As we know that classroom instruction, basically consists of a sequence of
activities and experiences to bring about the behavioural changes among students. It
is through meaningful communication that teacher and students interact with one
another to co – ordinate their efforts to achieve the desirable behavioural changes.
The word ‘Communication’ has its origin in the Latin and word ‘Communis’
meaning common, i.e. the communicator and the receiver have a common
understanding of a thought, idea, message, feeling etc.
Communication is a means of sending or receiving information.
“Communication is the process of transmitting messages and interpreting
meaning.” (Wilson 1995)
“Communication can be regarded as a process b y which two or more persons
exchange or share ideas, facts, feelings or impressions. The important word is
sharing; the sharing process is called communication.” (J.E. Park)
Communication refers to the transmission of thoughts, information and
commands by employing the sensory channels.” (K.L. Kumar)
Purposes of Communication
To encourage participation in decision making.
To ensure job satisfaction
To inform the community of the services available in the organization.
To induce motivation, co – operation and co – ordination in the employees.
To get the feed back from the personal and the public for improvement.
To clarify gossip rumors.
To delegate or decentralize authority.
To recruit, select, train and develop the personnel in the organization.
To transfer information and to have a common understanding among the
To improve employer – employee relationship.
Elements / Communication process
The communication process passes through seven steps: they are –
Source or Sender:
The person or objects which pass information or ideas to other persons is
known as sender or source.
This is the subject’s matter of communication. This mighty be opinions,
attitudes, feelings, view, suggestions, order etc.
Conversions of subject matter into symbols (words, actions, pictures etc.) are
the process of encoding. Symbols are transmitted from the sender to the receiver.
The symbols are transmitted through certain channels, e.g. radio, telephone,
speech, written message, gestures etc. depending upon the relative distance between
the sender and the receiver.
Receiver is the person to whom the message is meant for.
Receiver converts the symbols received from the sender to give him the
meaning of the message.
Feed back is the response from the receiver. Feed back is necessary to ensure
that the receiver has received the message and understood it in the same sense as a
Sender Ideas Encoding Channel Receiver Decoding
On the basis of flow On the basis of
Formal In formal Verbal Non
Downward Upward Horizontal
Classification of Communication
On the basis of
On the basis of relationship
1. Formal / official channel of communication:
It is the deliberately created flow of communication between various positions
in the organization. It is concerned with work related matters. The line of
communication is meant for the transmission of official messages with in or outside
the organization. The line of authority and unity of command maintained. This is
referred to “Through proper channel”. It is a deliberate attempt to regulate the flow of
organizational communication so as to make it orderly and there by to ensure that
information flows smoothly, accurately and timely to reach the persons to which it is
2. Informal communication / rumor:
The term grapevine arouse during the US civil war. The intelligence telephone
lines were strung loosely from tree to tree in a manner of grape vine with the result the
messages were distorted. Informal communication is the method by which people
carry on social, no programme activities within the formal boundaries of the
organization though it is specific channels of communication sometimes the messages
communicated are so erratic that any action based on these may lead to a difficult to
assign the responsibility to any one for spreading false information. Each person
conveying the messages any add, subtract or change the original messages.
Therefore the word ‘Rumors’ used as synonym for the whole informal communication.
On The Basis of Flow
1. Downward Communication
Downward communication with in the organization flow top to bottom i.e. from
superiors to subordinates this can be oral and written. The main purpose of this
communication is to pass on instruction, directives, orders etc. It stands as a great
force for controlling, influencing and initiating activities of the members in the
organization communication in this category include.
Orders and instruction about the job
Organizational policies and procedures
Feed back of subordinate’s performance
Reprimands criticism upward etc
Questions inviting upward communication
2. Upward Communication
Upward communication flows from the bottom to the top i.e. from the
subordinates to superiors in the form of suggestion, complaints and reports etc. This
also can be oral or written. This may include:
Problems relating to work
Performance appraisal of the subordinates
Feed back of the instructions etc
Opinions attitudes and feelings
Reports about the subordinates work performance
3. Horizontal Communication
It is the flow information between people of the same hierarchical levels. This
type of communication helps to improving understanding between equals.
