arrogant and somewhat stubborn personality. He is famously recognised by the British media as the “Special One”. Mourinho, became known by this # tag when he first met with the British media upon joining the club in 2004. In a press conference he stated, "Please don't call me arrogant, but I'm European champion and I think I'm a special one" (BBC. 2004). When talking to the media, I believe it to be clear that Mourinho is the face of Chelsea FC. All issues concerning the club come through Mourinho himself. As the face of the club he must therefore accept full responsibility for what he says; which may, on occasion jeopardise himself and/or the reputation of Chelsea FC. Due to the global power of the media in today’s world of professional sport, any negative publicity, no matter how big or small, can be magnified into a huge problem for a premier league level club or an individual athlete. In a recent match, which saw Chelsea defeat Manchester City (Favourites to win the league) away from home, questions were asked by the media as to exactly what Mourinho had said to the team during the (half time) pre-match interval. According to a report in The Telegraph Mourinho said, “I didn’t speak [before the game], it was Billy the Masseur who spoke to the team. He was screaming so much in Scottish – grrr, grrr, grrr – that I didn’t understand him. I am serious! But the players were clapping. It was Billy’s team-talk and he was fantastic. I didn’t understand but it looks like the players understood. The last time I spoke to the
  4. 4. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 3 | P a g e players was midday.” (Telegraph. 2014) This left people questioning Mourinho’s managerial capabilities, with the media referring to Mourinho as the “Not so special one” (Telegraph, 2014.) This report will demonstrate to the reader how Chelsea FC capitalised on this situation in the media by turning it into a successful promotion for the following game against Everton FC. Stage 2 Situational Analysis Using a situational analysis I will be able to identify the Chelsea FC’s current situation. Using PESTEL analysis, SWOT analysis, and benchmarking I will be able to have a better understanding of the company, which will help support my conclusion recommendations later on in the report. PESTEL & SWOT Analysis Using a PESTAL analysis of the company will help me analyse and monitor external marketing factors that may have an impact on Chelsea FC. I will be able to identify threats and weaknesses which will be shown in the SWOT analysis, recognising their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats as an organisation. See Appendix 1 & 2 for PESTEL & SWOT Analysis. Benchmarking Spendolini (1992) considers that “benchmarking should be viewed as a systematic and ongoing evaluation of products, services and organizational processes recognized as the best and necessary for organizational improvements. These are compared to the best competitors in the industry.” In order for Chelsea to benchmark efficiently, I believe there are two points to consider, which are; a) fulfilling the financial fair play rule and b) building the reputation of the youth system at the club. With regards to the financial fair play rule, I believe Chelsea should use Arsenal as a team to compare with. Arsenal created a business plan which has been efficient for many years, in terms of maintaining a profit season to season. For example, the Telegraph (2014) shows Arsenal’s and Chelsea’s profit margins from the past two seasons. Arsenal: 2011/12: £36.6 million profit Chelsea: 2011/12: £1.4m profit Arsenal: 2012/13: £6.7m profit Chelsea: 2012/13: £49.4m loss “They may not have won anything for almost nine years but, as far as Uefa’s Financial Fair Play regulations (FFP) is concerned, Arsenal are the undisputed champions of England.” (Telegraph, 2014)
  5. 5. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 4 | P a g e The Telegraph (2014) mentions, Arsenal haven’t won a single trophy over the past 9 years. However, they have built a solid structure at the club and used their resources efficiently to get the best out of their team, whilst at the same time being able to maintain a top 4 finish. With regards to Chelsea creating a solid youth system(which I believe they currently in the process of doing), they don’t allow enough young players to break through to give them an opportunity in the senior team. This has led to the club spending a lot of money on European players who are already at their peak performance to come to the club. This simply means that Chelsea aren’t being efficient with their resources, which in the long run puts the club into major debt. Marketing Mix & Promotional Mix Webster (1992) identifies the Marketing Mix "as controllable parameters likely to influence the consumer buying process and decisions" (Webster. 