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Key Challenges and Opportunities:
Business Schools and Higher Education
Andreas Kaplan
Dean for Academic Affairs
2016
ESCP...
• Overview of ESCP Europe
• Key challenges and opportunities 
for business schools
• Special focus on online / digital 
di...
Overview of ESCP Europe
4
About ESCP Europe,
the World‘s First Business School (est. 1819)
• 6 ESCP Europe campuses in Berlin, London, Madrid, Par...
5
European cross-border multi-campus
business school – the concept
ESCP Europe
European
cross-border
multi-campus
business...
6
Brand storytelling is vital:
Europe appears difficult to grasp
What’s the advantage 
of studying at a 
European business...
7
Defining European Management,
notion behind the concept
Kaplan, Andreas M. (2014) European management and European busin...
8
ESCP Europe‘s strategy:
“Cultures for Business” - #C4B
Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
Key challenges and opportunities of business schools
10
Key challenges:
The 3 E‘s for Education
Core challenge 1: 
Enhance HE institutions’ prestige and market share 
in a con...
11
Strengths
• Essential source for a society‘s talent and 
innovativeness
‐ Institutionalized public service with a socie...
12
1. Enhance prestige and market share
Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
Core challenge 1: 
Enhance HE instituti...
13
1. Enhance prestige and market share
Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
ALUMNI ARE KEY
14
2. Embrace entrepreneurship & innovation
Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
Core challenge 2: 
Embrace a deeper...
15
2. Embrace entrepreneurship & innovation
Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
16
3. Expand links and value co-creation
Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
Core challenge 3: 
Expand links, inter...
17
3. Expand links and value co-creation
Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
ALUMNI ARE KEY AGAIN
Special focus on distance learning and education
Classifying online distance learning:
Time dependency & Number of particpants
19Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs...
Defining MOOCs, SPOCS, SMOCs, & SSOCs:
Four groups of online distance education
20Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affai...
Describing xMOOCs vs. cMOOCs:
Passive learners vs. Active contributors
21Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
• xMOO...
22
MOOCs & further types of distance learning
most likely not to replace physical presence
To sell a concept where locatio...
23
MOOCs will make it essential for business
schools to be an expert in a specific area
To be an expert in a certain field...
24
A final video about ESCP Europe:
European Identity, Global Perspective
Andreas M. Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
25
Further readings...
Andreas M. Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
• Kaplan Andreas (2017) Academia Goes Social Media, M...
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Key challenges and opportunities: business schools and higher education

Academia, Alumni, AMBA, Andreas Kaplan, Andreas M. Kaplan, Business School, Digital, Distance education, Distance learning, EFMD, Entrepreneurship, EQUIS, ESCP Europe, European management, Higher Education, Innovation, Management, MOOC, Online, Professor Kaplan, SMOC, Social media, Sorbonne, SPOC, SSOC, Web 2.0

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Key challenges and opportunities: business schools and higher education

  1. 1. Key Challenges and Opportunities: Business Schools and Higher Education Andreas Kaplan Dean for Academic Affairs 2016 ESCP Europe Business School Sorbonne Arts et Métiers University kaplan@escpeurope.eu
  2. 2. • Overview of ESCP Europe • Key challenges and opportunities  for business schools • Special focus on online / digital  distance learning and education Agenda 2Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
  3. 3. Overview of ESCP Europe
  4. 4. 4 About ESCP Europe, the World‘s First Business School (est. 1819) • 6 ESCP Europe campuses in Berlin, London, Madrid, Paris, Turin, and Warsaw • Cross-campus programmes with coordinated curricula • Over 100 academic alliances in Europe and the World • Triple accredited: EQUIS, AMBA, AACSB • 5,000 students in degree programmes representing 100 different nationalities • 5,000 high-level participants in customized trainings and executive education • More than 130 research-active professors representing over 20 nationalities • 45,000 active alumni in over 150 countries in the world Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
  5. 5. 5 European cross-border multi-campus business school – the concept ESCP Europe European cross-border multi-campus business school In contrast to campuses outside of Europe, close distance allows for efficiently working together across campuses on all levels In contrast to partnerships with other business schools, own campuses allow for better coordination and control of academic excellence • Complete integration of 6 campuses with adaptations for local contexts: One school with six doors • Relative closeness permits working in cross- campus teams while on top experiencing different cultures, learning language, etc. Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
