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Training and development

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On the mountains of truth you can never climb in vain: either you will reach a point higher up today, or you will be training your powers so that you will be able to climb higher tomorrow.
- Friedrich Nietzsche

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Training and development

  1. 1. Training and Development Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Pancasila Seta A. Wicaksana, M.Psi., Psikolog
  2. 2. Capaian Pembelajaran Akhir capaian pembelajaran dari modul ini adalah : • Mahasiswa dapat memahami konsep Pelatihan dan Pengembangan, isu-isu yang berkembang yang mengharuskan sebuah pelatihan harus dilakukan, Analisis kebutuhan pelatihan hingga evaluasi pelatihan. • Mahasiswa dapat menampilkan ketrampilan dan keahliannya dalam mendisain dan melaksanakan program pelatihan dengan efektif sesuai dengan kebutuhan organisasi dan individu di masa yang akan datang.
  3. 3. Pengantar • Telkomsel, Garuda Indonesia, PT KAI, Pertamina, Bank Mandiri, merupakan beberapa perusahaan yang menggunakan pelatihan dan pengembangannya untuk mendukung organisasi dalam menciptakan daya saing unggul. • Keunggulan/Competitiveness – merujuk pada kemampuan perusahaan dapat mengelola dan mendapatkan market share dalam sebuah industri.
  4. 4. Pengantar • Meskipun dari berbagai industri yang berbeda, penggunaan pelatihan dan pengembangan secara terencana, tepat dan berkelanjutan dapat membuahkan hasil daya saing tinggi di pasar. • Beberapa topik dan bahasan utama dalam kegiatan pelatihan mereka adalah : – customer service – employee retention and growth – doing more with less – quality and productivity
  5. 5. Pengantar • Dampak yang ditimbulkan dari aktifitas pelatihan dan pengembangan mereka adalah : – Meningkatnya bisnis, dan – Peningkatan kualitas pelayanan, dengan – Membekali individu dengan pengetahuan, ketrampilan dan sikap kerja yang dibutuhkan dalam mendukung keberhasilan kerja mereka.
  6. 6. Tradisional Vs Modern • Pandangan tradisional memiliki keyakinan bahwa kepemimpinan dilahirkan sehingga tidak perlu menggunakan pelatihan dan pengembangan karena dianggap akan menghabiskan banyak investasi. • Pandangan Modern memiliki pendekatan bahwak kepemimpinan harus dibuat atau diciptakan, salah satunya melalui media pelatihan dan pengembangan, berinvestasi pada pengembangan SDM adalah keharusan dalam menciptakan daya saing unggul di pasar saat ini.
  7. 7. “ In future, the success of enterprises will depend upon the revolutionary training and development system in human resource management.” - Ajit Kulkarni GM – HR fidelity India “As we live and work in the world of knowledge and skill, every human activity need up-to-date knowledge and required skills to perform it.” - Rohit Bajaj- Head Corporate Affairs – Max New York Life
  8. 8. Pelatihan dan Pengembangan • Pelatihan: – Merupakan sebuah upaya terencana dari organisasi dalam memfasilitasi kebutuhan belajar para karyawannya yang terkait dengan peningkatan kompetensi kerjanya. – Tujuan dari sebuah pelatihan adalah terkuasainya pengetahuan, yang dapat digunakan secara trampil dalam bekerja dan memiliki sikap kerja yang dibutuhkan oleh pekerjaannya. Sehingga dapat tercermin dalam perilaku kerja di setiap harinya. • Pengembangan: – Pendidikan formal, pengalaman kerja, hubungan dan hasil penilaian potensi (kepribadian dan kemampuan) yang dapat mendukung individu dalam menghadapi tantangan masa yang akan datang. Noe, R. A. (2008). Employee Training & Development, 4th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
  9. 9. 9 Tahapan dalam Proses Training 1. Assessing training needs 2. Preparing training plan 3. Specifying training objectives 4. Designing the training program(s) 5. Selecting the instructional methods 6. Completing the training plan 7. Implementing the training program 8. Evaluating the training 9. Planning future training
  10. 10. 10 Model of the Training Process* Assessment Stage Training Stage Evaluation Stage Organizational Needs Assessment Task Need Assessment Development of Training Objectives Design & Select Procedures Measure Training Results Development of Criteria for Training Evaluation Train Compare Results to Criteria Feedback *Goldstein, I. (2002) Training in Organizations 4th Ed. Training Validity Interorganizational Validity Intraorganizational Validity Transfer Validity
  11. 11. Training Needs Assessment • Organizational Analysis – Melakukan pengecekan secara menyeluruh terhadap sistem organisasi dan lingkungannya untuk mendapatkan pemahaman secara menyeluruh baik organisasi dan industrinya. • Person Analysis – Siapa (Who) yang membuthkan dan Pelatihan (What) Apa yang dibutuhkan • Task Analysis – Memastikan kebutuhan dalam pekerjaan dengan tujuan pelatihan yang diberikan dapat memenuhi gap ketrampilan dengan standar kebutuhan sebuah pekerjaan.
