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Communication Models

  2. Learning Objectives At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to: A. identify the different kinds of communication models B. differentiate these communication models. C. apply one communication model on their own context.
  3. Man is a social animal -Aristotle
  6. Linear Model of Communication In linear model, communication is considered one way process where sender is the only one who sends message and receiver doesn’t give feedback or response.
  7. Linear model is applied in mass communication like television, radio, etc. This model is not applicable in general human communication as general human communication has to have feedback and responses.
  8. Disadvantages and Criticisms of Lasswell’s Model 1. It does not include feedback. 2. Without feedback, a communication process can not be fruitful. 3. Ignores the possibility of noise. 4. It is very linear and does not consider barriers in the communication process.
  9. Types of Linear Communications Aristotle’s Model Shannon Weaver Model Berlo’s SMCR Model
  10. Types of Linear Communications ARISTOTLE’S MODEL Aristotle’s Model is a linear communication model which was made for public speaking. In Aristotle’s model, the speaker sent message and the audience receive it. The model was made to establish a propaganda.
  11. Critical Elements of a Good Communicator ETHOS Ethos is the characteristic which makes you credible in front of the audience. If there is no credibility, the audience will not believe in you and will not be persuaded by you. Expertise and positions also give credibility to a person.
  12. Critical Elements of a Good Communicator PATHOS If what you say matters to them and they can connect with it, then they will be more interested and they will think you are more credible. Emotional bonds will make the audience captivated and they feel the speaker is one of their own people.
  13. Critical Elements of a Good Communicator LOGOS Logos is logic. People believe in you only if they understand what you are trying to say. People find logic in everything. If there is no logic behind the speaker’s work or time, they do not want to get involved. Everybody has a sense of reason. You must present facts to the audience for them to believe in you.
  14. Cont… SHANNON-WEAVER MODEL The Shannon Weaver Model of Communication is a mathematical model used for technical communication or machine communication like telegraph and telephone. In Shannon Weaver’s model, if the channel does not have distorting elements or noise producing elements, the communication is successful.
  15. Concepts in Shannon-Weaver Model Sender (Information source) – Sender is the person who makes the message, chooses the channel and sends the message. Encoder (Transmitter) –Encoder is the sender who uses machine, which converts message into signals or binary data. It might also directly refer to the machine. Channel –Channel is the medium used to send message.
  16. Decoder (Receiver) – Decoder is the machine used to convert signals or binary data into message or the receiver who translates the message from signals. Receiver (Destination) –Receiver is the person who gets the message or the place where the message must reach. The receiver provides feedback according to the message. Noise –Noise is the physical disturbances like environment, people, etc. which does not let the message get to the receiver as what is sent.
  17. Example of Shannon Weaver Model A businessman sends a message via phone text to his worker about a meeting happening about their brand promotion. The worker does not receive the full message because of noise. It goes like this: Businessman: We have a meeting at the office (“at 8 am” goes missing due to phone network disruption or noise) Worker (feedback) : At what time? Here, Sender: Businessman Encoder: Telephone network company Channel: Mobile network Noise: Missing text due to disruption Decoder: Mobile phone Receiver: Worker
  18. Cont… BERLO’S SMCR MODEL Berlo’s Model was made to understand general human communication. In Berlo’s Model, communication depends on many factors: like communication skills, attitude, knowledge, socio-cultural systems, the way in which the message has been sent, the content of the message, senses of the receiver, etc.
  20. INTERACTIVE MODEL OF COMMUNICATION Also known as Convergence Model. The communication process takes place between humans or machines in both verbal or non-verbal way. This is a relatively new model of communication for new technologies like web.
  21. Interactive Model Examples Internet has increased the opportunity of interactive communication and it is still evolving. Human-computer interaction is also now considered as interactive communication as the model is circular where the senders interchange every time.
  23. Transactional Model of Communication It is the exchange of messages between sender and receiver where each take turns to send or receive messages. Both sender and receiver are known as communicators and their role reverses each time in the communication process as both processes of sending and receiving occurs at the same time.
  24. The model is mostly used for interpersonal communication and is also called circular model of communication. The transactional model is the most general model of communication.
  25. Factors Affecting Transactional Model Social Context Social context in communication refers to the norms, values, laws and other restrictions of a society to communicate within a specific limit. It also includes rules that bind people’s ability to communicate. Society shapes the way a person communicates.
  26. Factors Affecting Transactional Model Cultural Context Cultural context is the lifestyle and identity of a person. Caste, class, race, ethnicity, gender, etc. are the contexts which promote communication.
  27. Factors Affecting Transactional Model Relational Context Relational context of communication relates to relationship history and manners.
  29. This fourth model can represent mass communication – that is, how an audience receives information from media, the intermediaries of information. Media takes the role of “gatekeeper.” MTRCB takes the function of a gatekeeper.
  31. The most complex of all communication models. It expounds the role of mass media, as well as the individuals and groups that control these outlets of information. Communication between people (creators and consumers) is mediated by messages which are created using language within media; consumed from media and interpreted using language.
  32. Ecology- refer to the environment where people interact among each other. , using a particular language that they commonly understand. E.g. Language of Lawyers. Language of Doctors.

Notas do Editor

  1. Aristotle Model is mainly focused on speaker and speech. It can be broadly divided into 5 primary elements: Speaker, Speech, Occasion, Audience and Effect.
  2. For instance, the mass will not listen to the promises of a corrupt politician, but if a politician is known for his good deeds, there’s a high change his speech will be heard.
  3. For instance, if people of a village needs water and the politician tells them that he will help in building roads, the people will not get influenced but might be more influenced if he says he’ll build a dam for drinking water and irrigation.
  4. For example, a presenter using factual data in an awareness program will attract the audience’s attention and will make them believe in the need of awareness in the particular matter.
  5. Explanation of Shannon Weaver Model The sender encodes the message and sends it to the receiver through a technological channel like telephone and telegraph. The sender converts the message into codes understandable to the machine. The message is sent in codes through a medium. The receiver has to decode the message before understanding it and interpreting it. The receptor machine can also act as a decoder in some cases. The channel can have noise and the receiver might not have the capacity to decode which might cause problems in communication process.
  6. The transmission error is the noise in this case. The feedback lets the businessman know that the message reached incomplete. The receiver gets the chance to get the full message only after his feedback.
  7. Internet can be taken as the best way of interactive communication as receiver can give feedback even in newspapers and books. Internet has increased the opportunity of interactive communication and it is still evolving. Human-computer interaction is also now considered as interactive communication as the model is circular where the senders interchange every time. Social media, interactive marketing and user generated contents, ATM machines, online shopping, chat rooms, etc are other examples of interactive communication model.
  8. Since both sender and receiver are necessary to keep the communication alive in transactional model, the communicators are also interdependent to each other. For example, transactional communication is not possible if the receiver is not listening to sender. Everyday talk and interactions are also a form of transactional model communication.
  9. Some of the examples are: greeting people when meeting, thanking, apologizing, etc.
  10. If two people are from the same cultural group, they will have better communication with each other.
  11. A person talks with an old friend differently than a stranger. Manners take the role of communication when it is with strangers. Manners come from pre-established norms and values, and are more scripted making interaction difficult. Type of relationship and the roles of people create differences in the way people communicate. Communication always occurs on the common systems of both the parties.
  12. Gatekeepers- they have the capacity to control what the audience will know.