2. Since the establishment of national council for teacher education (NCTE)
various changes in teacher training programme have been witnessed.
Practice teaching is given remarkable importance in B. Ed., As only it can
make the student teachers tend to be perfect and competent teachers.
Initially the student teachers are given practice of simulated teaching in
which they have to teach other student teachers of their peer groups who act
as school’s students. It is believed that such simulated practice teaching is
very much helpful in developing confidence of the student teachers and to
make them face different type of classroom situation effectively.
BACKGROUND OF SIMULATED LESSONS
4. ADVANCE ORGANIZER MODEL
DAVID PAUL AUSUBEL
Ausubel was born on October 25, 1918 and grew up in Brooklyn,
Ausubel earned his M.A. and Ph.D. in developmental Psychology
from Columbia University in 1950. He continued to hold a series
of professorships at several schools of education.
Ausubel retired from professional life in 1994 to devote himself
full time, at the age of 75, to writing. He wrote four books.
Ausubel died on July 9, 2008.
Ausubel was influenced by the teachings of Jean Piaget
5. 1. “David Ausubel theorized that people acquire knowledge primarily by being exposed
directly to it rather than through discovery” .
2. Similarly, he believed in the idea of meaningful learning as opposed to rote
memorization. In the preface.
3. Ausubel believed that understanding concepts, principles, and ideas are achieved
through deductive reasoning.
4. The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already
knows. Ascertain this and teach him accordingly” .
5. Through his belief of meaningful learning, Ausubel developed his theory of advance
BELIEFS OF DAVID AUSUBEL
6. MEANINGFUL LEARNING
To learn meaningfully, individuals must relate new
knowledge to relevant concepts they already know. New
knowledge must interact with the learner’s knowledge
7. WHAT IS ADVANCE ORGANIZER MODEL
An advance organizer is information processing
family of model. It is presented by an
instructor(teacher) that helps the student to
organize new incoming information.
This is achieved by
a. directing attention to what is important in the
b. highlighting relationships,
c. and providing a reminder about relevant prior
8. GOAL/ AIM OF ADVANCE ORGANISER
The aim of advance organizer model is to strengthen
students’ cognitive structures- their knowledge of a
particular subject at any given time and how well organized
, clear, and stable that knowledge is.
10. ROLE OF TEACHER
1. The teacher plays the role of organizer of subject matter
and presents information through lectures, readings,
and providing tasks to the learner to integrate what has
2. In this approach teacher is responsible for organizing
and presenting what is to be learned.
11. ROLE OF STUDENT/LEARNER
The learner’s primary role is to master ideas and
information. Whereas, inductive approaches lead the
students to discover or rediscover concepts, the advance
organizers provide concepts and principles to the
students directly through deductive approach.
12. ORGANIZING INFORMATION
According to Ausubel there is a way subject matter is organized.
He expresses the view that each of the academic disciplines has a
structure of concepts that are organized hierarchically. At the top
of each discipline are a number of very broad, abstract concepts
that include the more concrete concepts at lower stages of
13. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS
The most general ideas of the discipline are presented first, followed by a gradual increase in
detail and specificity.
It means that a new idea should be consciously related to previously learned content.
The sequence of the teaching should be so organized that each successive learning is
carefully related to what has been presented before.
If the entire body of material has been conceptualized and presented according to progressive differentiation,
integrative reconciliation follows naturally, though it requires the learner’s active co- operation.
14. TYPES OF AO
Expository organizers- Comparative
These organizers provide a basic concept These organizers provide
at the highest level of abstraction and some familiar material. They are
Lesser concepts towards the end. To discriminate between the
and new concepts.
15. TIPS FOR THE EXECUTION OF AOM
Before introducing students to the learning material, however, the
teacher provides introductory material in the form of an advance
organizer to help them relate to the new data.
Advance organizer is an introductory material presented ahead of
the learning task and at a higher level of abstraction.
16. Syntax of Advance Organizer Model
Step 1- Presentation of the organizer.
Step 2- Presentation of the learning task
Step 3-Strengthening Cognitive
17. STEP 1- PRESENTATION OF THE ORGANIZER.
1. Did the teacher clarify the aims of the presentation?
2. Was an advance organizer presented?
3. Did the organizer presentation identify, clarify, or explain the essential
characteristics of the concept or proposition that serves as the organizer?
4. Was the language or terms of the subsumer(organizer) repeated or otherwise
5. Did the teacher prompt awareness of relevant knowledge or experience in the
learner’s back grounds?
18. STEP 2- PRESENTATION OF THE LEARNING TASK
1. Was the learning material presented?
2. Did the teacher develop the material in the logical order of the learning
material and make the order explicit to the student- for instance, the rough
outlines and explanations?
3. Did the teacher use procedures that enhanced the organization of the
presentation, such as rule- example- rule, explaing links, diagrams, and vernal
markers of importance?
4. Did the teacher use procedures for maintaining attention, such as varying
audio stimuli, using supplementary media, and inserting questions into the
19. STEP 3-STRENGTHENING COGNITIVE ORGANIZATION
1. Did the teacher use principles of integrative reconciliation?
2. Did the teacher ask questions and make explanations that
promoted active reception learning?
3. Did the teacher facilitate a critical approach to information?
4. Did the teacher attempt to clarify students’ misunderstandings of