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Goldberg Chapter 2

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Soc 204 Goldberg Chapter 2
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Goldberg Chapter 2

  1. 1. SOC 204 Drugs & Society Chapter 2 Drugs in Contemporary Society
  2. 2. Your thoughts: How does drug use cost society?
  3. 3. Consequences for Society Deaths Emergency room visits Drugs in the workplace and lost productivity Broken homes, illnesses, shorter lives, etc. Cost of maintaining habit Cost of criminal behavior Cost of treating patients Fetal alcohol syndrome Blood borne illnesses
  4. 4. How was your weekend? A. Awesome! B. Okay C. Too much homework D. Don’t ask Awesome! Okay Too much homework Don’t ask 54% 0% 4% 42% http://www.usatoday.com/story/ money/business/2014/09/24/an heuser-busch-budweiser-advertising- puppy-dogs-drive-responsibly/ 16163299/
  5. 5. Getting Information on Drug Use Surveys Hospital reports Police reports Can show trends over time What’s missing?
  6. 6. Extent of Drug Use National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2010)  22.6 million Americans used illicit drugs  7 million used psychotherapeutic drugs non-medically  1.5 million were current cocaine users  28.8 million drove a car under the influence of alcohol  695,000 Ecstasy users, and 353,000 meth users  16.3% of pregnant women smoked cigarettes  2.5 million received substance abuse treatment for alcohol  69.6 million Americans smoked cigarettes
  7. 7. Have you used marijuana in the last 30 days? ANONYMOUS A. Yes B. No Yes 58% No 42%
  8. 8. Have you had 5 or more drinks in one sitting in the last 30 days? ANONYMOUS A. Yes B. No Yes 46% No 54%
  9. 9. Have you used non-prescribed narcotics in the last 30 days? ANONYMOUS A. Yes B. No Yes 96% No 4%
  10. 10. Drug Abuse Warning Network  DAWN is a reporting system that collects information on the number of times drugs are implicated in both non-lethal and lethal visits to emergency rooms  Illicit drugs were responsible for the most emergency room visits, followed by pharmaceutical drugs  Data reflect acute drug problems, not chronic drug use
  11. 11. DAWN gives information on: A. The number of people jailed for drug offenses B. The number of times drugs are implicated in emergency room visits C. The number of people who admit drug use to their doctors 92% 4% 4% The number of times dru.. The number of people jail.. The number of people w..
  12. 12. Changing Attitudes What made the government change from the laissez-faire attitude of the 1800s to one of control? Toxicity Dependence Crime
  13. 13. Society’s perception of drugs: Influenced by social and psychological factors Illegal drugs are condemned more than legal drugs
  14. 14. What do you think about government regulation of drug use? A. The government should be more involved B. The government should be less involved C. Our government is doing a good job currently The government should b... The government should .. Our government is doing.. 38% 27% 35%
  15. 15. Toxicity Physical toxicity:  Danger to the body as a result of taking the drug Behavioral toxicity:  Drug interferes with one’s ability to function Acute toxicity:  Danger from a single experience with a drug Chronic toxicity:  Danger posed by repeated exposure to the drug
  16. 16. Driving while drunk is an example of: A. Acute physical toxicity B. Chronic physical toxicity C. Acute behavioral toxicity D. Chronic behavioral toxicity 73% 12% 8% 8% Chronic physical toxicity Acute physical toxicity Acute behavioral toxicity Chronic behavioral toxicity
  17. 17. Cirrhosis of the liver is an example of: A. Acute physical toxicity B. Chronic physical toxicity C. Acute behavioral toxicity D. Chronic behavioral toxicity 85% 4% 4% 8% Chronic physical toxicity Acute physical toxicity Acute behavioral toxicity Chronic behavioral toxicity
  18. 18. Patterns of Use  Experimental Use  Infrequent use motivated by curiosity  Social-Recreational Use  Taking drugs to share pleasurable experiences among friends  Circumstantial-Situational Use  Short-term use to contend with immediate distress or pressure
  19. 19. Patterns of Use  Intensified Use  Taking drugs on a steady basis to relieve a problem  Chronic Use  Indicates some extent of physical or psychological dependence  Compulsive Use  Acquiring and consuming drugs is the main focus of life
