What is marketing
Marketing is defined by the American Marketing
Association (AMA) as
"the activity, set of institutions, and processes for
creating, communicating, delivering, and
exchanging offerings that have value for
customers, clients, partners, and society at large."
Advertising and sales promotion play an
important role in the exchange process by
informing consumers about an organisations
product/services and persuading them to
purchase to satisfy their needs and wants.
The Marketing Mix
The marketing mix has been the key concept to
advertising. The marketing mix was suggested by
Jeremy McCarthy, professor at Harvard Business
School, in the 1960s.
The four P’s-
Product, Price, Place(distribution), and Promotion
are the elements of Marketing Mix
Marketers must combine these elements into a
cohesive marketing strategy.
Many companies recognize the need to
integrated their various marketing
efforts, such as media advertising, direct
marketing, sales promotion, and public
relations, to achieve more effective marketing
Integrated Marketing Communications is a term
used to describe a holistic approach to marketing
It aims to ensure consistency of message and
the complementary use of media.
The concept includes online and offline marketing
Online marketing channels include any e-
marketing campaigns or programs, from search
engine optimization (SEO), pay-per-
click, affiliate, email, banner to latest web related
channels for webinar, blog, micro-blogging, face
book marketing, RSS, podcast, Internet Radio
and Internet TV.
Offline marketing channels are traditional print
(newspaper, magazine), mail order, public
relations, industry relations, billboard, radio, and
company develops its integrated marketing
communication programme using all the elements
of the marketing mix (product, price, place, and
An integration of all these promotional tools along
with other components of marketing mix to gain
edge over competitor is called Integrated
Role of Branding
A brand is the personality that identifies a
product, service or company
(name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or
combination of them) and how it relates to key
Customers, Staff, Partners, Investors etc.
With more and more products and services
competing for consideration by customers who
have less and less time to make choices, well
known brand have a major competitive advantage
in today's market.
There are many ways for a company to contact
the customer to provide them the information
about the co:
The challenge is to understand how to use the
various IMC tools in an effective way in a right
Tools of Promotion and Publicity
Any paid form of nonpersonal communication
about an organization, product, service, or idea
by an identified sponsor.
Types of advertising
Television advertising / Music in advertising
Mobile billboard advertising
Traditionally this has not been considered as an
element of promotional mix.
The development of IT and Internet have made
Direct Marketing a very powerful tool in marketing
Channels of Direct Marketing
Direct Marketing is much more than direct mail and
mail order catalog. It involves a verity of activities
Door-to-Door Leaflet Marketing
Direct-response television marketing
The definition of interactive marketing comes from
John Deighton at Harvard, who says interactive
marketing is the ability to address the
customer, remember what the customer says and
address the customer again in a way that
illustrates that we remember what the customer
has told us (Deighton 1996).
Interactive marketing is not synonymous with
online marketing, although interactive marketing
processes are facilitated by internet technology.
Interactive media allow for a back-and-forth flow
of information whereby users can participate in
and modify the form and content of the
information they receive in real time.
Unlike traditional forms of marketing
communication such as advertising, which are
one way oriented, the new media allows users to
perform a verity of functions such as receive and
alter the information and image, make
inquiries, respond to question, and ofcourse
make a purchase.
Although internet is the primary media of
Interactive Marketing, There are other forms
Sales promotion is any initiative undertaken by an
organisation to promote an increase in
sales, usage or trial of a product or service (i.e.
initiatives that are not covered by the other
elements of the marketing communications or
promotions mix). It adds an extra value or
incentive to the sales force, the distributers, or the
ultimate consumer and can simulate immediate
Sales promotions are varied. Often they are
original and creative, and hence a comprehensive
list of all available techniques is virtually
However it can be broken into two major
Consumer oriented sales promotion and
Trade oriented sales promotion
Consumer oriented sales promotion is targeted to
the ultimate user of a product or services and
couponing, samples, premiums, rebates, contests, s
weepstakes, and various point of purchase
Trade oriented sales promotion is targeted towards
marketing intermediaries such as
wholesalers, distributers, and retailers.
Promotion and merchandising allowances, price deals, sales
contests, and trade shows are some of the promotional tool
Non-paid, non-personal communication to
organisation, products, services, idea or image of
the company not directly done under an identified
It usually comes in the form of a news
story, editorial, or announcement about an
organisation and/or its product and services.
An advantage of publicity over other forms of
promotion is its credibility.
Consumers generally tend to be less skeptical
towards favorable information about a product or
service when it comes from a source they believe
Publicity is not always under control of an
orgnisation and is sometimes unfavorable.
Public Relations (or PR) is a field concerned with
maintaining public image for high-profile
people, commercial businesses and
organizations, non-profit associations or
It defined the practice of public relations as "the
art and social science of analyzing
trends, predicting their consequences, counseling
organizational leaders, and implementing planned
programs of action, which will serve both the
organization and the public interest."
Publicity v/s Public Relations
It is important to recognize the distinction
between publicity and public relations.
When an organization systematically plans and
distributes information in an attempt to control
and manage its image and nature of the publicity
it receives, it is really engaged in a function
known as public relations.
“Personal selling is oral communication with
potential buyers of a product with the intention of
making a sale. The personal selling may focus
initially on developing a relationship with the
potential buyer, but will always ultimately end with
an attempt to "close the sale“
Personal selling is one of the oldest forms of
It involves the use of a sales force to support a
push strategy (encouraging intermediaries to buy
the product) or a pull strategy (where the role of
the sales force may be limited to supporting
retailers and providing after-sales service).
Kotler describes six main activities of
a sales force:
(1) Prospecting - trying to find new customers
(2) Communicating - with existing and potential
customers about the product range
(3) Selling - contact with the customer, answering
questions and trying to close the sale
(4) Servicing - providing support and service to the
customer in the period up to delivery and also post-
(5) Information gathering - obtaining information about
the market to feedback into the marketing planning
(6) Allocating - in times of product shortage, the sales
force may have the power to decide how available
stocks are allocated
Analysis of Promotional Program
Promotional department organization
Firm’s ability to implement promotional program
Agency evaluation and selection
Review of previous program results
Consumer behavior analysis
Market segmentation and target marketing
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