2. Introduction There are several ways of broadly categorizing the sciences, e.g. pure science is the systematic study of natural or physical phenomena by observation and experiment , critical testing and review, and ordering by general principles, applied science is the search for practical uses of scientific knowledge; technology is the application of applied science.
3. Exact sciences are those which typically require precise measurements, such as physics , and to a lesser degree, chemistry . Descriptive sciences are those which are more oriented towards classification and description, such as biology and paleontology . There are several ways of broadly categorizing the sciences, e.g. Pure science is systematic study of natural or physical phenomena by observation and experiment , critical testing and review, and ordering by general principles. Applied science is the search for practical uses of scientific knowledge; technology is the application of applied science.
4. The pure natural sciences are typically divided into the physical sciences and the biological sciences , both of which can be subdivided. The major physical sciences are physics , astronomy , chemistry , and geology ; the main biological sciences are botany and zoology .
5. The sciences aren't distinct and independent from each other, but rather, there are interconnections and cross -fertilisations . These interrelationships are often responsible for much of the progress today in several specialized fields of research, such as molecular biology and genetics . Several interdisciplinary sciences, such as biochemistry , have been created as a result.. Advances can be the result of research by teams of specialists representing different sciences, both pure and applied.
6. Chemistry is the study of the composition of substances and the changes that they undergo. In particular, chemistry is the study of elements (substances containing only one kind of atom ) and the compounds (substances containing combined elements) they form. Chemists work with reactions between substances to create plastics , medicines , dyes , and many other materials useful in our modern world. They study what substances are made of, and how they can be altered or combined to create new materials. 92 elements occur in nature, and another 17 have been created in nuclear laboratories. Several million compounds have been synthesised by chemists.
7. There are two main divisions, organic and inorganic. Organic chemistry originated with the isolation of medical compounds from animals and plants. It has expanded to include the reactions of carbon based compounds (which are 100 times more numerous than non-carbon based compounds) and the study of molecules . Inorganic chemistry studies the preparation, properties, and reactions of all chemical elements and compounds except those that are carbon based.