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Flame photometer

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Specific Details about Flame Photometer

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Flame photometer

  1. 1. FLAME PHOTOMETRY FAHAD RAZA Master’s Student Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam Sindh Pakistan
  2. 2. Contents • Introduction • Instrumentation • Parts of Flame Photometer • Structure of flame • Mechanism • Applications
  3. 3. Introduction • Flame Photometry is a branch of spectroscopy in which the species (metal ions) i.e., sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, Cesium etc.” used in the spectrum are in the form of atoms. • Flame Photometery is used for inorganic chemical analysis for determining the concentration of certain metal ions.
  4. 4. Instrumentation Parts of a flame photometer • Source of Flame • Nebulizer and Mixing Chamber • Optical System (Optical Filter): • Photo Detector
  5. 5. Instrumentation
  6. 6. Parts of a flame photometer Source of flame • A burner that provides flame and can be maintained in a constant form and at a constant temperature.
  7. 7. Parts of a flame photometer Structure of Flame As seen in the figure, the flame may be divided into the following regions or zones. • Preheating zones • Primary reaction zone or inner zone • Internal zone • Secondary reaction zone
  8. 8. Parts of a flame photometer • preheating zone- In this, combustion mixture is heated to the ignition temperature by thermal conduction from the primary reaction zone. • primary reaction zone- This zone is about 0.1 mm thick at atmospheric pressure There is no thermodynamic equilibrium in this zone and the concentration of ions and free radicals is very high. This region is not used for flame photometry.
  9. 9. Parts of a flame photometer • interconal zone – It can extend up to considerable height. The maximum temperature is achieved just above the tip of the inner zone. This zone is used for flame photometry. • secondary reaction zone - In this zone, the products of the combustion processes are burnt to stable molecular species by the surrounding air.
  10. 10. Parts of a flame photometer Nebulizer and Mixing Chamber: • Helps to transport the homogeneous solution of the substance into the flame at a steady rate
  11. 11. Parts of a flame photometer Optical System (Optical Filter): • The optical system comprises three parts: convex mirror, lens and filter. • The convex mirror helps to transmit light emitted from the atoms and focus the emissions to the lens. • The convex lens help to focus the light on a point called slit. • The reflections from the mirror pass through the slit and reach the filters.
  12. 12. Parts of a flame photometer Photo Detector • Detect the emitted light and measure the intensity of radiation emitted by the flame. • That is, the emitted radiation is converted to an electrical signal with the help of photo detector. • The produced electrical signals are directly proportional to the intensity of light
  13. 13. Parts of a flame photometer Element Emission Wavelength (nm) Colour Sodium (Na) 589 Yellow Potassium (K) 766 Violet Barium (Ba) 554 Lime Green Calcium (Ca) 662 Orange Lithium (Li) 670 Red
  14. 14. Mechanism of working • The solvent is first evaporated leaving fine divided solid particles. • This solid particle move towards the flame, where the gaseous atoms and ions are produced. • The ions absorb the energy from the flame and excited to high energy levels. • When the atoms return to the ground state radiation of the characteristic element is emitted. • The intensity of emitted light is related to the concentration of the element.
  15. 15. Brief overview of the process
  16. 16. Applications It is used • To determination of alkali and alkaline earth metals. • In Potash and fertilizer industry • Soil and environmental analysis • For Drinking water treatment • In Glass industry • For Clinical applications
  17. 17. THANK YOU