On The Basis Of Expression
1. Verbal and non verbal communication
The verbal communication involves use of a spoken on written word and
depend upon language. Non verbal communication accompanies and affects the
communication. This includes:
In this type of communication, information, instruction, directives, suggestions
etc are conveyed through face to face conversion, telephone interviews lectures
conference and other medias.
Absence of any permanent records of communication.
Possibility of misunderstanding when the words are not clearly heard and
Written communication can take the form of orders, instructions, letters,
grievances, bulletin and notice boards.
Difficulty is to maintain the secrecy of the matter communicated.
If the language is not clear to the understanding of the personnel, it creates
confusion and misunderstandings.
Levels of Communication
Communication occurs at the
ii. Interpersonal &
iii. Public levels
i) Intrapersonal Communication:
It occurs within an individual. It is the self talk or an internal dialogue that
occurs constantly and consciously. The goal of the intrapersonal communication is
self – awareness, which is influenced by the self concept and feelings of self worth.
Positive self concept and self awareness that comes through internal dialogue can
help nurses express themselves appropriately to others.
For example: When a nurse walks into the client’s room and thinks, “He looks
uncomfortable, I’d better turn him on his side”, the communication is intrapersonal.
In another situation when a nurse notes a grimaced facial expression on the
face of a client and thinks “Is this client in pain? What do I need to do for the client?
When was the last dose of pain medication administrated”.
ii) Interpersonal Communication:
It is the interaction between two people or in a small group. It is often face – to
face and is the type most frequently used in nursing situations. Healthy interpersonal
communication allows problem solving; sharing of ideas, decision making and
personal growth. In nursing, there are many situations that challenge interpersonal
communication skills. Each encounter with a client, such as
Collecting a blood specimen
Taking a healthy history requires.
Exchange of information. Meeting with staff members, physicians, social
workers and therapists, tests the nurse’s skill with people who have different opinions
and experiences. Being a member of nursing committee challenges the nurse’s ability
to express ideas clearly and decisively. Interpersonal communication is the heart of
nursing practice. A nurse can help a client by communicating at a meaningful
iii) Public Communication:
It is interaction with large groups of people.
For example – Giving a lecture to a roomful of students and speaking to a
consumer group on health promotion.
Being a competent communication with an audience requires the ability to
envision oneself speaking to a group. Special platform skills such as use of posture,
body movements and tone of voice help the speaker to express ideas.
Effective communication might be the result of accurate transmission of
information / ideas by the sender and its receipt and the correct understanding by the
receiver. Very often the communication process may be blocked or distorted causing
undesired effects. Therefore, one has to reduce the barriers in communication.
The barriers to communication may be:
i) Barriers arising from the linguistic capacity of the sender and the receiver:
1. Badly expressed message
2. Faulty translations
3. Faulty assumptions
4. Use of technical language
ii) Barriers causing from the emotional or psychological status of the sender
3. Prejudice, Jealously, anger, anxiety,
4. Lack of interest
5. Failure to communicate
iii) Barriers arising within the organizational structure:
1. Complexity in organizational structure involving a number of managerial levels
2. Organizational policies not supportive to the flow of communication.
3. Organizational rules and regulations not supportive to the flow of
iv) Barriers arising from the individuals:
1. Unwillingness to communicate
2. Lack of time
3. Lack of confidence
4. Fear of being criticized
5. Disorders of the sense organs
v) Barriers arising from the environmental factors:
1. Geographical distance.
2. Mechanical / Electrical failures
How To Make Communication Effective
1. Have clarity in idea - The sender must be clear about what he wants to
2. Use two – way communication - The sender makes use of feedback to ensure
that the massage has reached the message has reached the receiver in the
way he wants.
3. Have adequacy of the message that is to be communicated.
4. Use appropriate language and symbols by the use of words, pictures, gestures
5. Have credibility in communication. The sender must maintain trust credibility.
6. Be sensitive to the receiver’s needs, feelings and perceptions.
7. Be a good listener, follow LADDER pattern,
L – Look at the person & maintain good eye contact.
A – Ask appropriate questions.
D – Don’t interrupt.
D – Don’t change subject.
E – Express emotions with control
R – Responsively listen.
So far today we seen about the Communication, types & How To Make
Nurses who work in the health field use special skill, or “interpersonal
techniques” to assist clients in adapting to difficulties or changes in life experiences.
For it effective communication is very necessary.
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