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  1. 1. Martha rogers ‘s theory
  2. 2. Introduction • Born :May 12, 1914, Dallas, Texas • Diploma :Knoxville General Hospital School of Nursing(1936) • Graduation in Public Health Nursing, George Peabody College, TN, 1937 • MA :Teachers college, Columbia university, New York, 1945 • MPH :Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore,
  3. 3. Introduction • Doctorate in nursing :Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1954 • Fellowship: American academy of nursing • Position: Professor Emerita, Division of Nursing, New York University, Consultant, Speaker • Died : March 13 , 1994
  4. 4. Publications of Martha Rogers • Theoretical basis of nursing (Rogers 1970) • Nursing science and art :a prospective (Rogers 1988) • Nursing :science of unitary, irreducible, human beings update (Rogers 1990) • Vision of space based nursing (Rogers 1990
  5. 5. Rogers nursing theory • Nursing is both a science and art. the uniqueness of nursing, like that of any other science, lies in the phenomenon central to its focus. • Nurses long established concern with the people and the world they live is in a natural forerunner of an organized abstract system encompassing people and the environments. • The irreducible nature of individuals is different from the sum of the parts.
  6. 6. Rogers nursing theory • The integral ness of people and the environment that coordinate with a multidimensional universe of open systems points to a new paradigm :the identity of nursing as a science. • The purpose of nurses is to promote health and well-being for all persons wherever they are.
  7. 7. Evolution of abstract system • The development of the abstract system was strongly influenced by an early grounding in arts and background of science and her keen interest in space • The science of unitary human beings originated as a synthesis of facts and ideas from multiple sources of knowledge
  8. 8. • The uniqueness is in the central phenomena : people and environment • The Rogerian view of a causality emerges from an infinite universe
  9. 9. Overview of Rogerian model • Rogers model provides the way of viewing the unitary human being • Humans are viewed as integral with the universe • The unitary human being and the environment are one ,not dichotomous • Nursing focus on people and the manifestations that emerge from the mutual human /environmental field process
  10. 10. • Change of pattern and organization of the human field and the environmental field is propagated by waves • The manifestations of the field patterning that emerge are observable events • The identification of the pattern provide knowledge and understanding of human experience
  11. 11. • Basic characteristics which describes the life process of human :energy field, openness, pattern, and pan dimensionality • Basic concepts include unitary human being ,environment, and homeodynamic principles
  12. 12. Concepts of Rogers model • Energy field • The energy field is the fundamental unit of both the living and nonliving • This energy field "provide a way to perceive people and environment as irreducible wholes" • The energy fields continuously varies in intensity, density, and extent
  13. 13. Concepts of Rogers model • Openness • The human field and the environmental field are constantly exchanging their energy • There are no boundaries or barrier that inhibit energy flow between fields.
  14. 14. Concepts of Rogers model • Pattern • Pattern is defined as the distinguishing characteristic of an energy field perceived as a single waves • "pattern is an abstraction and it gives identity to the field"
  15. 15. Concepts of Rogers model • Pan dimensionality • Pan dimensionality is defined as "non linear domain without spatial or temporal attributes" • The parameters that human use in language to describe events are arbitrary. • The present is relative ;there is no temporal ordering of lives.
  16. 16. • Unitary Human Being (person) • A unitary human being is an "irreducible, indivisible, pan dimensional (four-dimensional) energy field identified by pattern and manifesting characteristics that are specific to the whole and which cannot be predicted from knowledge of the parts" and "a unified whole having its own distinctive characteristics which cannot be perceived by looking at , describing, or summarizing the parts"
  17. 17. • Environment • The environment is an "irreducible ,pan dimensional energy field identified by pattern and integral with the human field" • The field coexist and are integral. Manifestation emerge from this field and are perceived.
  18. 18. • Health • Rogers defined health as an expression of the life process; they are the "characteristics and behavior emerging out of the mutual, simultaneous interaction of the human and environmental fields" • Health and illness are the part of the sane continuum.
  19. 19. • Nursing • The concept Nursing encompasses two dimensions • Independent science of nursing • An organized body of knowledge which is specific to nursing is arrived at by scientific research and logical analysis
  20. 20. • Art of nursing practice • The creative use of science for the betterment of the human The creative use of its knowledge is the art of its practice
  21. 21. Assumptions about people and nursing • Nursing exists to serve people………..it is the direct and overriding responsibility to the society • The safe practice of nursing depends on the nature and amount of scientific nursing knowledge the individual brings to practice…….the imaginative, intellectual judgment with which such knowledge is made in service to the man kind • People needs knowledgeable nursing
  22. 22. Homeodynamic principles • The principles of homeodynamic postulates the way of perceiving unitary human beings • The fundamental unit of the living system is an energy field • Three principle of homeodynamic • Resonancy • Helicy • integrality
  23. 23. • Resonance • Resonance is an ordered arrangement of rhythm • characterizing both human field and environmental • field that undergoes continuous dynamic • metamorphosis in the human environmental process
  24. 24. • Helicy • Helicy describes the unpredictable, but continuous, nonlinear evolution of energy fields as evidenced by non repeating rhythmicties • The principle of Helicy postulates an ordering of the humans evolutionary emergence
  25. 25. • Integrality • Integrality cover the mutual, continuous relationship of the human energy field and the environmental field . • Changes occur by by the continuous repatterning of the human and environmental fields by resonance waves • The fields are one and integrated but unique to each other
  26. 26. Rogers concepts of nursing • Nursing is a learned profession-it is a science and art • Nursing is the study of unitary. Irreducible, indivisible human and environmental energy fields • The art of nursing involves the imaginative and creative use of nursing knowledge
  27. 27. • The purpose of nurses is to promote health and well-being for all person and groups wherever they are using the art and science of nursing • The health services should be community based • Rogers challenges nurses to consider nursing needs of all people ,including future generation of space kind ;as life continuous to evolve from earth to space and beyond.
