MSW 2 YEAR
Central University of Karnataka, kalburgi
• Lifestyle disease associated with the way a person or group of people lives. Lifestyle diseases
include atherosclerosis, heart disease, and stroke; obesity and type 2 diabetes; and diseases
associated with smoking and alcohol and drug abuse. While urbanization and progress have
brought about tremendous improvements in health care and the general standards of living,
the pressures of sustaining these standards does take a toll on us. As we struggle to cope
with the pressures of work and survival today, we often compromise on diet, exercise, rest
and relaxation, making convenient but poor choices. Consequently, while the toll from
infectious diseases like tuberculosis, influenza and smallpox has greatly reduced, lifestyle
diseases like diabetes and atherosclerosis have seen a dramatic rise. Lifestyle diseases are
diseases that are a result of the way we lead our lives on a daily basis. More work and no
play, makes a lot of us prone to a host of diseases, physical ailments, and emotional
problems. These are the diseases that develop as a result The type of work we do,
Environmental factors that affect our living conditions, Work environments, The food we
eat, Our exercise habits & Stress
• What are Lifestyle Diseases?
"Motivation is what gets you started. Habit is what keeps you going." - Jim Rohn
Lifestyle diseases are symptomatic of everything that is wrong with today’s lifestyle.
Although the term was once used interchangeably with ‘longevity diseases’, this no
longer holds true, as lifestyle diseases are no longer age specific. Diseases that are
linked with lifestyle choices such as those caused primarily by the consumption of
junk food and processed food, lack of physical activity, work stress and other factors
have now begun to affect young adults and children as well.
• According to the World Health Organization the entire world is
moving towards public health disaster as approximately 16 million
people annually fall victim to lifestyle diseases prematurely. Just in
2012, non-communicable diseases were responsible for the deaths of
38 million people worldwide, with 16 million of its victims being
under the age of 70. The need for public awareness isn’t stressed
enough, but is important because lifestyle diseases are also the most
easy to prevent. Simply modifying your lifestyle to eliminate and
reduce risks can make a huge difference.
List of Lifestyle Diseases
• Lifestyle diseases account for a majority of the diseases that are common around the world today.
Below is a list of some of the common lifestyle diseases.
• Heart disease
Unhealthy Eating Habits
• Poor eating habits and food choices greatly increase the risk of lifestyle diseases like cancer, heart
disease, diabetes and various other health conditions.
• Poor eating habits can include the over-consumption of certain foods, dietary deficiencies and
excessive intake of saturated fats and refined or processed foods.
• Another common problem faced with urbanization and development is an increase in the prices of
fresh produce and products like organic fruits and vegetables, while refined and processed foods
are cheap and widely available. To cope with high-pressure jobs and the fast paced lifestyle, people
living in cities tend to make choices of convenience when it comes to food.
• Lack of Physical Activity
• Almost all inhabitants of cities are engaged in occupations
that require little physical activity and most don’t even permit
much time to engage in any physical activity.
• This is a huge contributing factor to the rise of lifestyle
diseases and chronic conditions like hypertension, high
cholesterol and it can subsequently lead to problems with
obesity, heart disease, diabetes, strokes, and so on.
• The fast pace of urbanization across the continent has not
surprisingly coincided with a rise in chronic lifestyle diseases.
• While rural populations commute by walking and engaging
in physical activities like chopping wood or tilling fields,
urban populations spend most time indoor either in offices
or at home.
• Public transport and automobiles are used for commuting.
• Obesity has become one of the greatest problems for modern society as it greatly increases the
risk of numerous health conditions from diabetes and hypertension to sleep apnea, osteoarthritis,
lower back pain and gallbladder disease
• Obesity is also closely associated with cancer, coronary artery disease and overall diminishes life
• While your Body Mass Index or BMI is normally used to calculate the extent of body fat and the
extent of obesity, the risk is also affected by your distribution of fat.
• Abdominal fat poses the highest risk and is also referred to as central obesity. Central obesity
greatly increases the risk of lifestyle diseases early in life with conditions like raised insulin, high
blood pressure high triglyceride levels and high cholesterol levels even affecting young adults.
• As is the case with almost all lifestyle disease risk factors, this is part of a vicious cycle, exacerbated
by poor eating habits, a sedentary lifestyle and other conditions.
Stress and Anxiety
• Stress doesn’t just affect us emotionally or mentally, it also has a clear
physical effect as it aggravates and increases the risk of conditions like
obesity, cardiac disease, diabetes, asthma, Alzheimer’s disease, rapid
aging and gastrointestinal problems.