  12. 12. Training Objectives • Sebuah gambaran deskripsi yang diharapkan bagi peserta pelatihan untuk dapat pengetahuan, ketrampilan dan sikap setelah mengikuti pelatihan. • Objectives – Berisi tujuan pelatihan – Gambaran besar program pengembangan yang dikaitkan dengan training yang dilakukan. – Menyertakan ujian-ujian apa saja yang dapat mengukur kegiatan pelatihan dan setelah pelatihan untuk memastikan perkembangan dan ketercapaian peserta pelatihan • Characteristics of effective objectives – Pernyataan menggambarkan kemampuan, ketrampilan dan sikap peserta – Memberikan gambaran perilaku yang diharapkan setelah mengikuti pelatihan – Tentukan kriteria-kriteria keberhasilan setelah mengikuti pelatihan tersebut
  13. 13. Considerations in Training Design • Designing a learning environment – Learning principles – Trainee characteristics – Instructional techniques
  14. 14. Phases of Skill Acquisition Acquiring Declarative Knowledge Knowledge Compilation Procedural Knowledge
  15. 15. Important Trainee Characteristics • Trainee readiness – Trainability tests • Adanya peta gap (KSA) peserta dengan ekspektasi pekerjaan saat ini. • Kesiapan peserta (potensi) dalam mengikuti kegiatan pelatihan • Trainee motivation – Arousal, persistence, and direction – Factors related to high motivation • Self-efficacy • Locus of Control • Commitment to Career
  16. 16. Instructional Techniques • Traditional Approaches – Classroom Instruction • Lecture and Discussion • Case Study • Role Playing – Self-Directed Learning • Readings, Workbooks, Correspondence Courses • Programmed Instruction – Simulated/Real Work Settings • Vestibule training • Apprentice training • On-the-job training • Job Rotation/Cross Training
  17. 17. New Training Technologies • Distance Learning • CD-Rom and Interactive Multimedia • Web-based Instruction • Intelligent Tutoring Systems • Virtual Reality Training
  18. 18. Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation Criteria • Level 1 – Reaction – Did trainees like the training and feel it was useful • Level 2 – Learning – Did trainees learn material stated in the objectives • Level 3 – Behavioral – Are trainees using what was learned back on the job • Level 4 – Results – Are benefits greater than costs
  19. 19. Assessing Training Outcomes • Goal is to identify training as “cause” of changes in on-the- job behavior or organizational results. • Experimental designs help researchers to link training to results • There are a number of reasons (threats) why it is difficult to determine impact of training on results – The Wisdom Pill
  20. 20. Experimental Design • Controlling potential confounds – Goal of experiment is to “rule out” alternate explanations of what affected dependent variable • Confounds are threats to internal validity • Can be controlled through appropriate experimental design and procedures
  21. 21. Internal Validity • Confounds Controlled by Experimental Design 1. History 2. Maturation 3. Testing 4. Instrumentation 5. Statistical Regression 6. Selection 7. Mortality 8. Selection-Maturation • Confounds NOT controlled by Experimental Design 1. Diffusion of Treatment 2. Compensatory Equalization 3. Compensatory Rivalry
  22. 22. Pre-experimental Designs • Disadvantages – Controls none of the threats to internal or external validity – Basically worthless • Advantages – Can potentially provide information for speculation about training effectiveness Training Posttest Post with no Control Group
  23. 23. Pre-experimental Designs • Cannot rule out any threats to internal or external validity – Except possibly mortality • Advantages – Can determine if change occurred – May be able to understand mortality Pretest Training Posttest Pre – Post with no Control Group
