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Pricing Ppt

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Pricing Ppt

  1. 1. Price is all around us.
  2. 2. <ul><li>You pay rent for your apartment, tuition for your education, and a fee to your dentist or physician. </li></ul><ul><li>The airline, railways, taxi and bus companies charge you a fare; the local utilities call their price a rate; and the local bank charges you interest for the money you borrow. </li></ul><ul><li>The guest lecturer is paid an honorarium and the government official takes a bribe to pass a file which was his job anyway. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>This is the only element in the marketing mix that brings in the revenues. All the rest are costs </li></ul><ul><li>Price communicates the value positioning of the product. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>A firm must set a price for the first time when </li></ul><ul><li>It develops a new product </li></ul><ul><li>It introduces its regular product into a new distribution channel or geographical area </li></ul><ul><li>It enters bids on new contract work ( as in Industrial Sale ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>A company must set its price in relation to the value delivered and perceived by the customer </li></ul>
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9. <ul><li>Selecting the pricing objective </li></ul><ul><li>Determining demand </li></ul><ul><li>Estimating costs </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing competitors – costs, prices, offers </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting a pricing method </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting the final price </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The company first decides where it wants to position its market offering. The objective could be :- </li></ul><ul><li>Survival </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize current profit </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize market share </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize market skimming </li></ul><ul><li>Product - quality leadership </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Each price will lead to a different level of demand and have a different impact on a company’s marketing objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Demand and price are inversely related i.e. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher the price, lower the demand </li></ul><ul><li>Company needs to consider :- </li></ul><ul><li>Price sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Price elasticity of demand </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Shared cost ( part of cost is borne by other party ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sunk investment (product used is required as a complement to earlier purchase ) </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory effect ( buyers can not store the product ) </li></ul><ul><li>Items bought more frequently ( more sensitive ) / infrequently ( less sensitive ) </li></ul><ul><li>Unique value effect ( quality , prestige or exclusiveness ) </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute awareness by buyers </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult comparison by buyers </li></ul><ul><li>End benefit ( expenditure small part of total income ) </li></ul><ul><li>Total expenditure ( purchase cost is insignificant compared to the cost of end product ) </li></ul><ul><li>Low – cost items (less sensitive ) / high cost items ( more sensitive ) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>This determines the changes in demand with unit change in price </li></ul><ul><li>If there is little or no change in demand, it is said to be price inelastic. </li></ul><ul><li>If there is significant change in demand, then it is said to be price elastic. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>There are few or no substitutes </li></ul><ul><li>Buyers readily do not notice the higher price </li></ul><ul><li>Buyers are slow to change their buying habits </li></ul><ul><li>Buyers think that the higher prices are justified </li></ul>
  15. 15. Price quality Super value High value Premium Good value Medium value Overcharging Economy False economy Rip off
  16. 16. <ul><li>Fixed costs </li></ul><ul><li>Variable costs </li></ul><ul><li>Learning curve </li></ul><ul><li>Activity based costing </li></ul><ul><li>Target costing </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Markup pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Target return pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived value pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Value pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Going rate pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Sealed bid pricing </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>It is used to lessen the impact of the actual pricing in the consumers mind </li></ul><ul><li>It is used as a surrogate to indicate the product quality or esteem </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Group Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Gain and Risk sharing pricing </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Different pricing at different locations </li></ul><ul><li>Could be in terms of barter, countertrade and foreign currency </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Early payment </li></ul><ul><li>Off – season </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk purchase </li></ul><ul><li>Retail discount </li></ul><ul><li>Cash discount </li></ul><ul><li>Trade in allowance </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Loss leader pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Special event pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Cash rebate </li></ul><ul><li>Low interest financing </li></ul><ul><li>Longer payment terms </li></ul><ul><li>Warranties and service contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological discounting </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Customer segment </li></ul><ul><li>Product form </li></ul><ul><li>Image pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Location pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Time pricing </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Market must be segment able </li></ul><ul><li>The lower price segment should not be able to resell the product to the higher price segment </li></ul><ul><li>The competitors must not be able to undersell the firm in the higher price segment </li></ul><ul><li>Should not breed customer resentment and ill will </li></ul><ul><li>Price discrimination should not be illegal </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Product line pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Optional feature pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Captive product pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Two part pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Byproduct pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Product bundling pricing </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Excess plant capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive pricing </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>When demand exceeds supply </li></ul><ul><li>When costs go up </li></ul><ul><li>Govt. policies </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce/remove discounts and rebates </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Shrinking pack size for same price </li></ul><ul><li>Substituting less expensive raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing product features </li></ul><ul><li>Removing product services </li></ul><ul><li>Using less expensive packaging material </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing the no. of packs and sizes offered </li></ul><ul><li>Creating new economy brands </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Customer reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Competitor reaction </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Maintain price </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain price and add value </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce price </li></ul><ul><li>Increase price and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Launch a low price fighter </li></ul>

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