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Current Trends in OER

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Current Trends in OER

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This is a Guest Lecture delivered to PhD Scholars at the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), Pakistan on 7th October 2015. The presentation explores the current global trends in Open Educational Resources (OER). The specific topics covered include a brief introduction to OER; defining the “O” in OER; how licensing works with the new Creative Commons 4.0 International licensing scheme; defining the usefulness of an OER for a particular teaching and learning purpose through the “Desirability” framework; and identifying the objectives of large scale OER projects through the “Focus Triangle”.

This is a Guest Lecture delivered to PhD Scholars at the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), Pakistan on 7th October 2015. The presentation explores the current global trends in Open Educational Resources (OER). The specific topics covered include a brief introduction to OER; defining the “O” in OER; how licensing works with the new Creative Commons 4.0 International licensing scheme; defining the usefulness of an OER for a particular teaching and learning purpose through the “Desirability” framework; and identifying the objectives of large scale OER projects through the “Focus Triangle”.

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Current Trends in OER

  1. 1. Current Trends in OER Guest Lecture Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), Pakistan By Ishan Abeywardena, Ph.D. 7th September 2015
  2. 2. Lecture Outline • Brief Introduction to OER • How Licensing Works • What OER to Use in My Teaching (Desirability) • Focus Triangle for OER Projects (Conceptual)
  3. 3. A Technical Perspective
  4. 4. “web-based materials, offered freely and openly for use and re- use in teaching, learning and research” (Joyce, 2007). Joyce, A. (2007). OECD Study of OER: Forum Report, OECD. Retrieved December 12, 2011 from http://www.unesco.org/iiep/virtualuniversity/forumsfiche.php?queryforumspages_id=33.
  5. 5. “teaching, learning and research materials in any medium, digital or otherwise, that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions” (UNESCO Paris OER Declaration, 2012) UNESCO. (2012, June 22). 2012 PARIS OER DECLARATION. Retrieved June 13, 2013, from unesco.org: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/WPFD2009/English_Declaration.html
  6. 6. OER: Just another means of getting there…
  7. 7. four ‘R’s model: Reuse Redistribute Revise Remix Retain Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Stein, J., & Johnson, A. (2010). The four R‘s of openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for open educational resources. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 25(1), 37-44. O Openness
  8. 8. Increasing openness of the four ‘R’s: adapted from (Hilton et al., 2010)
  9. 9. International
  10. 10. Source: http://creativecommons.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/cc40-itshere-275.png used under CC BY 4.0 International License
  11. 11. • A more global license • Rights outside the scope of copyright • Common-sense attribution • Enabling more anonymity, when desired • 30-day window to correct license violations • Increased readability • Clarity about adaptations What’s new in CC 4.0? Source: http://creativecommons.org/version4
  12. 12. So…how do I find the material I need for my teaching?
  13. 13. i. Facilitate finding, retrieving and sharing of OER. Encourage the development of user- friendly tools to locate and retrieve OER that are specific and relevant to particular needs. (UNESCO Paris OER Declaration, 2012) The Declaration UNESCO. (2012). Paris OER Declaration, Retrieved September18, 2012 from http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/Events/Paris%20OER%20Declaration_
  14. 14. How useful is a resource really?
  15. 15. Measures of Usefulness Openness Accessibility Relevance
  16. 16. Less useful resources are less desirable for teaching and learning needs…. What is Desirability?
  17. 17. The four R’s (Hilton et al., 2010) ▫ Reuse: the ability to use all or part of a work for ones own purposes; ▫ Redistribute: the ability to share ones work with others; ▫ Revise: the ability to adapt, modify, translate or change the form of a work; ▫ Remix: the ability to combine resources to make new resources. Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Stein, J., & Johnson, A. (2010). The four R‘s of openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for open educational resources. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 25(1), 37-44. Increasing Openness Openness
  18. 18. Access (ALMS) Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Stein, J., & Johnson, A. (2010). The four R‘s of openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for open educational resources. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 25(1), 37-44. •Access to editing tools •Level of expertise required to revise or remix •Meaningfully editable •Source file access
  19. 19. Relevance Search rank Value Below the top 30 ranks of the search results 1 Within the top 21-30 ranks of the search results 2 Within the top 11-20 ranks of the search results 3 Within the top 10 ranks of the search results 4 The level of relevance based on search rank (Vaughan, 2004) • Users will only consider the top ten ranked results for a particular search as the most relevant; • Users will ignore the results below the top 30 ranks. Vaughan, L. (2004). New measurements for search engine evaluation proposed and tested. Information Processing and Management 40, 677–691.
  20. 20. i.e. Desirability D-index = (level of access x level of openness x relevance) / 256
  21. 21. DESIRABILITY SHARING ROI SUSTAINABILTY FOCUS TRIANGLE FOR OER PROJECTS (Conceptual) •Attributes •Objectives
  22. 22. DESIRABILITY SHARING ROI SUSTAINABILTY Increased Sharing
  23. 23. DESIRABILITY SUSTAINABILTY Increased ROI
  24. 24. DESIRABILITY ROI Increased Sustainability
  25. 25. Thank You

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