• Educational objectives are the statements of
those changes in behaviour which are desired
as a result of specific learner & teacher activity.
• They define not only the behaviour sought in
the learner but also the areas of human
experience through which this behaviour is to
3. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GOALS &
1. Are broad, brief statements of
purpose which provides focus
or vision for program
2. They are expressed in non
verbs as- learn, understand,
feel, know & usually cannot be
1. Are more realistic,
describe targets for the
2. They are expressed in an
active measurable tense &
use strong verbs like plan,
write, conduct, produce,
they can be attained.
4. Importance of writing objectives
• Criteria for selecting content of the programme.
• Selecting teaching strategies & a basis for evaluation.
• While writing learning objectives-
• The focus is on students performance and not on
• The focus is on the product and not the process.
• The focus is on the terminal behaviour & not the subject
• State only one general learning outcomes in each
6. Behaviour/ performance-
An objective must state the competency to be learned
in performance terms.
This is the core of the course objectives.
It describe what the learner will be able to perform at
the end of instruction & be acceptable to the instructor
as a proof that learning has occurred.
Eg- after completion of maternal child health course,
the student will be able to-
oAssist with the conduction of normal vaginal delivery.
oAssess & classify the sick new-born.
oAdminister the preferred family planning method.
• A criterion is a description of how well the performance
must be demonstrated or the performance standard.
• Eg-according to the standards presented in the course
• According to the clinical protocol or checklist.
• an objective should state the conditions under which
the learner will be expected to perform in the
8. The four-part method of objective writing
1. Without using
2. Using model
1. The student
2. The staff
3. The patient
1. Will solve
3. Will list
1. 5 out of 6 maths
2. The correct
3. At least two
reason for losing
9. Classification of objectives
• It is supreme importance in any unit of teaching or learning.
• It gives clarity, design, meaning & unity to the learning activities.
• Eg-to provide preventive & curative nursing care to the individuals
& community ,in health & in sickness.
• Here the professional functions are broken down into components
(activities) which collectively denote the nature of the functions.
• Eg- planning & carrying out of blood grouping sessions for a
group of adult in the community.
• These are accurate professional tasks whose outcomes are
observable & measurable against given criteria.
• It describe the performance demonstrated by the learner at the
end of each course or units.
• Eg-using syringe to take blood sample(3ml)from the ante-cubital
vein of an adult (criteria- absence of haematoma, amount of blood
taken within 10% of the amount required, not more than two
10. Taxonomy of educational objectives
• A systematic organization of objectives into 3 domains to
help the teachers in precise formulation & evaluates the
results of a system of education, it helps the students to
prepare for educations to obtain the desired end result.
• Educational objectives are classified into 3 domains
1. Cognitive domain (head).
2. Affective domain (heart).
3. Psychomotor domain (hand).
11. Cognitive domain
• Cognitive domains concerned with knowledge,
understanding & intellectual skills such as a
• Eg- following a discussion related to nurse-
patient interaction the registered nurse will
identify in writing four phases of nurse patient
12. Cognitive process dimension
remember understand apply analyze evaluate create
13. Affective domain
• These objectives concerned with feelings &
emotions such as attitudes, values,
appreciations & interests.
• Eg- given the opportunity for attending a
leadership development workshop- the
registered nurse demonstrates interest by
participating in discussion & completing written
• Receiving- is willing to notice a particular phenomenon.
• Responding-makes response, at first with compliance,
latter willingly & with satisfaction.
• Valuing-accepts worth of a thing.
• Organization- organizes values, determines
interrelationships, adapts behaviour to value system.
• Characterization- generalizes certain values into
controlling tendencies, emphasis on internal consistency,
later integrates these into a total philosophy of life or
16. Psychomotor domain
• These objectives concerned with manipulative
skills & coordinated.
• Eg- after observing a demonstration of an
intramuscular injection, the licensed practical
nurse will repeat the demonstration in
accordance with established procedure.
18. Forms of statement of objectives
1. Teacher- centered objectives-objectives may be
stated in the form of activities which the teacher is to
2. Subject- centered objectives-objectives may be
stated in the form of topics, concepts, generalization or
other elements of contents to be taught.
3. Behaviour-centered objectives-objectives may be
stated in the form of the desired behaviour changes.
4. Learning-centered objectives-objectives may be
stated in relation to the learner either in terms of what
the learner to do or in terms of the desired outcomes of
19. Criteria for selection & statement of
• The objectives should be stated in terms of the desired changes
in behaviour & the area of content
• The objective should be attainable & practical in the specific
• The objective should serve as a motivating force for both
student & teacher.
• The objective should be understood & accepted by the teacher
& the student.
• The objective should be so worded that each statement contains
only one objectives in order to prevent confusion & to facilitate
ready identification of objectives.
• Evaluation devices should be planned & developed & used to
determine if objectives have been attained
21. SMART OBJECTIVES
• Specific- states exactly what one need to
• Measurable-indicates a quality or quantity of
• Attainable-objectives stated must be
achievable within a given time.
• Realistic- can be challenging but must be
• Time bound- with a clear end date or time