1992). In this case a method used to influence the consumer to use the promotional advert in order to make a decision on whether or not to watch the match. Somroop, S (2010) finds that the use of Promotional Mix in business is a method used “to gain edge over the competition”. In relation to the incident, this promotional attempt was attracted the public into tuning in to watch the Chelsea v Everton game over all other games played on that particular day. Using the Marketing Mix (See Appendix 3) I will only need to use one aspect of the 4P’s in relation to the Mourinho incident, this is ‘Promotion’. Promotion is usually connected to a product; however this type of promotion is purely based on a situation which occurred on Tuesday 4th February 2014?. This is also good use of two Promotional Mix aspects; Direct Marketing and Sales Promotion. (See Appendix 4) By Mourinho stating that his Masseur had given the half time team talk, the media used the incident to identify Mourinho as the ‘not so special one’. However, Chelsea FC and BT Sport came together and created a promotional video advertisement to attract the public into watching Chelsea’s following game against Everton. This video was used to divert the attention that was put on Mourinho through his open honesty during a press conference, by flipping what he had said, turning it into a humorous promotional advertisement, in order to promote the next game. (See Appendix 5 & References for Video) This was a clever piece of promotional marketing by Chelsea FC , as one of the biggest financial incomes for a football club today is from broadcasting. “Domestic broadcast revenue is divided on a 50:25:25 basis; 50% is divided equally between the clubs; 25% is awarded on a merit basis determined by a club’s final league position and the final 25% is distributed as a facilities fee for the number of matches shown on television involving the club.” (Premier League, 2014) The advert is also identified as a form of direct marketing as it primarily targets sports fans all around the world. Furthermore the advertisement is seen as
  6. 6. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 5 | P a g e a direct response. Once the promotional advert has been seen by the customer, their direct response will be to either have an interest in watching the game or not. Stakeholder Mapping The most influential stakeholders during the given incident are: the media, Chelsea FC, and the general public. Mitchell, et. al. (1997) came up with a model which categorises stakeholders into the following (See Appendix 6). Appendix 6 will also show the reader all the main stakeholders connected with the organisation. The Media – Dangerous The media are seen as a ‘Dangerous’ type of stakeholder in this situation as they have the power to use a ‘take-down piece’. Meaning the media are able to find a negative story from one that doesn’t exist, for example by Mourinho stating that he didn’t do a half time team talk during the Manchester City game it was blown way out of proportion. Whereby, the next day the papers were calling him the “not so special one” (Telegraph. 2014). Mourinho didn’t react to the media’s response of calling him “not so special one” (Telegraph. 2104) as this would have been a negative and childish response. Another example of a case where truth would not be beneficial, and a reaction is needed during/after a press conference/interview would be the Alan Pardew recent head-butt incident with Hull City’s David Meyler. After the event Alan Pardew told the media “I didn’t mean to do anything aggressive” (Telegraph. 2014) However, during the incident you could see the anger and frustration in Alan Pardew’s face and could see that he had every intention to act aggressively towards David Meyler (See Appendix 7). Therefore, when using the ‘Crisis Communication Strategies Image Repair Discourse Theory’ theory two (See Appendix 8) states that the witness tries to evade responsibility for his actions i.e. had no control over the action and it was an accident. Nevertheless, I believe that Alan Pardew did the correct thing by accepting he had done wrong. “He had admitted the charge and later revealed he was prepared to accept whatever penalty came his way.” (Mirror. 2014) Roman Abramovich – Definitive Roman Abramovich is seen as a ‘Definitive’ stakeholder in not just this incident but for the club in general, as the owner of the club he has the final say in all matters. Mitchell, et. al. (1997) defines a definitive stakeholder as; “Stakeholder salience will be high where all three of the stakeholder attributes-power, legitimacy, and urgency-are perceived by managers to be present.” (Mitchell. 1997) Roman Abramovich has the power to act upon the situation in a punitive manner towards Mourinho. However on this occasion the incident wasn’t worth punishing. Unlike the Alan Pardew incident where the owner of Newcastle United could have been forced to fire the Manager because of his actions. General Public - Dormant The general public are also key stakeholders in this situation, as all press conferences are held so that the general public have an understanding of what is going on with the club.