• Stress and anxiety can also affect one’s ability to relax and get proper
sleep, contributing to a further deterioration in health and a host of
• This is a common problem for most urban populations because of the
highly competitive job market, education system, high-pressure jobs,
the lack of time and other factors that make schools and careers highly
• The combination of work, relationship and financial stress can often be
so overwhelming that people tend to withdraw completely, shunning
social contact and sinking further into depression.
• Several studies have clearly indicated the importance of sleep
in terms of both quantity and quality for general health as it
affects various metabolic, endocrine and neurological
functions of the body.
• Sleep deprivation, whether through a lack of sufficient sleep
or interrupted and poor quality sleep significantly increases the
risk of hypertension, heart disease, elevated cholesterol and
triglyceride levels, obesity, sleep apnea and a number of other
• Poor sleeping habits can also affect growth and development
in infants and children.
• Sleep disorders, when ignored or untreated can start to affect
mood and behavioral patterns thereby taking a toll on work
and family relationships.
• This doesn’t just affect productivity and physical health, but it
also can cause depression and social disorders.
• Smoking is one of the biggest public health problems
because of the high risk it poses.
• Smoking is associated with various lifestyle diseases such as
numerous respiratory disorders like bronchitis and asthma,
lung cancer, oral cancer and other cancers, cardiovascular
diseases, strokes and numerous other health conditions.
• According to a report published in 2007, nearly 5 million
fatalities a year were attributed to smoking.
• What’s troubling is that passive smoking can pose just as big
a threat to non-smokers, leaving those in prolonged and
close proximity to cigarette smoke just as vulnerable to
smoking related lifestyle diseases.
• Excessive alcohol consumption increases HDL levels, increases risk of heart disease,
colorectal and breast cancer, hypertension and diabetes.
• It also contributes to the development of various other lifestyle diseases and
conditions like GERD and liver cirrhosis.
• Individuals who cannot moderate alcohol intake are advised to abstain from alcohol
altogether as in such cases the risks far outweigh any possible benefits.
• India ranks first in the heart diseases through the
world over as per one WHO report which has envisaged
also that by 2015, India would have the greatest death rate
due to heart attacks. It is estimated that about 7.5 chores of
people in India are suffering from heart diseases.
• An increased heart beat rate, restlessness, nervousness and
• Pain in arm, waist, neck, and jaws.
• Difficulties taking breath, spinning head, and vomiting
• Pain and swelling in legs and foot souls.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
• This illness consists of different problems that
make it difficult to breathe, including conditions
such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
• People with COPD experience shortness of
breath, wheezing and coughing.
• Though treatable, breathing problems can decrease
someone’s quality of life and can be devastating.
• The prevention of COPD includes smoking
cessation and avoiding secondhand smoke.
• Excessive of smoking and wine consumption.
• The danger of coming in of heart disease to a person is higher if there have been an
earlier heart diseases conditions in the family.
• Tension, wrong dietary style and obesity.
• Excess of anger, excitement, jealousy and rivalry trigger heart diseases exerting
adverse influence on brain.
What to do:
• Stop immediately whatever it is you are working on at the moment.
• Sit or lie down.
• Don’t move on your own or go to the hospital driving the car all by yourself. Take
• Eat well digesting and light meals.
• Do have control over your weight.
• Do exercises daily.
• Check up once in a year at least for blood sugar and cholesterol.
• Take green vegetables and vegetable soup
• Garlic is hugely useful in heart condition. Sucking its juice by chewing its 2-3 buds daily bring great
succor and relief in heart patients.
• Taking pomegranate juice morning –evening daily slows down the increased rate of heart beats.
• Take in a measured quantities food stuffs containing fats like ghee, oil, butter and mutton.
• Never eat Chinese, fast food, or drink excess of tea, coffee and wine.
High blood pressure
• High blood pressure is such a disease which people generally do not take seriously. There are no
symptoms of high blood pressure. But sometimes people feel its symptoms such as headache,
nervousness, head spinning, fatigue etc.
• Its chief reason is mental tension and today’s fast paced life style. The people whose minds are always
overloaded and preoccupied with mental tension and worries are prone to inhibit high blood pressure.
• Besides these, smoking, consumption of intoxicating elements, tea, coffee, cold drinks consuming fatty-
oily foods eating too much of spicy foods, excess of salt use also form the ideal ground to breed
hypertension in people.
• Hardening of arteries and obesity also leads to high blood pressure.
• Use the least quantity of salt in meals.
• Control your weight.
• Check your blood pressure regularly.
• Don’t use tobacco, cigarettes, bidi, gutakha.
• Don’t make the body a storehouse of laziness. Include exercise regimen daily.
