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Introduces and discusses theories and research about the causes of aggression and anti-social behaviour.

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  1. 1. Social Psychology <ul><ul><li>Lecture 4, Week 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semester 2, 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecturer: James Neill </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Theories & factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What it is good for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innate or learned? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External / situational causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crowd behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlling and preventing </li></ul>
  3. 3. Defining Aggression
  4. 4. Definitions <ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An intentional behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intent is to harm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The victim wants to avoid harm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggression, with the goal of extreme physical harm </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Aggression = <ul><li>No consensus </li></ul><ul><li>What counts as aggressive behaviour is determined by the social codes & conventions around the behaviour in question . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Aggression = <ul><li>“ Behaviour that is intended to hurt another person or group” (Carr, p.359) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aggression = <ul><li>“ Behaviour that results in personal injury or destruction of property” (Bandura, 1973) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Aggression = <ul><li>“ Behaviour directed towards the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment” (Baron, 1977) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Aggression = <ul><li>“ The intentional infliction of some form of harm on others” </li></ul><ul><li>(Baron & Byrne, 2000) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Aggression = <ul><li>“ Behaviour directed towards another individual carried out with the proximate (immediate) intent to cause harm” </li></ul><ul><li>(Anderson & Huesmann, 2003) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Definitions <ul><li>Antisocial Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior that either damages interpersonal relationships or is culturally undesirable. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aggression may be social or antisocial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviours in addition to aggression may be antisocial. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Why aggression? <ul><li>Aggression is universal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural rules restrain aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aggression aids social animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture offers nonviolent ways of resolving conflicts and problems </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Aggression
  14. 14. Types of aggression <ul><li>Hostile </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental </li></ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul>
  15. 15. Hostile aggression <ul><li>Hot, impulsive </li></ul><ul><li>Intentional use of harmful behaviour ► the goal is to cause injury to the victim. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Instrumental aggression <ul><li>Cold, premeditated </li></ul><ul><li>Intentional use of harmful behaviour ► so that one can achieve some other goal. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Passive aggression <ul><li>Harming others by withholding a behaviour (e.g., purposely failing to convey an important message). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Active aggression <ul><li>Harming others by performing a behaviour (e.g., spreading vicious rumors). </li></ul>
  19. 19. Theories of, & Factors Contributing to, Aggression
  20. 20. Aggression: What it is good for. (Lorenz) Lorenz, K. (1963).What aggression is good for. In K. Lorenz (1963). On aggression (Ch 3, pp. 17-39). Norfolk, UK: Cox & Wyman. (E-reserve – Alternative textbook chapters – optional reading.) Evidence from studies of aggression in animals
  21. 21. Ethological perspective <ul><li>Ethology: the study of animal behaviour in natural settings </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression … “the fighting instinct in beast and man which is directed against members of the same species” (Lorenz, 1963, p. ix) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Lorenz – Evolutionary Perspective <ul><li>Studying animals in their natural habitat or simulated natural habitat </li></ul><ul><li>An evolutionary perspective - a natural history of aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary significance of phylogenesis </li></ul>