  7. 7. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 6 | P a g e Because an incident is often witnessed live on television, the general public have the ability to observe what happens and make a decision on what to do with that information once it’s over. However, previously mentioned, the media have the power to perform a ‘take-down piece’. So, for those members of the general public whom didn’t watch the press conference, they can read about it the next day from a journalist’s perspective. This gives the general public ‘power’, making them a ‘Dormant’ stakeholder, as they have the power of judgement. Having watched the press conference and heard what Mourinho had said, I was both surprised and disappointed. In my opinion Mourinho is one of the best motivational managers around, and to hear that he didn’t in fact do it, disappoints me. Categorising Publics (See Appendix 9) Grunig and Hunt (1984) & Beech and Chadwick (2007) both identify four categories. Using Beech and Chadwick’s approach to categorising publics, I will identify the four types of publics and relate them to the given incident/case study. All-Issue Publics All issue publics in this given incident would be the Chelsea Fan Base. As anything Jose Mourinho and Chelsea do in the media will always have an effect on a Chelsea Fan in some way or another i.e. as previously mentioned being a Chelsea Fan myself, I was disappointed. Apathetic Publics In this given incident an Apathetic public would be the Cameramen who, probably have no interest in Chelsea or the Sport. However, being as it is their duty to be present during the press conference they become an Apathetic. Single-Issue Publics With the wide spread of nationalities in the Chelsea Team, some players struggle with the English language, and therefore have difficulty understanding a Scottish Masseur giving the half time team talk. So the single-Issue public could be a player such as Samuel Eto who struggles to comprehend English. Hot-Issue Publics A Hot-Issue public would be the journalist from the Telegraph who labelled Mourinho as the “Not so special one”, as this involves the population that read the article.
  8. 8. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 7 | P a g e Stage 3 & 4 Conclusion & Recommendations Conclusion One Although Mourinho is a great character to have in the Premier League, I believe that he should think carefully before he addresses press conferences/interviews. On this occasion what he said wasn’t so bad. However in other situations, like the Arsène Wenger incident where Mourinho accused the Frenchmen of being “Specialist in Failure” (Guardian. 2014); or the situation between him and Carlo Ancelotti when “during Mourinho's first season in Italy with Internazionale in 2008-09 the then AC Milan manager Ancelotti described his rival as "lacking respect" after Mourinho was sent off for storming on to the pitch in protest at a refereeing decision during a match against Sampdoria.” (Guardian. 2014) With incidents such as these, he is giving Chelsea FC a bad name. Recommendation One Regarding the case study I believe as a manager, Mourinho is able to incorporate benchmarking as a strategy into his line of work. For example when it comes to great managers, the name Sir Alex Ferguson comes to mind. Sir Alex Ferguson was the Manager of Manchester United during the period of 1986 to 2013. He is considered to be one of the most respected managers of all time, winning almost 40 trophies for the club. Alex Ferguson was respected for staying loyal to the club for 27 years through it's good and bad times. Sir Alex Ferguson never had a major dispute with the owners of the club. However, after just two years in charge (2004-2007) Mourinho parted ways with Chelsea FC, the BBC had this to say; "Chelsea Football Club and Jose Mourinho have agreed to part company today (Thursday 20th September) by mutual consent." (BBC, 2007) With regards to Mourinho wanting to keep his job at Chelsea FC, I believe he should consider using Sir Alex Ferguson as his role model by developing a healthy relationship with Roman Abramovich. Referring to what Spendolini (1992) stated earlier on in the report, this would be a method which Mourinho could use to improve his managerial career and his future progression with Chelsea FC. Conclusion Two After the incident Chelsea FC's marketing team in collaboration with BT Sport focused on the incident with Mourinho and his Masseur, and created a promotional video for the game against Everton to increase TV ratings. I consider this to be a very clever marketing strategy for both Chelsea FC and BT Sport, using bad publicity and turning it into a beneficial marketing piece for the club. Recommendation Two Mourinho has such a strong personality which has in some cases given himand Chelsea FC a bad reputation. However, in this particular incident Mourinoh’s big mouth paid off as it
  9. 9. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 8 | P a g e turned into a clever piece of marketing. My recommendation is that Chelsea should capitalise on Mourinoh’s personality more , using any similar incidents and turning them into promotional opportunities to increase ratings and potential supporters. i.e. the afore mentioned incident between Arsène Wenger and Jose Mourinho, using the quote “Failure Specialist” and bringing it up in preparation to the game between Chelsea and Arsenal this weekend on 22nd March, in a video where the narratormentions “who will be the Failure specialist this time? Find out this coming Saturday between the match Chelsea vs Arsenal” with a video of the two managers going head to head from previous games showing their emotions. A method in which you're turning a negative (Mourinho’s big personality) into a positive (Promotional opportunity).