  20. 20. Changing View on Dependence Early medical model  true addiction involves physical dependence; key is treatment of withdrawal symptoms Positive reinforcement model  drugs can reinforce behavior without physical dependence Psychological dependence is increasingly viewed as the driving force behind repeated drug use  This refutes the sometimes common belief that drugs that aren’t as strongly physically addicting are less dangerous
  21. 21. What do you think causes “addiction”? A. Genetics B. Biology C. Environment (family/peer) D. Weak personality E. Properties of the drug itself Genetics Biology Environment (family/peer) Weak personality Properties of the drug itself 16% 12% 48% 4% 20%
  22. 22. Substance Use Disorder DSM-5  Substance use disorders span a wide variety of problems arising from substance use, and cover 11 different criteria: 1. Taking the substance in larger amounts or for longer than you meant to 2. Wanting to cut down or stop using the substance but not managing to 3. Spending a lot of time getting, using, or recovering from use of the substance
  23. 23. 4. Cravings and urges to use the substance (psychological dependence) 5. Not managing to do what you should at work, home or school, because of substance use 6. Continuing to use, even when it causes problems in relationships 7. Giving up important social, occupational or recreational activities because of substance use
  24. 24. 8. Using substances again and again, even when it puts you in danger 9. Continuing to use, even when the you know you have a physical or psychological problem that could have been caused or made worse by the substance 10. Needing more of the substance to get the effect you want (tolerance) 11. Development of withdrawal symptoms, which can be relieved by taking more of the substance. (physical dependence)
  25. 25. Happy Tuesday! What’s your favorite food? A. Burgers & Fries B. Steak & Lobster C. Mexican D. Chinese E. Italian F. Thai G. Chocolate Burgers & Fries Steak & Lobster Mexican Chinese Italian Thai Chocolate 9% 22% 13% 0% 4% 22% 30%
  26. 26. Impacts of Drug Use Family stability Social behavior Education and career aspirations Personal and social maturation
  27. 27. REMEMBER: CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION!
  28. 28. A correlate is: A. A variable that causes something B. A thing you keep horses in C. A variable that is associated with something A thing you keep horses in A variable that causes s... A variable that is associa... 13% 88% 0%
  29. 29. Family  Association between drug use and the likelihood that a couple will separate or divorce  Women subjected to violence have higher rates of alcohol dependence and other drug abuse problems  Family interventions into adolescent alcohol use reduce the initiation and frequency of alcohol use  Marijuana use by young Black males is significantly reduced when both parents are present
  30. 30. Family  Parental substance abuse is a factor for 1/3 to 2/3 of all children involved with the child welfare system  Substance abuse is a factor in many cases of child abuse and domestic abuse  Alcohol use is associated with the perpetration of sexual aggression, especially toward boys **
  31. 31. Which of the following is not associated with drug use in the family A. Increased violence B. Higher divorce rates C. Low IQ Increased violence Higher divorce rates Low IQ 0% 100% 0%
  32. 32. Social Behavior  Drug users display more independence, rebelliousness, acceptance of deviant behavior, and rejection of moral and social norms than nonusers  Children of parents who use drugs are more likely to engage in delinquent behaviors  Stimulants such as methamphetamines and cocaine are associated with violence, while marijuana and heroin are more likely to produce a passive response
  33. 33. Social Behavior  Alcohol is the drug involved with the most violent incidents The level of aggression associated with alcohol is dose related  Binge drinking is associated with unsafe sex and violence, and with nonconsensual sex  Most cases of dating violence occurred in the South, and in many instances, involved alcohol **
  34. 34. Drug users show higher levels of acceptance of deviant behavior A. True B. False True 16% False 84%
  35. 35. Alcohol is associated with 0% A. Higher level of violent incidents 0% 0% 0% 100% B. Dating violence C. Unsafe sex D. Nonconsensual sex E. All of the above