  28. 28. • Her view provides a different world view that encompasses a practice of nursing for the present time and for the imagined and for the yet to be imagined future • Rogers envisions a nursing practice of noninvasive modalities, such as therapeutic touch, humor, guided imagery, use of color, light, music, meditation focusing on health potential of the person.
  29. 29. • Professional practice in nursing seeks to promote symphonic interaction between man and environment, to strengthen the coherence and integrity of the human field, and to direct and redirect patterning of the human and environmental fields for realization of maximum health potential
  30. 30. • Nursing aims to assist people in achieving their maximum potential. • Nursing practice should be emphasized on pain management, supportive psychotherapy motivation for rehabilitation. • Maintenance and promotion of health, prevention of disease, nursing diagnosis, intervention, and rehabilitation encompasses the scope of nursing
  31. 31. Rules for independent practitioner guided by Rogerian model • Nursing is an independent science • Nurse assumes the role of potentiater of care • She proposes the independent role in various setting like school, industry, community, space (by 2050AD) • Independent practitioner is an advanced practice registered registered nurse who focus on well- being or mutual patterning of individual, family, community across the life span ,at risk for developing dissonance/illness
  32. 32. Areas of Rogerian model application
  33. 33. Rules for nursing research guided by the Rogerian theory • The Rogerian research require both basic and applied research • The phenomena to be studied are unitary human beings and their environmental interaction • Study participants may be any person or group, with the provision that both person and environment are taken into account
  34. 34. Research methodology • Qualitative and quantitative methods can be applied • Experimental researches are questionable because she rejects the notion of causality • Case study and longitudinal research are better than cross sectional study • Research instruments that are directly derived from science of unitary human beings should be used • Data analysis – multivariate analysis (canonical
  35. 35. Research tools derived from science of unitary human beings • Perceived field motion scale • Human field rhythm scale • Temporal experience scale • Assessment of dream experience scale • Person environment participation scale • Leddy healthiness scale
  36. 36. • Mutual exploration of the healing human- environment field scale • Garon assessment of pain scale • Family assessment tool • Community health assessment tool
  37. 37. Rules for nursing education guided by Rogerian theory • Focus of the curriculum • Nursing education can be for professional nursing , technical nursing • The focus is the transmission of the body of knowledge • Teaching and practicing therapeutic touch • Conducting regular in-service education
  38. 38. Nursing programs • Baccalaureate degree program • Masters program • Doctoral program • The major concepts are – principal of Resonancy, Helicy, Integrality • The faculty in the nursing education must be prepared
  39. 39. Teaching- learning strategies • Emphasis should be on developing self awareness as an aspect of the clients environmental energy field and the dynamic role of nurse pattern manifestation on the client • Emphasis on laboratory study- the lab setting include homes, schools, industry, clinics, hospitals, other places where people lives • Importance of use of media in education
  40. 40. Rules for nursing administration guided by Rogerian theory • Purpose of nursing services • Nursing services is the center of any health care system • The purpose of nursing services is health promotion
  41. 41. Characteristics of nursing personnel • The administrators should hold higher degrees in nursing and licensed • Leaders must be visionary and willing to embrace innovative and creative change • Leaders should be able to identify the patterning to ensure the integrated behaviors for client and employees
  42. 42. • Management strategies and administrative policies • Administrative policies foster an open and supportive administrative climate that enhances staff members self esteem , actualization, and freedom of choice and provide opportunity for staff development and continuing education • The ultimate goal is the clients well-being Management strategies and administrative policies •Administrative policies foster an open and supportive administrative climate that enhances staff members self esteem , actualization, and freedom of choice and provide opportunity for staff development and continuing education •The ultimate goal is the clients well-being
  43. 43. Nursing process Assessment • Areas of assessment • Simultaneous states of the individual and the environment • Total pattern of events at any given point in space –time • Rhythms of life process • Supplementary data • Categorical disease entities • Subsystem pathology
  44. 44. • It is a comprehensive assessment of: • Human field patterns of communication, exchange, rhythms, dissonance • Environmental fields pattern of communication, rhythms • Validation of the appraisal • Validate with self • Validate with the client
  45. 45. • Mutual patterning of human and environmental field • Sharing knowledge • Offering choices • Empowering the client • Fostering patterning • Evaluation • Repeat pattern appraisal
  46. 46. • Identify dissonance and harmony • Validate appraisal with the client • Self reflection for the client • Pattern appraisal include appraisal of multiple lifestyle rhythms such as: • Nutrition • Work/leisure activities
  47. 47. • Exercise • Sleep / wake cycles • Discomfort or pain • Fear /hopes • Patterning activities for the client • Meditation Imagery Journaling Modifying the surroundings
  48. 48. Summary
  49. 49. Thank you