  10. 10. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 9 | P a g e Appendices Appendix 1 Chelsea FC PESTEL Analysis Political Economic Social Technological Environmental Legal As the FA are the official governing body of all football to do with England. A recent political factor which has effected Chelsea FC is: Financial Fair Play: Whereby, all football clubs arerestricted to how much they can and can’t spend duringthe transfer windows. This is to help prevent teams such as Chelsea FC who have a huge amount of money, from bringingin all the best players from around the world. So that the teams in the Premier League areat a similar standard. Since2003 all of Chelsea FC’s financial problems had been wiped clear,and ever since have had the luxury of being one of the wealthiestclubs in the world. This is due to the takeover of Roman Abramovich, Russian Multi billionairebusinessmen. With the UK in economic crisis at this moment in time, the club are still chargingsubstantial amounts of money for tickets. Accordingto the Guardian Newspaper Chelsea FC are charging£1250 for a season ticket, the third most expensive in the league. Whereas Manchester City FC are charging£780,a team who are arguably the best team in the league. (Guardian.2013) Chelsea FC for many years now have been at the top tier of English football and for the past10/11 years they have been top 4 in English football.This means in society today Chelsea FC are one of the best teams to watch in Europe and rest of world. So although economically England are in financial crisis,this doesn’tstop Chelsea FC being able to chargehigh priced tickets to their games, because of this status they have builtup from over the past10 years. Technology in football recently went through a huge change, with the introduction of goal-line technology. With the new lawthat all stadiums in the top tier of English football (Barclays Premier League) have to be fitted with goal-line technology, Stamford Bridge have had the new high end technology installed around their stadium. The new technology was paid for by the FA, which means Chelsea FC are seen as an important assetto football here in the UK. Accordingto the Standard Newspaper Chelsea FC are “one of the most environmentally friendly organisations in London.” (Standard.2009) Again accordingto the Standard Chelsea FC where even honoured in Boris Johnson’s “green Awards” for encouragingup to 42,000 supporters to use public transportto get to and from Stamford Bridge. Chelsea FC also identify on their website that they are“committed to treating all relevant legal and environmental legislation and guidelines as a minimum requirement and will seek to exceed them wherever possible.” (ChelseaFC. 2014) Chelsea FC likeany other organisation within theUK has to followall rulesand regulations setby the UK government. This means: all health and safety procedures are set in and around the ground; the organisation promotes equal opportunity on their website identifying “Chelsea FC Plc is an equal opportunities employer. We aim to ensure that no job applicant, employee, or worker s is discriminated against on the grounds of a 'protected characteristic'.” (ChelseaFC. 2014)
  11. 11. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 10 | P a g e Appendix 2 SWOT Analysis Strengths  Chelsea FC has a strong global brand name which will givethem that competitive edge over other similarbands,such as Manchester United.  The club have excellent marketing, global brand presence and high quality merchandisingwhich will help to keep increasingtheir fan base, which in return increases club revenue.  They have had sponsorshipsfrombigbrands likeAdidas,Samsung,188Bet, EA Sports, which helps creating the high quality mer chandisethey have to offer.  The club has huge financial support fromRoman Abramovich which helps bringstar players to the team to help improve their chances on winningsilver ware,improve the quality of facilities,better staff etc.  Chelsea FC is situated in the capital of England and a wealthy partof London, which gives them a competitive edge over global supporters, players potentially wantingto join a team in the UK, and more touristinterest.  Increased brand exposure due to the fact that Chelsea FC are seen as a top sustainableorganisation in London. Weaknesses  Chelsea’s stadium‘Stamford Bridge’ has a capacity of only 42,000, for a successful teamlikeChelsea this needs to be greater. An increasein stadiumsizecould lead to the club getting a 5 star UEFA ratingon their stadiumwhich will givethem a chance to host cup finals,which will in the long run increasethe clubs revenue.  Chelsea’s highly priced tickets could affect attendance levels at match’s dues to the recession. Opportunities  Tappinginto the global fan baselikeIndia,China,and USA to increaserevenue.  More advertisingand brand visibility would help build on brand equity.  Improve on youth system to bringthrough better quality players,increase brand exposuretowards younger players,savemoney on increasingthequality of the firstteam. Threats  Other top clubs buyingout good players situated at Chelsea FC. For example, Eden Hazard a current key player for Chelsea FC has been recognised by top elite European teams such as;Real Madrid,PSG and Barcelona who would all likehis signatureto take hi m away from Chelsea FC in the summer. “Asked abouta possible move to the Spanish giants Hazard responded: "Who would not be interested in Real Madrid?" (Express. 2014)  Internal problems between players and management. With so many bigpersonalitiesatChelsea FC such as JoseMourinho himself and the differences in player wages and abilities,theclub could see a huge uproar in the dressingroomat any given time.  Financial debts incurred dueto expensive player transfers and salaries.
  12. 12. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 11 | P a g e Appendix 3 MarketingMix Promotion is the business of communicating with customers. It will provide information that will assist them into making a decision to purchase a product or service, in this particular situation a service.