  36. 36. Education There is a higher dropout rate from school for those who used alcohol, illicit drugs, and cigarettes There is a relationship between academic performance and drug use  Drug use is assumed to be a predictor of welfare dependency  Higher Education Act of 1965: College students who are convicted of a drug offense are denied federal financial aid
  37. 37. Do you feel that the regulations about financial aid and drug convictions are fair? 33% A. Yes 33% 29% 4% B. No C. Sometimes D. I’m undecided
  38. 38. Employment  Employed drug users have less stable job histories than nonusers  Alcohol abusers earn significantly less money than moderate drinkers and abstainers  Drug use is associated with higher accident rates on the job and lower productivity
  39. 39. Drugs in the Workplace  Substance abuse in the workplace results in:  Lessened productivity  Increased accidents, absenteeism, and health care costs  Highest rates of drug use are food service workers and construction workers – identifying drug problems in top-level managers is more difficult  Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) help workers deal with problems that affect job performance, including alcohol or drug problems
  40. 40. Effects of drug use by pregnant women Women whose babies test positive for drugs such as cocaine are subject to losing custody of their children  Risks to the baby:  Low birth weight  Premature birth  Miscarriage  Birth defects  Difficulty bonding  Learning disabilities
  41. 41. Drug Testing  In 2011, the federal government earmarked $283.1 million for drug-related activities in schools  Random workplace drug testing has effectively identified frequent users of illicit drugs  In many jurisdictions, physicians are required to report women who use drugs during pregnancy or infants who test positive for drug use by their mothers
  42. 42. Types of Drug Testing http://www.aa fp.org/afp/201 0/0301/p635. html  Immunoassay is fast and less expensive than other methods but may give false positive readings  Gas chromatography is more expensive and time-consuming than other methods  Thin-layer chromatography is simple and inexpensive, but requires expert interpretation  Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is highly sensitive, but is time-consuming and expensive
  43. 43. Problems with Drug Testing  False positive  A person tests positive for a drug even though no drug is present in the person’s urine  False negative  A person tests negative even though drugs are present in the person’s urine
  44. 44. Legality of Drug Testing  Debated in two cases before the U.S. Supreme Court:  Skinner v. Railway Labor Executive Association  National Treasury Employees Union v. von Raab  In both cases, the Supreme Court ruled that the testing program was justified http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/ free-books/employee-rights- book/chapter5-3.html
  45. 45. How is drug use related to crime?  Intoxication causes behavior and personality change  Crimes may be committed while intoxicated  Drug use/possession is a crime  Crimes to fund cost of drug use Society tries to protect itself through regulation Current laws may not be part of a logical plan, ineffective or unrealistic
  46. 46. Crime: Drug Business  Drug trade is a big business with no signs of slowing down  Tactics for stopping drug flow into the US – military force, reducing aid to drug-producing countries, and promoting crop substitution – are ineffective  Results in thousands needing medical care for drug overdoses, and has an economic impact on the criminal justice system and environment
  47. 47. Crime: Drug Business  Colombia is the leading producer of cocaine  In Laos, Burma, and Thailand, opium production has largely been replaced by methamphetamines  In addition to domestic production, marijuana is grown in Asia, the Caribbean, and Mexico – Colombia is the largest exporter
  48. 48. US National Drug Control Budget
  49. 49. Crime: Drug Enforcement • The narcotics trade is tremendously profitable • Even after billions of dollars were spent on curbing drug production, coca growth in Colombia rose 27% • Preventing drugs from entering the United States or reducing the amount of drugs grown in the country is a matter of demand, not supply
  50. 50. How should we deal with drug problems? 13% A. Legalize drugs 13% 35% 4% 13% 22% B. Stop drugs at borders C. Reduce demand (treatment/education) D. Prevent production in other countries E. End the “War on Drugs” F. I’m not sure
  51. 51. How should we deal with drug problems?

