Inquiry Approach and Problem Solving Method.pptx

6 de Aug de 2022

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Inquiry Approach and Problem Solving Method.pptx

  1. Inquiry Approach
  2. What is the Inquiry Approach? Inquiry Approach, sometimes termed “discovery”, “heuristic”, and “problem-solving” is defined as a simply a teaching method which is “modeled after the investigative processes of scientists”. It puts premium on obtaining information through direct experience.
  3. 1. Define the topic or introduce the questions. - Introduce and discuss the topic briefly. Making a concept web and topic may help. - Be sure it is linked to familiar experiences of the students. - Ensure that the topic is one that can be investigated through a variety experiences. - Teacher/students propose questions about the topic (if teacher did not pose a question) the answer of which the students will look for. The steps in the Inquiry Approach
  4. 2. Guide students plan where and how to gather data, information. They may research on the topic/question by viewing, constructing, reading, designing and experiment, recording observations and interviewing experts. 3. Students present findings through graph, charts, powerpoint presentation, models, and writing.
  5. The following are commonly observed characteristics of the discovery/inquiry approach: Instructional Characteristics 1. Investigative processes such as inferring, hypothesizing, measuring, predicting, classifying, analyzing and experimenting formulating conclusions and generalizations are employed.
  6. 2. The procedure in gathering information is not prescribed by the teachers. The students are treated as independent learners. They formulate their own hypothesis and suggest ways of testing them. 3. The children are highly motivated to search, hence active participation is the best indicator of inquisitiveness.
  7. 5. Focused questions before, during and after are critical ingredients that provide direction and sustain action. 4. The answer arrived at are genuine products of their own efforts. Then they experience the “thrill of discovery” which is oftentimes missed in passive reception of information from their teachers. This learning outcome is the best reward and guarantee of lasting impact on the young.
  8. Outcomes of Inquiry Teaching 1. Its emphasis is on the process of gathering and processing of information. Teachers must keep in mind that their act of facilitating satisfies innate curiosity which can serve as the initial step towards a more consistent employment of the basic inquiry methods of gathering.
  9. 2. Its dependence on first-hand experience with objects and phenomena occurring in the environment is certainly in agreement with the most often cited theory of Piaget on intellectual development. At the concrete examining real objects. Hence, instructional materials must be carefully selected and planned for a meaningful quest and not a hit-or-miss routine.
  10. 3. The inquiry approach which predominantly allows some degree of freedom develops initiative and divergent thinking. Learners resent being restricted both in movement and in forming their own ideas. They love to try their own ways of doing things. This approach affords them a good chance to pursue their own learnings methodologies and in the long run build on their own learning styles.
  11. 4. A deep sense of responsibility is developed when learners are left to manage their own learning, be it in pursuit of answer, mastery of content or simply solving a problem that confronts them instantly. Experience gained from independent inquiry make them realize the benefits derived from self-managed learning.
  12. 5. Educators strongly believe that factors and concepts that learners discover by themselves become stored as part of their permanent learning. Such facts are organized and associated with big generalizations or prevailing ideas and so their immediate recall is easily guided when the need for such information arises. This easy retrieval of past learning is different from memorized bits of subject matter in that they spend their time and effort to learn the former and, more important, it is their own. It is more likely to be remembered for a long time.
  13. 6. Experiencing success in inquiry-based/discovery lessons builds up the learners feeling of confidence. As a result, learners would want to do more and to discover more. This is the kind of drive needed to keep the wheel of the learning process turning. This kind of push is inner-directed.
  14. 7. Participation in inquiry activities strengthens learners intellectual capabilities. They who learn how to investigate and discover new information would definitely be in a better position reason, either by deduction, conducting similar investigations or by extending inquires to all possible resources, compared to those who miss the chance of even attempting to learn things by themselves, through no fault of their own but due to the teachers insistence on more passive and rote learning styles.
  15. How to Facilitate Inquiry Teaching 1. Arrange for an ideal room setting. After planning the learning activity for the day, structure the room in such a way that will allow freedom of movement. Chairs lined in a semi-circular manner is conducive to clear viewing and easy transfer around the area. 2. Choose tools and equipment that can easily be manipulated.
  16. 3. The materials to be used or examined must lend themselves easily to the processes to be employed and the end product desired. 4. The questions/problems to be answered should originate from learners, followed by the formulation of hypothesis.
  17. 5. The procedure should likewise be planned by them. They may be given a choice of a variety of data gathering measures such as actual observations, setting up experiments, taking a field trip or collecting specimens and not a monopoly of the usual rigid indoor tryouts and cook book procedure. 6. At the completion of the activity, require an evaluation of the step undertaken as to its effectiveness and the clarity of the result. A feeling of confidence is enhanced from the realization of
  18. the days accomplishments. The evaluation record can serve as feedback for the future investigations. 7. Above all, the teacher should internalize his/her changed role to that of a guide, facilitator and counselor rather than the traditional authority who not only determines the material to be learned but also dictates how it should be learned.
  19. The core of inquiry is a spontaneous and a self- directed exploration. Textbook-dictated procedures do not allow an active probe into the unknown. Curiosity, special interests and instant queries among the young demand immediate answer. Only instant and direct search for evidence would suffice even momentarily, otherwise frustrations and passivity come in.
  20. Problem Solving Method
  21. Problem solving is a teaching strategy that employs the scientific method in searching for information. The five basic steps of the scientific method or investigatory process are: 1. Sensing and defining the problem 2. Formulating hypothesis
  22. 3. Testing the likely hypothesis (by observing, conducting an experiment, collecting and organizing data through normative survey) 4. Analysis, interpretation and evaluation of evidence. 5. Formulating conclusion
  23. Advantage 1. This method is most effective in developing skill in employing the science processes. 2. The scientific method can likewise be used effectively in other non-science subjects. It is a general procedure in finding solutions to daily occurrences that urgently need to be addressed.
  24. 3. The students active involvement resulting in meaningful experience serves as a strong motivation to follow the scientific procedure in future undertakings. 4. Problem solving develops higher level thinking skills. 5. A keep sense of responsibility, originally and resourcefulness are develop, which are much-needed ingredients for independent study.
  25. 6. The students becomes appreciative and grateful for the achievement of scientist. 7. Critical thinking, open-mindedness and wise judgment are among scientific attitudes and values inculcated through competence in the scientific method. 8. The students learn to accept the opinions and evidence shared by others.
  26. Guidelines for Its Effective Use 1. Provide sufficient training in defining and stating the problem in a clear and concise manner. 2. Make sure that the problem to be solved fits the age, interest and skills of the students. 3. Group the students and allow each one to share in the task to be performed. In this way the cooperative learning strategy would work well.
  27. 4. Guide them at every step by asking leading questions in case of snags. Encourage suggestions of alternative processes or solutions, if necessary. 5. Get ready with situations for materials which may not be available. This strategy needs a wide variety of materials and resources. 6. The emphasis is on the procedure and the processes employed rather than on the products.
  28. 7. The development of skills and attitudes takes priority over knowledge. 8. Involve the students in determining the criteria with which they will be evaluated.
  29. Write C if it is Cooperative Approach or I if it is Inquiry Approach and P for Problem Solving Method. ___1. Students present findings through graph, charts, power point presentation, models, and writing. ___2. ___3. ___4. This method is most effective in developing skill in employing the science processes. ___5. The questions/problems to be answered should originate from learners, followed by the formulation of hypothesis.