  6. 6. 6 Brand storytelling is vital: Europe appears difficult to grasp What’s the advantage  of studying at a  European business  school?  Focus on humanistic  values, understanding  of cultures, tradition,  more transversal  approach, … Europe embraces a maximum cultural diversity at minimal geographical distance ESCP Europe is/educates experts in European, cross-cultural management in Europe and beyond ??? ? Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
  7. 7. 7 Defining European Management, notion behind the concept Kaplan, Andreas M. (2014) European management and European business schools: Insights from the history of business schools, European Management Journal, 32(4), 529-534. Societal management takes into account society’s overall welfare in addition to mere profitability considerations European management is a cross-cultural, societal management approach based on interdisciplinary principles Interdisciplinarity creates s.th. new by crossing boundaries and combining the knowledge encompassed in different domains Cross-cultural management aims to understand how culture affects management practice, to identify cross-cultural similarities and differences in management practices Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
  8. 8. 8 ESCP Europe‘s strategy: “Cultures for Business” - #C4B Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
  9. 9. Key challenges and opportunities of business schools
  10. 10. 10 Key challenges: The 3 E‘s for Education Core challenge 1:  Enhance HE institutions’ prestige and market share  in a consolidating global educational market. Core challenge 2:  Embrace a deeper entrepreneurial mindset,  with corresponding modus operandi and decision‐making approaches. Core challenge 3:  Expand links, interactions, and value co‐creation with key stakeholders.   Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs Pucciarelli F., Andreas Kaplan (2016) Competition and Strategy in Higher Education:  Managing Complexity and Uncertainty, Business Horizons, 59(3), 311‐320.
  11. 11. 11 Strengths • Essential source for a society‘s talent and  innovativeness ‐ Institutionalized public service with a societal mission ‐ Important provider of knowledge and innovation • National driver and global ambassadors ‐ HE as domestic resource, engine of growth and  economic recovery ‐ International expansion and global knowledge  dissemination Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs Pucciarelli F., Andreas Kaplan (2016) Competition and Strategy in Higher Education:  Managing Complexity and Uncertainty, Business Horizons, 59(3), 311‐320. Decrypting higher education: A SWOT analysis Weaknesses • Substantial delay in entrance of business practices ‐ Tradition of being a public service financed and  protected by the State ‐ Partial resistance of influential faculty • Low responsiveness to changes in  corporate world ‐ Little adaptation of programs and curricula to recruiters‘  needs and job expectations ‐ Myopic publish‐or‐perish research strategies leading to  purely academic publications without consideration of  other stakeholders Opportunities • Fast‐evolving HE environment through ICT ‐ Development of new markets, potential productivity  gains, and branding possibilities ‐ Advancement of both general knowledge and network  society • Rapid transformation encouraged by socio‐ demographics ‐ Millennials seeking augmented educational experience ‐ Growing and changing student population Threats • Continuous decrease in public funding ‐ Necessity for external fundraising and increased self‐ financing ‐ Need for marketization of HE, potentially lowering  academic standards and quality • Increasingly competitive environment ‐ Domestic deregulation leading to new market entrants ‐ Gobalization broadening competition to an  international scale
  12. 12. 12 1. Enhance prestige and market share Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs Core challenge 1:  Enhance HE institutions’ prestige and market share  in a consolidating global educational market. • Guarantee resources for sustaining growth • Additional performance metrics to measure universities’ excellence, and ultimately enable them to access resources for future development; Market will assess which universities deserve to be part of the top leagues and rankings • More advanced stage of private fundraising, leveraging university reputation to become preferred partner of choice of key stakeholders (notably alumni, but also students, professors, corporations, etc.) and new forms of collaboration between the university and the rest of the world Pucciarelli F., Andreas Kaplan (2016) Competition and Strategy in Higher Education:  Managing Complexity and Uncertainty, Business Horizons, 59(3), 311‐320.