Notas do Editor

  • Deaths
    Emergency room visits
    Drugs in the workplace and lost productivity
    Broken homes, illnesses, shorter lives, etc.
    Cost of maintaining habit
    Cost of criminal behavior
    Cost of treating patients
    Fetal alcohol syndrome
    Others?
  • Survey questionnaires
    Easy to use– inexpensive, efficient
    Drawbacks
    Bias in student population (e.g., dropouts not counted)
    Potential inaccuracy of self-reports (among both users and non-users)
    National Survey on Drug Use and Health
    Face-to-face, computer-assisted interviews
    68,000 individuals; carefully sampled households across the United States
    Broken down into different age groups
    Results published annually
    Marijuana use among persons ages 12-25, by age group: 1971-2006 (National Survey on Drug Use and Health)
    In 2008 the percentage use for the age groups of 18-25 and 12-17 remained the same as they were in 2005; 16.5% and 6.7% respectively.
    Finding similar patterns in two different studies, using different sampling techniques, is a stronger indication that these trends are real and reflect broad changes in American society over time
     
    II. How Did We Get Here?
    A. Have Things Really Changed?
    1. Humans have used psychoactive drugs for thousands of years for therapeutic and recreational purposes.
    2. Drug use has affected society in many areas: religion, law, government, economics, language, and education.
     
    III. Drugs and Drug Use Today
    A. Extent of Drug Use
    1. Current information on drug use comes from several sources, including survey questionnaires done in junior highs, high schools, and colleges, but accurate statistics are hard to attain.
    2. Self-reports may include a biased sample and be inaccurate or dishonest.
    3. The Monitoring the Future Project follows nationwide trends over time in drug use among young people.


  •  
    B. Trends in Drug Use
    1. The perceived risk decreases as drug use increases; as drug use decreases the perceived risk increases.
    2. The perceived availability of marijuana has changed little over time and, therefore, does not appear to explain differences in rates of use.
    3. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health is a door-to-door survey estimating drug use in adolescents and adults in the United States.
    4. Alcohol and cocaine use in 18- to 25-year-olds stays fairly consistent over time.
    5. Drug use patterns seen in multiple surveys are most likely to be accurate.
    6. Decreases or increases in drug use are not related to changes in government legislation, but are related to social trends.
    Have Things Really Changed?
    1. Humans have used psychoactive drugs for thousands of years for therapeutic and recreational purposes.
    2. Drug use has affected society in many areas: religion, law, government, economics, language, and education.


  • Survey questionnaires
    Easy to use– inexpensive, efficient
    Drawbacks
    Bias in student population (e.g., dropouts not counted)
    Potential inaccuracy of self-reports (among both users and non-users)
    National Survey on Drug Use and Health
    Face-to-face, computer-assisted interviews
    68,000 individuals; carefully sampled households across the United States
    Broken down into different age groups
    Results published annually
    Marijuana use among persons ages 12-25, by age group: 1971-2006 (National Survey on Drug Use and Health)
    In 2008 the percentage use for the age groups of 18-25 and 12-17 remained the same as they were in 2005; 16.5% and 6.7% respectively.
    Finding similar patterns in two different studies, using different sampling techniques, is a stronger indication that these trends are real and reflect broad changes in American society over time
     
    II. How Did We Get Here?
    A. Have Things Really Changed?
    1. Humans have used psychoactive drugs for thousands of years for therapeutic and recreational purposes.
    2. Drug use has affected society in many areas: religion, law, government, economics, language, and education.
     
    III. Drugs and Drug Use Today
    A. Extent of Drug Use
    1. Current information on drug use comes from several sources, including survey questionnaires done in junior highs, high schools, and colleges, but accurate statistics are hard to attain.
    2. Self-reports may include a biased sample and be inaccurate or dishonest.
    3. The Monitoring the Future Project follows nationwide trends over time in drug use among young people.