  23. 23. Lorenz – Evolutionary Perspective <ul><li>“Fish are far more aggressive towards their own species than towards any other” (1969, p.13) </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>“ The loud colours of coral fish call loudly for explanation. What species preserving function could have caused their evolution? I bought the most colourful fishes I could find and , for comparison, a few less colourful and even some really drab species. Then I made an unexpected discovery: in the case of most of the really flamboyant poster-coloured fish, it is quite impossible to keep more than one individual of a species in a small aquarium. If I put several members of the same species into the tank, there were vicious fights and within a short time only the strongest fish were left alive. Later in [the bays of] Florida it impressed me deeply to watch in the sea the same scene that I had always observed in my aquarium after the fatal battles: several fish, but only one of each species, each brightly coloured but flying a different flag, living peaceably together.. In the sea, the principle ‘Like avoids like’ is upheld without bloodshed, owing to the fact that the conquered fish flees from the territory of his conqueror, who does not pursue him far: whereas in the aquarium, where there is no escape, the winner often kills the loser, or at least claims the whole container as his territory and so intimidates the weaker fish with continual attacks that they grow much more slowly than he does; and so his dominance increases till it leads to the fatal conclusion” (1969, pp. 10-11) </li></ul>Aggression – what it is good for
  25. 25. <ul><li>Answer 1: Aggression in animals has a protective function (prey defending against predator) The phenomena of “mobbing” </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting role distinguished from hunter role (the former associated with aggression; the latter not) </li></ul>Aggression – what it is good for
  26. 26. <ul><li>Answer 2: Defence of the young. “fighting like a cornered rat” is motivated by an invasion of an animal’s critical distance </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness to fight is greatest in the animals’ familiar (home) territory and least furthest from home </li></ul>Aggression – what it is good for
  27. 27. <ul><li>Answer 3: Within a species, aggression spaces out animals so that they don’t compete for the same resources (and starve) </li></ul>Aggression – what it is good for
  28. 28. <ul><li>“ Unless the special interests of a social organisation demand close aggregation of its members, it is obviously most expedient, to spread the individuals of an animal species as evenly as possible over the available habitat. To use a human analogy: if, in a certain area, a large number of doctors, builders and mechanics want to exist, the representatives of these professions will do well to settle as far away from each other as possible. The danger of too dense a population of an animal species settling in one part of the available biotope and exhausting all the sources of nutrition and so starving can be obviated by a mutual repulsion acting on the animals of the same species, effecting their regular spacing out, in much the same manner as the electrical charges are regularly distributed all over the surface of a spherical container. This, in plain terms, is the most important survival value of intra-specific aggression” (Lorenz, 1963, p.24). </li></ul>Aggression – what it is good for
  29. 29. <ul><li>Answer 4: Structuring animal society. Establishing a “pecking order” </li></ul><ul><li>Ritualised fighting- fighting fair. </li></ul>Aggression – what it is good for
  30. 30. <ul><li>“ In jackdaws, and in many other social birds, ranking order leads directly to protection of the weaker ones. All social animals are ‘status seekers’, hence there is always particularly high tension between individuals who hold immediately adjoining positions in the ranking order: conversely, this tension diminishes the farther apart the two animals are in rank. Since high-ranking jackdaws, particularly males, interfere in every quarrel between two inferiors, this gradation of social tension has the desirable effect that the higher ranking birds always intervene in favour of the losing party” (p.36) </li></ul>Aggression – what it is good for
  31. 31. <ul><li>“ In many perch-like fishes…another form of threatening has arisen from the ritualisation of a frontal attack inhibited by fear. Each of the two adversaries swims straight at the other, preparing but not quite daring to deliver a ramming thrust. Their bodies tense and twisted like S-shaped springs, the opponents swim slowly toward each other and come to a standstill head to head, usually spreading the gill covers and blowing out the branchial membrane, thus enlarging the body contours visible to the enemy. Sometimes [they] simultaneously snap at the presented mouth of the other…” (p.95) </li></ul>Aggression – what it is good for
  32. 32. <ul><li>Answer 5: Establishing the bond </li></ul><ul><li>Complex interplay of aggressive and mating instincts </li></ul>Aggression – what it is good for
  33. 33. <ul><li>“… the phylogenetic prototype of the personal bond and of group formation is the attachment between two partners which together tend their young. From such a tie a family can easily arise, but the bond with which we are here concerned is of a much more special kind. We will now describe how this bond comes about in cichlids…” </li></ul>Aggression – what it is good for
  34. 34. <ul><li>“… In observing, with a thorough knowledge of all the expression movements, the processes which in cichlids effect the coming together of partners of the opposite sex, it is a nerve-racking experience to see the prospective mates in a state of real fury with each other. Again and again they are close to starting a vicious fight, again and again the ominous flare-up of the aggressive drive is only just inhibited and murder side-stepped by a hairsbreadth. Our apprehension is by no means formed on a false interpretation of the particular expression movements observed in our fish: every fish breeder knows that it is risky to put male and female of a cichlid species together in a tank, and that there is considerable danger of casualty if pair formation is not constantly supervised…” </li></ul>Aggression – what it is good for