  13. 13. 13 1. Enhance prestige and market share Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs ALUMNI ARE KEY
  14. 14. 14 2. Embrace entrepreneurship & innovation Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs Core challenge 2:  Embrace a deeper entrepreneurial mindset,  with corresponding modus operandi and decision‐making approaches. • Entrepreneurial leadership at all levels of HE institutions • Defined and formalized mission and strategy able to guide an entrepreneurial approach at all levels of HE’s institution • Pivotal role of academic‐managers in contributing to HE institutions’ quality and reputation and participating actively in management and decision making • Increased autonomy and accountability permit more control over resources and freedom to choose investment strategies. Management of HE has to encompass more complex and urgent business decisions (e.g., the ICT infrastructure) Pucciarelli F., Andreas Kaplan (2016) Competition and Strategy in Higher Education:  Managing Complexity and Uncertainty, Business Horizons, 59(3), 311‐320.
  15. 15. 15 2. Embrace entrepreneurship & innovation Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
  16. 16. 16 3. Expand links and value co-creation Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs Core challenge 3:  Expand links, interactions, and value co‐creation with key stakeholders.   • Increased connections, interactions, and value co‐creation with a larger set of key stakeholders • Learn to navigate the new technology‐oriented and multimedia environment, with HE institutions supporting academics as they acquire necessary skills • Deeper integration of Web 2.0 and networking in research • New design of learning processes and infrastructures, aiming at co‐learning through highly interactive and responsive pedagogies • Dialogue and participative communication, leveraging new media (and in particular Web 2.0 and social media) to address HE’s different audiences with customized messages Pucciarelli F., Andreas Kaplan (2016) Competition and Strategy in Higher Education:  Managing Complexity and Uncertainty, Business Horizons, 59(3), 311‐320.
  17. 17. 17 3. Expand links and value co-creation Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs ALUMNI ARE KEY AGAIN
  18. 18. Special focus on distance learning and education
  19. 19. Classifying online distance learning: Time dependency & Number of particpants 19Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs Classification of online distance learning applications according to two dimensions: the number of participants (unlimited/limited) and the degree of time dependency (asynchronous/synchronous) Number of participants Unlimited Limited Time dependency Asynchronous MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) SPOC (Small Private Online Course) Synchronous SMOC (Synchronous Massive Online Course) SSOC (Synchronous Private Online Course) Kaplan Andreas, Haenlein Michael (2016) Higher Education and the Digital Revolution: About MOOCs, SPOCs, Social Media and the Cookie Monster, Business Horizons, 59(4), 441-450.
  20. 20. Defining MOOCs, SPOCS, SMOCs, & SSOCs: Four groups of online distance education 20Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs Kaplan Andreas, Haenlein Michael (2016) Higher Education and the Digital Revolution: About MOOCs, SPOCs, Social Media and the Cookie Monster, Business Horizons, 59(4), 441-450. • MOOC (Massive Open Online Course): Open‐access online course (i.e., without specific participation restrictions) that allows for unlimited (massive) participation. • SPOC (Small Private Online Course): Online course that only offers a limited number of places and therefore requires some form of formal enrollment. • SMOC (Synchronous Massive Online Course): Open‐access online course that allows for unlimited participation but requires students to be ‘present’ at the same time (synchronously). • SSOC (Synchronous Private Online Course): Online course that only offers a limited number of places and requires students to be ‘present’ at the same time (synchronously). • Distance education: Providing education to students who are separated by distance and in which the pedagogical material is planned and prepared by educational institutions.