• Kidney stones leads to high blood pressure also.
• Stay away from tension, depression and anger.
• Include green vegetables in your meals.
• Make the least possible uses of ghee, oil in meals.
• Excessive feeling of sorrows and woes, feeling lonely and forlorn, frustration, not able to
move on as per the daily routine/chores etc give births to depression/sedimentation.
• Be busy, be cheerful:
• Do such works you have interests in as for instance, read novels-books of your choice,
listen to music of your choosing, indulge in any sports activities indoors/outdoors, take
walks outside, start writing something on some topic which you think is important and
know about or try painting/sketching.
• Keep away from darkness:
• Never be in the dark if you are depressed. Rather go to a place where, there is sufficient
• Take a balanced diet:
• It is of utmost importance to take a balanced diet to keep body healthy and fit.
• Increase friend circle: Try to keep away from loneliness. Meet people and live life joufully.
• Helps from counsellors: Take the helps from an expert counsellor.
• Repeated urination and feel of thirstyness.
• Excess feels of hunger.
• Wight loss.
• Wounds taking longer to heal up.
• Scabies and scratchiness on skin, feet getting numb, or
jangling/clinking in legs.
• Lack of exercises and obesity.
• Unhealthy diet, junk food, fatty food, wine, cigarettes etc.
• Lack of proper nutrition, especially lack of proteins and fibres.
• Stress over any score is a bigger cause whether it is due to some big disease
or due to any other reason.
• The blood pressure is the chief reason of diabetic.
• Generally during the course of pregnancy, temporary diabetic can come up
which should be checked up after the delivery.
• Shortage of insulin in body.
• Keep weight under control by doing daily doses of exercises.
• Keep away from tension and stress.
• Do not smoke bidi or cigarettes.
• Take healthy diet. Consume maximum of fruits and green vegetables.
• Restrain yourself from sweets.
• Painless tumors, changes in the constitution of breast, wounds on breast, nipples going inside, and
bleeding from nipples and developing of wound on it, or any other secretions.
• The women who do not deliver child or if the child is delivered in older ages have comparatively the
possibilities of developing cancer
• One of the reason of breast cancer is the today’s unhealthy life style.
• The women who discourage breast feeding have the chances of having breast cancer more.
• Excess of happenings of periods due to the hormonal changes also forms the cause of inhibiting
• Excessive uses of wine.
• Obesity and lack of exercises.
• Working till late hours in nights, pollution, junk food, not wearing right type of Bra, use of
cigarettes and tobacco, getting abortion repeatedly are the breeding grounds for breast cancer.
• Bring changes in the life style and your dietary styles.
• Keep off things which trigger dangers.
• Keep weight within the permitted level.
• If you have complications in periods, take the Doctor’s advice. Go for the
regular check up.
• Tale the Harmon pills on only Doctor’s advice.
• Go for the regular breast check up after the age of 30 years.
• Up to 18 % of the dangers of breast cancer is removed by a brisk walk for 1-
3 hours thrice a week. Up to 45-50 minute of exercise for 5 days a week
keeps cancer away.
The good thing about lifestyle diseases is that if we do something about them, it is
possible to reverse the condition. Listed below are some things that you can do to
prevent lifestyle diseases.
• Eat a healthy diet
• Engage in moderate exercise (30 minutes every day)
• Sit and stand in the right postures
• Avoid foods that are high in fats, salt, sugar and refined products.
• While our lifestyles have become more convenient, there certainly is nothing classy about
lifestyle diseases. We pay a high price for our press-of-a-button lifestyles. Eventually, we
may need to take a step back and relearn how to lead physically active lives, and, in turn,
• Even though doctors and social media encourage us for healthful habits to help
prevent many-of-these chronic medical disorders, but we generally ignore or are
reluctant to either start or maintain these appropriate, healthy behaviours.
Nevertheless, healthy lifestyle methods are now easily achievable with appropriate
interventions, like nutritional counselling, exercise training, de-addiction programs,
regular medical checkups and stress management techniques. A general conclusion
from most of the genetic and epidemiologic studies have strongly suggested that
reducing identified occupational hazards, modifying dietary habits and changing
lifestyle-risk aspects could avert most cases of cardiovascular disorders, stroke,
diabetes, neurological diseases and many types of cancers.
Preventive & social medicine
By: park (23 edition)
M/S Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers
Health & well being(1 edition)
By: Dr.Sandhya ojha, Dr.Shobhana joshi, & Dr. urmila Ranin Srivastava
A short textbook of psychiatry(7 edition)
By: Dr.Niraj Ahuja
Jaypee Brothers publishers,Jabalpur(2015)
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