2. No business organization can work without
effective communication network. It is an important
human skill. No manager can be successful unless he
communicates effectively with his subordinates,
superiors and outsiders. Persons at the managerial or
supervisory positions in an industrial undertaking
spend most of their time in communication as
compare to workers. The face-to-face communication
place a vital role in managerial decision making.
3. Communication is the process through which
two or more persons exchange ideas among
themselves. The word “communication” is derived
from the Latin word ‘communis’ which means
‘common’. Thus communication stands for sharing
of ideas in common.
4. Some of the important definitions of communication given by various
authorities on management are discussed below:
“Communication is the sum of all the things one person does when he
wants to create understanding in the mind of another. Communication
is a bridge of meaning. It involves a systematic and continuous process
of telling, listening and understanding”.
- Allen Louis A.
“The word communication describes the process of conveying
messages(facts , ideas , attitudes and opinions)from one person to
another so that they are understood”.
- Cummin M.W.
“Communication is an exchange of facts , ideas , opinions or emotions
by two or more persons”.
- Newman & Summer.
5. 1. It is a two - way process, viz., transmission of
message by one and the receiving of the message by
2. It is an attempt to effect a transfer of message,
ideas, opinions, etc. between two persons.
3. It involves the co-operation of two persons, viz.,
the communicator (i.e., the sender of the message)
and the communicatee (i.e., the receiver of the
4. Proper understanding of the message by the
communicatee is an important feature of
6. 5. It travels up and down, and also from
side to side.
6. Its primary purpose is to motivate a
7. Effective communication is dependent
on ability to speak as well as to listen.
8. It is the basis for action and co-
9. It is universal in the organisation.
7. 1. Basis of co. ordination: The work of the organization can
be carried out without interruption only through co-
ordination. Co- ordination is a must for the efficient
functioning of an enterprise.
2. Smooth working of an enterprise: Communication
makes possible the smooth and unrestricted running of the
enterprise. All the organizational interactions depend upon
3. Basis of Decision-Making: Communication is essential
for quick and systematic performance of managerial
functions. The management conveys through
communication only the goals and targets, issues,
instructions, allocates jobs and responsibility and looks
after the performance of subordinates.
8. 4. Promotion of Co-operation and Industrial Peace: It
can be possible only when there is industrial harmony
between management and workers. The two way
communication promotes co-operation and mutual
understanding between the parties.
5. Establishment of Effective Leadership: It can be possible
only when there is industrial harmony between
management and workers. The two way communication
promotes co-operation and mutual understanding between
6. Morale-Building and Motivation: An efficient system of
communication enables the management to mould the
attitude of the subordinate. Most of the conflict in business
are not basic but are caused by misunderstood motives and
ignorance of the facts.
9. Communication may be defined as a process
concerning exchange of facts or ideas between persons
holding different positions in an organizations to achieve
mutual harmony. The communication process is dynamic
in nature rather than a static phenomenon.
Communication process as such must be considered a
continuous and dynamic inter- action, both affecting and
being affected by many variables.
11. A communication process involves the following
1. Sender: The person who intends to convey the message with
the intention of passing information and ideas to others is
known as sender or communicator. In an organisation the
sender may be a superior, subordinate or any other person.
2. Ideas/Message: This is the subject matter or content of the
communication. This may be an opinion, attitude, feelings,
views. orders, or suggestions. A message make take three
forms: oral, written or gestural.
12. 3. Encoding: Since the subject matter of communication is
theoretical and intangible, its further passing requires use of
certain symbols such as words, actions, or pictures etc.
conversion of subject matter into these symbols is the process of
encoding. The symbols or codes selected must bear in mind the
decoding skills of the receiver.
4. Communication Channel: The person who is interested in
communicating has to choose the channel for sending the
required information, ideas etc. This information is transmitted
to the receiver through certain channels which may be either
formal or informal. The communication channel influences the
quantity and quality of information that is conveyed to the
5. Noise: Noise is any disturbance that disrupts communication
effectiveness and interferes with the transference of messages
within the communication process.
13. 6. Receiver: Receiver is the person who receives the message
or for whom the message is meant for. It is the receiver who
tries to understand the message in the best possible
manner in achieving the desired objectives.
7. Decoding: The person who receives the message or symbol
from the communicator tries to convert the same in such a
way so that he may extract its meaning to his complete
understanding. The decoding process may result in
misunderstandings if the receiver does not decode the
message as the sender intended.