  35. 35. Aggression – what it is good for <ul><li>“… Under natural conditions habituation is largely responsible for preventing hostilities between the prospective mates. WE can best imitate the natural conditions by putting several young, still peaceable fish in a large aquarium and letting them grow up together. Pair formation then takes place in the following way: on reaching sexual maturity a certain fish, usually a male, takes possession of a territory and drives out all the others. Later when the female is willing to pair, she approaches the territory owner cautiously and, if she acknowledges the superior rank of the male, responds to his attacks which, at first, are quite seriously meant… with the …’coyness behaviour’, consisting…of behaviour elements arising partly from mating, and partly from escape drives. If, despite the clearly aggression-inhibiting intentions of these gestures, the male attacks, the female may leave the territory for a short time, but sooner of later she returns. This is repeated over a varying period until each of the two animals is so accustomed to the presence of the other that the aggression-eliciting stimuli inevitably proceeding from the male lose their effect” (pp.142-143) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Lorenz - conclusion <ul><li>Evolutionary perspective on the social life of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Much more could be said, but this taster from Lorenz hopefully provides a sense of an evolutionary natural science perspective on social life in animals. </li></ul><ul><li>This is suggestive of some important lines of inquiry for social psychological work on aggression. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Criticisms <ul><li>Can animal research be generalised to humans? </li></ul><ul><li>Instincts – descriptive rather than explanatory, circular reasoning, little proof. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethological/sociobiological - can’t explain cross-cultural differences (some cultures are more aggressive than others), domestic violence </li></ul><ul><li>Negative view - if aggression is innate, this implies it can’t be reduced or changed? </li></ul><ul><li>Ignores social factors - role of cultural, historical, economic, political factors in aggression. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Instinct Theories of Aggression <ul><li>Freud proposed human motivational forces are based on instinct: </li></ul><ul><li>Sex – life giving instinct – Eros </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression – death instinct - Thanatos </li></ul>
  39. 39. Learning Theories of Aggression <ul><li>Aggression is a learned behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bandura and colleagues (1961, 1963) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children who watched the aggressive model had the highest level of aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If a model acts aggressively, inhibitions against aggression can be overcome </li></ul>
  40. 40. Nature & Nurture <ul><li>Cultural socialisation and learning can increase or decrease innate aggressive impulses and aggressive behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Both learning and instinct are relevant </li></ul>
  41. 41. Inner Causes of Aggression
  42. 42. Inner causes <ul><li>Drive theory & frustration-aggression hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Relative deprivation theory </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Excitation-transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Unpleasant moods </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul>
  43. 43. Frustration-aggression hypothesis (1939) <ul><li>Drive theory </li></ul><ul><li>The occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposes the existence of frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration creates anger which creates aggression </li></ul>
  44. 44. Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Criticisms <ul><li>Does frustration always lead to aggression? </li></ul><ul><li>Is aggression always caused by frustration? </li></ul><ul><li>Revised models argue that frustration (plus other factors) lead to negative affect which leads to the inclination to aggress. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Relative deprivation theory <ul><li>Sense of deprivation is relative rather than absolute. </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of having less than one is entitled to. </li></ul><ul><li>Related to the idea of frustration/aggression. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived relative deprivation leads to feelings of frustration -> social unrest & possibly violence. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Relative deprivation theory <ul><li>Egoistic relative deprivation - compare self to other individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Fraternal relative deprivation - compare ingroup to outgroups. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Personality determinants of aggression <ul><li>Type-A personality </li></ul><ul><li>‘Big 5’ - agreeableness & emotional stability related to aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Hostile attribution bias - tendency to perceive others actions as stemming from hostile intent </li></ul>