  21. 21. Describing xMOOCs vs. cMOOCs: Passive learners vs. Active contributors 21Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs • xMOOCs: MOOCs based on traditional lecture formats (inspired by Harvard University, which used the prefix ‘x’ to indicate (offline) courses in the university’s course catalogue for which online versions were available). • cMOOCs: MOOCs where social media applications constitute a central part. Social media allow students to create pedagogical materials (via blog entries, tweets, podcasts, and the like) that can subsequently be commented on and further enhanced by other participants. Kaplan Andreas, Haenlein Michael (2016) Higher Education and the Digital Revolution: About MOOCs, SPOCs, Social Media and the Cookie Monster, Business Horizons, 59(4), 441-450. xMOOC cMOOC Professor Instructor,  who designs a standardized course for everyone Facilitator,  who animates an individual learning process Participants Passive learners Active contributors Pedagogy Predetermined content, based on a formal  curriculum, using lecture style and evaluation Collaboratively developed content without a formal  curriculum, in seminar style without evaluations Pattern Structured with regular sessions over a fixed time period Unstructured based on continuous learning Platform Centralization of content in one place Decentralization of content across network
  22. 22. 22 MOOCs & further types of distance learning most likely not to replace physical presence To sell a concept where location and differences in local contexts additionally is of academic importance might be highly valued in the future “Within 50 years there will be only  10 institutions of higher learning  left in the world” Sebastian Thrun – Cofounder Udacity But: • Physical presence might be necessary to go  the extra mile • Networking often best happens after class  and not during • Life skills than only knowledge + know‐how Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
  23. 23. 23 MOOCs will make it essential for business schools to be an expert in a specific area To be an expert in a certain field will become more and more important in the future of MOOCs. • Universities and schools will produce MOOCs where they have a real legitimacy • Students world‐wide will choose the expert‘s MOOC to learn in a specific field • A single business school hardly can be expert in everything • Local / regional players will arise (languages & different teaching approaches) Examples: • ESCP Europe ‐> European / cross‐cultural manager • Harvard University ‐> Lawyers • Wharton School  ‐> Investment bankers Andreas Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs Kaplan Andreas, Haenlein Michael (2016) Higher Education and the Digital Revolution: About MOOCs, SPOCs, Social Media and the Cookie Monster, Business Horizons, 59(4), 441-450.
  24. 24. 24 A final video about ESCP Europe: European Identity, Global Perspective Andreas M. Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs
  25. 25. 25 Further readings... Andreas M. Kaplan – Dean for Academic Affairs • Kaplan Andreas (2017) Academia Goes Social Media, MOOC, SPOC, SMOC, and SSOC: The Digital Transformation of Higher Education Institutions and Universities, in Bikramjit Rishi and Subir Bandyopadhyay (eds.), Contemporary Issues in Social Media Marketing, Routledge. • Kaplan Andreas, Haenlein Michael (2016) Higher Education and the Digital Revolution: About MOOCs, SPOCs, Social Media and the Cookie Monster, Business Horizons, 59(4), 441‐450. • Pucciarelli Francesca, Kaplan Andreas (2016) Competition and Strategy in Higher Education: Managing Complexity and Uncertainty, Business Horizons, 59(3), 311‐320. • Kaplan Andreas (2015) European business and management (Vol. I ‐ IV) – Four‐volume reference work, Sage Publications Ltd., London. • Kaplan Andreas (2014) European Management and European Business Schools: Insights from the History of Business Schools, European Management Journal, 32(4), 529‐534. • Kaplan Andreas (2014) Social Media and Viral Marketing at ESCP Europe, the World's First Business School (est. 1819), European Case Clearing House, Case 514‐058‐1. • Kaplan Andreas (2009) Virtual worlds and business schools: The case of INSEAD, in Wankel C., Kingsley J., Higher education in virtual worlds: Teaching and learning in second life, Emerald Group Publishing, 83‐100.

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