  24. 24. Experimental Designs Experimental Training Posttest Random Assignment Control Posttest Group Differences Posttest-Only Control Group Design
  25. 25. Experimental Designs Pretest Experimental Training Posttest Pretest Control Posttest Group Differences Group Differences Pre – Post with Control Group
  26. 26. Experimental Designs Group 1 Training Posttest Group 2 No Training Posttest Group 3 Training Posttest Group 4 No Training Posttest Pretest Pretest Solomon Four Group Design
  27. 27. Assessing Training Program “Validity” • Training Validity • Transfer Validity • Intraorganizational Validity • Interorganizational Validity
  28. 28. Planning Future Training Last step in the training process • After taking all evaluated comments, trainers should modify the programs to keep good things and make suggested improvements – Remember, even with the same topic for different trainees, trainers should address many parts of the training process again and consider new approaches.
  29. 29. A Training Lesson Plan • Topic • Summary of Key Points • Training Objectives • Duration of Each Activity in Each Session • Training Contents • Training Methods / Activities • Break(s) • Exercise to Warm Up • Questions to test Understanding • Conclusion
  30. 30. What’s Changed the Emphasis on Training? • Globalization. • Need for leadership. • Increased value of human capital. • Link to business strategy.
  31. 31. What’s Changed the Emphasis on Training? • Attracting and retaining talent. • Customer service and quality. • Demographics and workforce diversity. • New technology. • Economic change.
  32. 32. High-Leverage Training • Linked to strategic goals and objectives • Uses an instructional design process to ensure that training is effective • Compares or benchmarks the company’s training programs against training programs in other companies • Creates working conditions that encourage continuous learning
  33. 33. Continuous Learning (1 of 2) • Continuous Learning – requires employees to understand the entire work system including the relationships among: – their jobs – their work units – the entire company
  34. 34. Continuous Learning (2 of 2) • Employees are expected to: – acquire new skills and knowledge – apply them on the job – share this information with other employees • Managers take an active role: – in identifying training needs – helping to ensure that employees use training in their work
  35. 35. Training and Performance • Emphasis on high- leverage training has been accompanied by a movement to link training to performance improvement • Training is used to improve employee performance • This leads to improved business results
  36. 36. References • Anthony W.P., Kacmar, K.M., Perrewé, P.L. (2002) Human resource management: a strategic approach, 4th ed. Fort Worth : Harcourt College Publishers.HF5549 .A866 2002 • Goldstein, I. L., Ford J.K. (2002) Training in organizations : needs assessment, development, and evaluation, 4th ed. Belmont, CA . HF5549.5.T7 G543 2002 • Greer, C.R. (1995) Strategy and human resources – a general managerial perspective, Prentice Hall. • Noe, R. A. (2005). Employee Training & Development, 3th ed., New York: McGraw- Hill Irwin • Noe, R. A. (2008). Employee Training & Development, 4th ed., New York: McGraw- Hill Irwin • Noe, R. A. (2010). Employee Training & Development, 5th ed., New York: McGraw- Hill Irwin • Riley, Michael, (1996) Human resource management in the hospitality and tourism industry, 2nd ed. Oxford ; Boston : Butterworth-Heinemann. TX911.3.P4 R55 1996 • United States General Accounting Office. (2004). Human Capital: A Guide for Assessing Strategic Training and Development Efforts in the Federal Government. GAO-04-546G
  37. 37. Belajar dan Berbagi untuk Indonesia Lebih Baik

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