  48. 48. Excitation-transfer <ul><li>Zillmann, 1988, 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Arousal in one situation may be transferred to another situation </li></ul><ul><li>Misattribution of arousal ► aggression </li></ul>
  49. 49. Excitation-transfer Applying the excitation-transfer model of aggression Student works out at gymnasium <ul><li>High level of excitation: </li></ul><ul><li>heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>muscle tremor </li></ul>Motorist takes last parking space Aggression (Continuing effect)
  50. 50. Unpleasant moods <ul><li>Increase aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Bad mood is not necessary for aggression </li></ul>
  51. 51. Anger <ul><li>Does not directly or inevitably cause aggression </li></ul><ul><li>If one believes aggression will dissipate anger, will behave more aggressively </li></ul>
  52. 52. Cognitive Theories of Aggression
  53. 53. Cognitive theories <ul><li>Scripts for how to behave in certain situations – e.g., what do you do if someone pushes you? These scripts are learnt from parents, media, experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Attributions regarding reasons for aggression – e.g., why did the person push you? </li></ul>
  54. 54. Hostile Cognitive Biases <ul><li>Hostile attribution bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceive ambiguous actions by others as aggressive, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– e.g., someone bumps into you, you attribute their behaviour to a desire to hurt you rather than an accident. </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Hostile Cognitive Biases <ul><li>Hostile perception bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceive social interactions as being aggressive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hostile expectation bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume people will react to potential conflicts with aggression </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Hostile Cognitive Biases <ul><li>Aggressive people have inner biases that make them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect others to react aggressively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View ambiguous acts as aggressive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume others act purposefully when they hurt or offend them </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Age & Aggression <ul><li>25% of toddler interactions in day-care settings involve physical aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited alternatives for solving conflict </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Gender & Aggression <ul><li>When under stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males – fight or flight syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females – tend and befriend syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In all known societies – men just over age of puberty commit most violent crimes and acts </li></ul><ul><li>Females exhibit more relational aggression </li></ul>
  59. 59. Other Inner Causes of Aggression
  60. 60. <ul><li>Hormones - testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic make-up - XYY chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differences </li></ul>Other inner causes of aggression
  61. 61. <ul><li>males more likely to engage in physical aggression which causes physical injury. </li></ul><ul><li>no differences in verbal aggression or expressing anger. </li></ul><ul><li>females more likely to engage in indirect aggression </li></ul><ul><li>female aggression more hostile, male more instrumental </li></ul>Other inner causes: Gender
  62. 62. <ul><li>Direct provocation - reciprocity norm, lead to upward spiral of aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol - +ve relationship between aggression & alcohol consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Disinhibition & ‘learned’ disinhibition </li></ul>Other inner causes of aggression
  63. 63. Interpersonal Causes of Aggression
  64. 64. Bandura, Social Learning, Aggression, & the Bobo Doll Experiment
  65. 65. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Albert Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression not innate </li></ul><ul><li>Learning via vicarious experience </li></ul><ul><li>Modelling or observational learning </li></ul><ul><li>Children imitate aggressive model especially if model’s behaviour is reinforced </li></ul>
  66. 66. Bandura & colleagues (1963) <ul><li>4-5 year olds watched adults ‘play’ with a Bobo doll </li></ul><ul><li>1. Live </li></ul><ul><li>2. Videotape </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cartoon </li></ul><ul><li>4. Control </li></ul>
  67. 67. Social Learning Theory Learning aggression through mere observation: the effects on children of watching a violent model Condition Number of aggressive acts 0 5 10 15 20 25 Live Videotape Cartoon Control
  68. 68. <ul><li>Children more likely to imitate same-sex models. </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to imitate if model was rewarded (reinforced). </li></ul><ul><li>Common models - family, sub-culture, media. </li></ul>Bandura & colleagues (1963)
  69. 69. <ul><li>How is aggression measured? </li></ul><ul><li>Can findings be extended to ‘real life’ situations? (external validity) </li></ul><ul><li>Validity of experimentation on aggression </li></ul>Criticisms of Bandura's studies