8. Feedback: Feedback is the receivers response to the
senders message. It is the process of ensuring that the
receiver has received the message and understood in the
same sense as sender meant it.
14. A. According to organizational structure
1. Formal Communication :
Formal communication is a deliberate attempt to regulate
the flow of communication so as to ensure that information flow
smoothly, accurately and timely.
Eg: when general manager issues instructions ( because of his
senior position in the organization, it is formal communication.
2. Informal Communication :
Informal communication is based on informal relationship
between the parties, such as friendship, membership in the same
club or association. It is also called as grapevine communication.
15. B. According to direction
1. Downward communication
Communication which flows from the superiors to subordinates
in the form of orders, instructions, directives, plans and decisions is
referred to as downward communication.
2. Upward communication
Communication which flows from subordinates to superiors in
the form of reports, difficulties and suggestions is known as upward
3. Horizontal communication
Horizontal communication takes place between two or more
persons working on the same level of organisation.
4. Diagonal communication
Diagonal communication cuts across the line of authority for
17. C. According to way of expression
1. Oral or verbal communication
Oral communication is a direct communication between two
individuals. Two individuals exchange their ideas through oral
words either in face to face conversation or through any mechanical
or electrical device such as telephone, teleconference etc..
2. Written communication
Written communication refers to the message conveyed in
writing and includes letters, circulars , memoranda, magazines,
notes and manuals. It provides a record and ready reference to
the message communicated.
19. Miscommunication: it is a ruined form of
communication. What is to be communicated does not get
communicated and an obstructed form of the message is
Barriers to Communication: the sum total of all
the factors that can distort or prevent communication.
20. Linguistic/ Semantic barriers
Psychological & Emotional barriers
Cultural and Social barriers
Organisational structure barriers
21. Wrongly expressed message
Use of technical language
2. Organizational Barrier: Prevention of effective
communication due to organizational structure.
Complexity in structure
22. 1) Barriers related to superiors:
Fear of position
Lack of ability to communicate
Shortage of time
Lack of attention
2) Barriers related to subordinates:
Unwillingness to communicate
Lack of proper incentive
Lack of effective listening
There is a possibility of noise interruption while
communicating information. The noise may produced by the
conversation of somebody-else nearly or by the machine
operation and the like.
The communicator may miss some of the information.
The communicator may fail to supply the required information
if he communicates the information in a hurried manner.
3.ALTERATION OF INFORMATION
The information is altered if the communicator sends the
information through a third party. The third party may twist or
alter the information according to his convenience.
This barrier arises due to an increase in the number of messages
to be sent. There is a need for the introduction of
communication channel to reduce workload.
25. The receiver does not pay any attention in grasping the information.
This attitude of the receiver may be caused by the receiver’s
immersion in his own thoughts, his difficulty understanding the
information or his having no belief in the information.
For a message to be properly communicated ,the words used must
convey the same meaning to the sender and the receiver. Lack of
clarity, lack of coherence and other deficiencies may possibly result
in language differences.
Traditional organisational structures that are based upon authority
relationship restrict free and frequent information.
It occurs when gestures or symbols used by the sender to code a
message may not be understood in the same way and given the same
interpretation by the receiver.
26. How to make communication effective:
Clarity in idea
Purpose of communication
Empathy in communication
27. Clarify ideas/ thoughts before
Communicate according to the need of
Consult others before communication
Be aware of language, tone and content of
Ensure proper feedback
Consistency of message
Be a good listener
28. Employee orientation
Use of proper body language and gesture
Use of latest technology
Precise the message
29. 1.The management should clearly define its policy to the employees. It should encourage
the free flow of information.
2.To reduce and remove the perception barrier, the sender of a message
Should attempt to know the background knowledge of those with whom he is
3.Language differences can be handled by explaining the meaning of unconventional or
technical terms in simple language.
4.The management sets up a system through which only essential information could be
5.An atmosphere of mutual trust and goodwill is to be created
6.Every person in the management shares the responsibility of good communication.
7.In a modern organisation, to become a good communicator, the manager has to learn the
three important skills namely skills of learning , talking , writing and conducting a
8.Emotional reactions can be tackled by accepting them as a part of the communication
process. These should be analysed properly when they create problems.