  • Current laws trace back to two pieces of legislation from the early 1900s
    Racist fears about deviant behavior, including drug misuse, played a role in the development of drug regulation
    Laws were developed to regulate undesirable behaviors
    Fraud in patent medicines that were sold directly to the public
    False therapeutic claims
    Habit-forming drug content
    In the early 1900s, Collier’s magazine ran a series of articles attacking patent medicines—
    “Great American Fraud”
    Opium and the Chinese
    U.S. was involved in international drug trade
    Opium smoking brought to U.S. by Chinese workers
    Laws passed against the importation, manufacture, and use of opium– racism involved?
    Cocaine
    Present in many patent medicines (and, yes, Coca-Cola!)
    Viewed as a cause of increasing crime
    Racist connections

  • Toxic = poisonous, deadly, or dangerous
    What makes a drug toxic?
    Amount used
    How it is used
    What the user did while on the drug
    Specific toxicity for users who inject drugs
    AIDS, HIV infection, and hepatitis B and C
    Sharing needles passes infectious agents directly into the bloodstream
    Some states, cities prohibit
    needle purchase without Rx
    Syringe exchange programs
    Examples of acute toxicity
    Behavioral: “Intoxication” that impairs the actions of drug users and increases the danger to themselves and others
    Physiological: Overdose that causes the user to stop breathing
    Examples of chronic toxicity
    Behavioral
    Personality and lifestyle changes
    Effects on relationships with friends and family
    Physiological
    Heart disease
    Lung cancer
    Cirrhosis
    Other health effects


  • What do “addicts” look like?
    What drug do they take or what behavior do they engage in (alcohol, cigarettes, illicit drugs, food, sex, gambling, shopping, computer time)?
    How much time do they spend on their habit?
    How much of a drug do they take?
    How do you decide on the definition of dependence?
    Three basic processes
    Tolerance
    Physical dependence
    Psychological dependence
    Diminished effect on the body after repeated use of the same drug
    The body develops ways to compensate for the chemical imbalance caused by the drug
    Regular drug users may build up tolerance to the extent that their dosage would kill a novice user
    Physical dependence is defined by the occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome
    Tolerance typically precedes physical dependence
    If drug use is stopped suddenly, withdrawal symptoms occur, ranging from mild to severe
    Physical dependence means the body has adapted to the drug’s presence
    Psychological or behavioral dependence
    High frequency of drug use
    Craving for the drug
    Tendency to relapse after stopping use
    Behavior is reinforced by the consequences
    Over time, this becomes the biggest reason users report they continue to use
    Early medical model = true addiction involves physical dependence; key is treatment of withdrawal symptoms
    Positive reinforcement model = drugs can reinforce behavior without physical dependence
    Psychological dependence is increasingly viewed as the driving force behind repeated drug use
    This refutes the sometimes common belief that drugs that aren’t as strongly physically addicting are less dangerous
    Some drugs are more likely than others to lead to dependence
    Method of use, as well as other factors, influences risk of dependence
    The “war on drugs” reflects the perspective that drugs are themselves evil
    Is dependence due to biochemical or physiological actions in the brain?
    Still no way to scan the brain and know if a person has/had developed dependence
    Genetic physiological or biochemical markers have been sought as well, but none has proven reliable
    No way to know if the drug or the drug use changes a person’s personality
    Many other factors affect personality
    Sensation-seeking = a personality characteristic statistically associated with early substance use and abuse
    Alcohol dependence often exists within a dysfunctional family
    Evidence suggests that dysfunctional relationships play a role in dependence, but they aren’t the only factor
    Founders of AA characterized alcohol dependence as a disease
    Others argue that dependence doesn’t have all the characteristics of a disease
    There are ways to test and treat the effects of alcoholism but not the disease itself
    There is some disagreement over how to define disease as well
    Dependence is related to dysfunctions of:
    Biology
    Personality
    Social interactions