  13. 13. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 12 | P a g e Appendix 4 Promotional Mix
  14. 14. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 13 | P a g e Appendix 5 Picture evidence of the Chelsea Masseurduring the advert. (See Reference for Video)
  15. 15. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 14 | P a g e Appendix 6 Type of Stakeholder Stakeholder Dormant General Public Discretionary Samsung Free Kicks for Kids Demanding Chelsea Fans that Protest Dominant Chelsea Directors Dangerous Media Dependent Chelsea FC Supporters Trust Definitive Roman Abramovich
  16. 16. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 15 | P a g e Appendix 7
  17. 17. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 16 | P a g e Appendix 8 Evasion of Responsibility Responding to an earlier incident Defeasibility – had no control over the action Accident Good intentions went wrong Image Repair Discourse Theory (2)
  18. 18. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 17 | P a g e Appendix 9
  19. 19. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 18 | P a g e References Online References The Telegraph Staff. (2014). Manchester City v Chelsea: Jose Mourinho hands team-talk to masseur. Available: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/football/competitions/premier- league/10615728/Manchester-City-v-Chelsea-Jose-Mourinho-hands-team-talk-to- masseur.html. Last accessed 19th Mar 2014. The Guardian Staff. (2013). Premier League ticket prices: which clubs charge the most?. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2013/jun/19/premier-league- ticket-prices-club-charge-the-most. Last accessed 19th Mar 2014. Barney, K. (2009). Chelsea named greenest football club, despite players' high carbon emissions . Available: http://www.standard.co.uk/news/chelsea-named-greenest-football- club-despite-players-high-carbon-emissions-6726943.html. Last accessed 20th Mar 2014. Chelsea FC Staff. (2014). CHELSEA FC FULL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY. Available: http://www.chelseafc.com/foundation-article/article/1658262. Last accessed 20th Mar 2014. Chelsea FC Staff. (2014). EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES. Available: http://www.chelseafc.com/fullwidth-article/article/1387420/title/equal-opportunities. Last accessed 20th Mar 2014. Jefferson, B. (2014). Eden Hazard happy at Chelsea for now... but admits PSG dream and Real Madrid ambition. Available: http://www.express.co.uk/sport/football/460738/Eden- Hazard-happy-at-Chelsea-for-now-but-admits-PSG-dream-and-Real-Madrid-ambition. Last accessed 19th Mar 2014. Rumsby, B. (2014). Uefa’s Financial Fair Play: Premier League club analysis. Available: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/football/competitions/champions- league/10676021/Uefas-Financial-Fair-Play-Premier-League-club-analysis.html. Last accessed 16th Mar 2014. BBC Sport Staff. (2007). Mourinho makes shock Chelsea exit . Available: http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/c/chelsea/7003912.stm. Last accessed 17th Mar 2014. Premier League Staff. (2014). Frequently Asked Questions. Available: http://www.premierleague.com/en-gb/fans/faqs/how-much-clubs-receive-broadcast- money.html. Last accessed 19th Mar 2014.
  20. 20. 313SEM JoshuaLucy StudentID:3776252 19 | P a g e Richards, A. (2014). Alan Pardew's headbutt apology helped Newcastle boss escape even longer ban, FA reveals. Available: http://www.mirror.co.uk/sport/football/news/newcastle- united-news-alan-pardew-3259697. Last accessed 20th Mar 2014. McMahon, T & Stanley, F. (2014). José Mourinho's spats: from 'Wenger the voyeur' to blasting Benítez. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/football/2014/feb/14/jose- mourinho-managerial-spats-arsene-wenger. Last accessed 20th Mar 2014. Academic References Beech, J & Chadwick, S (2007). The Marketing of Sport. Essex: Pearson Education. p304-306. Mitchell, R & Wood, D. (1997). Academy of Management Review. Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts. Vol. 22 (No. 4), p853-886. Spendolini, M. (1992), The benchmarking Book, AMACON (a division of the American Management Association), New York, NY. Somroop, S. (2010). Promotional Mix and Corporate Performance. An Empirical Study. Vol. 14 (1), p97-110. Webster, F.E. (1992), "The changing role of marketing in the corporation ".Journal of Marketing, Vol. 56, (4), p1-17. Video References (BTSport Promotionofthe Game & Special Moment) BT Sport. (2014). Chelsea FC & BT Sport Promotion. Available: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tf9ahhicfb4 . Last accessed 18th Mar 2014. ChelseaTV.(2003). The Special One. Available:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pybQAg2YUxY. Last accessed19th Mar 2014.

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