  70. 70. Selfishness & Influence <ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be a means to resolve social disputes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be a form of social influence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors that encourage use of aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More you want the reward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believe you will be successful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconcerned with morality or risk </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Domestic & Relationship Violence <ul><li>Domestic violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs within the home, between people who have a close relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aggression is highest between siblings </li></ul><ul><li>Surgeon General declared domestic violence the number one health risk in US (1984) </li></ul>
  72. 72. Domestic & Relationship Violence <ul><li>Domestic violence occurs all over the world </li></ul><ul><li>It is leading cause of injuries to women 15-44 </li></ul><ul><li>Women attack relationship partners slightly more than men do, but without as much harm </li></ul><ul><li>Physically weaker family members are at greatest risk </li></ul>
  73. 73. Displaced aggression <ul><li>Displaced aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kicking the dog effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triggered displaced aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor triggering event increases aggression in angered participants </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Environmental or Situational Contributors to Aggression
  75. 75. Relative deprivation <ul><li>Feel disadvantaged relative to other reference groups, little hope of improving conditions legitimately ► aggression. </li></ul><ul><li>Little hope of improving conditions legitimately ► aggression. </li></ul>
  76. 76. <ul><li>Aggressive ‘cues’ ► trigger aggression (Berkowitz) e.g., guns, knives, the colour black. </li></ul><ul><li>Weapons effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mere presence of weapon increases aggressive behavior </li></ul></ul>Aggressive ‘cues’
  77. 77. Mass media <ul><li>Strongly debated, but in general… </li></ul><ul><li>Violent media exposure tends to be associated with increased aggression </li></ul>
  78. 78. Aggression & the media <ul><li>Children in USA watch > 30 hrs TV per week & witness more than 10,000 violent acts per year. </li></ul><ul><li>Eron & Huesmann (1986) - longitudinal study linking TV violence & aggression </li></ul><ul><li>experimental evidence - e.g., Black & Bevan (1992) </li></ul>
  79. 79. Aggression & the media Film-goers’ aggression scores before and after watching a non-violent or a violent film (Black & Bevan, 1992) Film Before viewing After viewing Aggression score 0 3 6 9 12 15 Non-violent Violent
  80. 80. Why does viewing media violence contribute to aggression? <ul><li>Desensitisation, disinhibition </li></ul><ul><li>Excitation-transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Modelling - role of reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire new aggressive responses/ priming aggressive scripts </li></ul><ul><li>Berkowitz (1984) - neo-associationist analysis - priming of images -> anti-social acts </li></ul>
  81. 81. Aggression & erotica/pornography <ul><li>Does arousal lead to aggression? - excitation-transfer </li></ul><ul><li>U-shaped relationship between sexual arousal & aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Mild arousal associated with positive affect & less aggression (erotica) </li></ul><ul><li>High arousal associated with negative affect & more aggression (pornography) </li></ul>
  82. 82. Unpleasant Environments <ul><li>Hot temperatures are associated with aggression and violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of global warming? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Loud noises, foul odors, air pollution, and crowding can increase aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Crowding - disinhibition, deinviduation, dehumanisation </li></ul>
  83. 83. Chemical Influences <ul><li>Testosterone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to increased aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serotonin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low levels linked to aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to increased aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Junk food can increase violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin supplements reduces antisocial behavior </li></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Alcohol & Aggression <ul><li>How alcohol influences aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces inhibitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrowing effect on attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases self-awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disrupts executive function </li></ul></ul>
  85. 85. Self and Culture
  86. 86. Norms and Values <ul><li>Running amok and aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultures can promote violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People may believe aggression is uncontrollable, but they may be mistaken </li></ul></ul>
  87. 87. Self-Control <ul><li>Poor self-control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an important cause of crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a predictor of violent crimes </li></ul></ul>
  88. 88. Wounded Pride <ul><li>Violent individuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think they are better than other people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have grandiose or inflated opinions of their worth </li></ul></ul>