  • Antecedent = a factor that occurs before an event such as the initiation of drug use
    Still not labeled “causes”
    Examples of antecedents
    Aggressiveness
    Conduct problems
    Poor academic performance
    Attachment to a drug-using peer group
    Parental and community norms that support drug use
    Alcohol and tobacco are sometimes considered gateways to the use of illicit drugs
    Kandel & Faust’s 1975 study
    Gateway substances are perhaps best thought of as early indicators of a basic pattern of deviant behavior resulting from a variety of risk factors

  • Correlate = a variable that is statistically related to another variable, such as drug use
    IMPORTANT: Correlates are not causes
    Socioeconomic status does not correlate well with drug use
    Personality problems are poor predictors of drug use

    IV. Correlates of Drug Use
    A. What Factors Are Considered?
    1. Surveyors look for common characteristics in those who use drugs, as compared with those who do not use drugs.

    2. Study limitations can make it difficult to determine the effects of some factors.
    B. Risk and Protective Factors
    1. Risk factors are correlated with higher rates of drug use.
    2. Risk factors for drug use include having friends who use drugs, engaging in fighting or stealing, perceiving that substance use is prevalent at school, knowing adults who use drugs, and having a positive attitude towards drugs.
    3. The kids most likely to use marijuana frequently live in a rough neighborhood, have little parental monitoring, steal and get into fights, may not be involved in religious activities, and do poorly in school.
    4. Protective factors are correlated with lower rates of drug use.
    5. Protective factors for drug use include perceiving strong sanctions against drug use at school, having supportive parents, being committed to school, being involved in religious activities, and participating in two or more extracurricular activities.
    6. Overall, studies of risk and protective factors suggest that adolescents who are more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink heavily, and smoke marijuana are also more likely to engage in other deviant behaviors, such as stealing, fighting, and early sexual behaviors.
    C. Gender
    1. Males are more likely to use alcohol, use tobacco, smoke marijuana, and use cocaine than are females.
    D. Race
    1. Stereotypes regarding drug use by different races may not be supported by findings from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

    E. Level of Education
    1. Those with more education (college degrees, compared with those who completed high school only) are much more likely to drink alcohol and somewhat less likely to use tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine.
    F. Personality Variables
    1. Evidence for correlations between traditional personality traits and drug use is somewhat weak and inconsistent.
    2. Several studies focus on “impulsivity” as correlating with rates of substance use.
    3. Personality factors may play a small role in whether someone decides to try alcohol or marijuana, but they may play a large role in whether drug use develops into a serious problem.
    G. Genetics
    1. Genetic studies are beginning to show clear association with substance-use disorders.

  • Having low-birthweight babies is a side effect of drug use by pregnant women.
  • How is drug use related to crime?
    Intoxication causes behavior and personality change
    Crimes may be committed while intoxicated
    Drug use/possession is a crime
    Crimes to fund cost of drug use
    Society tries to protect itself through regulation
    Current laws may not be part of a logical plan, ineffective or unrealistic

    Drug use may change a person’s personality
    People under the influence may commit crimes (e.g., many cases of homicide, domestic violence, etc.)
    Crimes may be carried out to obtain money for drugs
    Drug use is a crime
    We want to protect society from the dangers of some types of drug use = legitimate social purpose
    Some laws are not developed as part of a rationally devised plan and may not be realistic or effective
    Current laws
  • These “Pot-Tarts,” seized by law enforcement in 2006, demonstrate the ingenuity of some illicit drug distributors. Upon raiding this facility, investigators found hundreds of marijuana-laced candies and soft drinks, including “Stoney Ranchers,” “Munchy Way,” “Rasta Reece’s,” and “Buddafingers.”
  • The benefit to farmers makes it hard to combat illegal drug production.
  • Figure 2.1 U.S. National Drug Control Budget—FY 2012 Funding Highlights
  • The federal government has steadily increased funding to interdict drugs.
  • Figure 2.4 Poll Responses to the Question: “Which of the Following Do You Feel Is the Single Best Way to Handle the War on Drugs?” (n = 4,730)

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