  89. 89. Wounded Pride <ul><li>Violent individuals typically have the trait of narcissism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking oneself special </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling entitled to preferential treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willing to exploit others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low empathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grandiose fantasies </li></ul></ul>
  90. 90. Wounded Pride <ul><li>Narcissistic Personality Inventory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High scores + blow to ego = aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most aggression is the result of some type of provocation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other factors increase or decrease effect of wounded pride </li></ul></ul>
  91. 91. Culture of Honor <ul><li>Southern US has culture of honor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violent response to threats to one’s honor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher levels of violence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humiliation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary cause of violence and aggression in cultures of honor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be an important cause of terrorism </li></ul></ul>
  92. 92. Other Antisocial Behavior <ul><li>Cheating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-control is important predictor of cheating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stealing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People in deindividuated state more likely to steal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diener et al. (1976) </li></ul></ul>
  93. 93. Other Antisocial Behavior <ul><li>Littering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When it seems everybody else is littering, people are more likely to litter too </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Males litter more than females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young people litter more than older people </li></ul></ul>
  94. 94. Norms <ul><li>Injunctive norms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specify what most approve or disapprove of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be effective in reducing litter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Descriptive norms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specify what most people do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have not been effective in reducing litter </li></ul></ul>
  95. 95. What Makes Us Human? <ul><li>In some ways humans are more aggressive than other animals </li></ul><ul><li>Only humans kill for ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Human cultures unique in attempts to restrain aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Culture creates new opportunities for antisocial behavior </li></ul>
  96. 96. Crowd Behaviour
  97. 97. Crowd Behaviour
  98. 98. <ul><li>Deindividuation (Zimbardo, 1969) - lowered personal responsibility & self-awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>Crowd provides anonymity & diffusion of responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Deindividuation leads to disinhibited, anti-social behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., Zimbardo (1970) </li></ul><ul><li>Role of norms - deindividuation doesn’t necessarily lead to anti-social behaviour (e.g., Johnson & Dowling, 1979) </li></ul>Crowd Behaviour
  99. 100. Emergent norm theory (Turner, 1974) <ul><li>No clear norms for behaviour in crowds </li></ul><ul><li>Attend to distinctive behaviours - often anti-social behaviours. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., look to others behaviour in a crowd to decide the most appropriate way to act. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More likely to notice the anti-social behaviours e.g., people throwing bottles at a cricket match. </li></ul>
  100. 102. Social Identity Theory <ul><li>Reicher (1984, 1987) - individuals don’t lose identity in crowds. </li></ul><ul><li>Take on different identities (social identities). </li></ul><ul><li>Crowd behaviour is an example of intergroup behaviour, e.g., rioters versus police. </li></ul>
  101. 103. Controlling & Preventing Aggression
  102. 104. Learning theories <ul><li>Positive role models at home & in the media </li></ul><ul><li>Does punishment decrease aggression? </li></ul><ul><li>Effective punishment must be - prompt, certain, strong, justified </li></ul><ul><li>Violent punishment may be modelled ► cycle of violence </li></ul>
  103. 105. Catharsis <ul><li>Express aggressive impulses in safe ways - release aggressive energy (e.g., playing sport) </li></ul><ul><li>Effects appear to be temporary </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression may be increased by ‘safe’ aggressive activities </li></ul>
  104. 106. Cognitive Interventions <ul><li>Changing attributions/appraisals </li></ul><ul><li>Relearning scripts </li></ul>
  105. 107. Interpersonal interventions <ul><li>Contact hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Social skills training e.g., anger management </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to non-aggressive models </li></ul><ul><li>Incompatible responses e.g., Baron (1976) </li></ul>
  106. 108. Co-operation between groups <ul><li>Superordinate goals </li></ul><ul><li>Recategorisation </li></ul>