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Morphology (2)

Explanation of Mortphology of English.

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Morphology (2)

  1. 1. Morphology: Word Formation Processes (Yule, 2003 & Jarvie, 1993) M.C. Rafael Velasco Argente Linguistics Spring 2012
  2. 2. What’s Morphology? <ul><li>Morphology refers to the study of how words are created in a language </li></ul><ul><li>There are two processes involved in Morphology: Inflection and Word Formation </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are Inflection and Word Formation? <ul><li>Inflection refers to the change in the base form of a word (root or stem) </li></ul><ul><li>The base form of a noun is the singular form (e.g. cat ); for an adjective the base form ( old ) and for a verb the base form is the infinitive or imperative ( speak ) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Examples of Inflection <ul><li>Apple apple s </li></ul><ul><li>House house s </li></ul><ul><li>Sad sad der sad dest </li></ul><ul><li>Big big ger big gest </li></ul><ul><li>Learn learn ed learn ing </li></ul>
  5. 5. What about word formation? <ul><li>The word formation processes consists on the following ones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Etymology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coinage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borrowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compounding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clipping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acronyms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affixation (prefixes, suffixes and infixes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound processes </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Coinage <ul><li>This refers to the creation of totally new terms into a language. Most of them come from the name of the inventors, the products’ names or the company’s name. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kleenex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nylon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zipper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspirin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotoplas </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Borrowing <ul><li>This process refers, as the name claims, when a language ‘borrows’ terms from other languages. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol (Arabic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boss (Dutch) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piano (Italian) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yoghurt (Turkish) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robot (Czech) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Compounding <ul><li>It It refers to the joining of two separate words to produce a single word. The two words don’t lose their individual sounds. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bookcase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunburn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doorknob </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basketball </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Blending <ul><li>Similar to compounding, blending refers to the joining of two terms; however, in this case one (or both) word(s) lose a sound. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motel (motor-hotel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecast (television-broadcast) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanglish (Spanish-English) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modem (Modulator-demodulator) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Clipping <ul><li>Clipping a synonym of reduction . In this process a word that has more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Celular (cel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brassiere (bra) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fanatic (fan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation Comedy (sitcom) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facebook (el Face ) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Backformation <ul><li>This occurs when a word of one type (usually a noun) is changed to another different type of word (usually a verb) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Donation(n) -donate (v) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Option(n) -Opt (v) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Babysitter(n) -Babysit (v) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypocorisms: the reduction of a long word to a single syllable and the –y and –ie are added to the end. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Television-telly Barbecue-barbie Breakfast -breakie </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Conversion <ul><li>This is the change of the function of the word. For example when a noun comes to be used as a verb. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Butter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print out (a printout) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Want to be (wannabe) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Etymology <ul><li>Etymology refers to the origin of several words. Usually these words are originated from Latin or Greek. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of them are not necessarily complete words but prefixes or part of blendings. </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Greek_and_Latin_roots_in_English </li></ul>
  14. 14. Affixation <ul><li>Affixation is the process where we take a base form word and we add a prefix, infix or suffix. </li></ul><ul><li>A prefix is an affixation process that includes adding a morpheme at the beginning of the word </li></ul><ul><li>A suffix is a segment that we add at the end of the words. </li></ul><ul><li>An infix is what goes between the prefix and the root </li></ul>
  15. 15. Prefixes (examples) <ul><li>http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/prefixtext.htm </li></ul>
  16. 16. Suffixes <ul><li>These are the responsible for making words change their function. </li></ul><ul><li>There are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noun suffixes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjective Suffixes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verb Suffixes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverb Suffixes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As a reading, writing or listening recognition strategy, despite of not having the exact meaning of a word, just by looking at the suffix we now the function of the word. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Suffixes (Examples) <ul><li>http://www.scribd.com/doc/441225/English-suffixes </li></ul>
  18. 18. Infixes <ul><li>They are not very common in English. </li></ul><ul><li>When they appear is because they are usually in an exclamation word. </li></ul><ul><li>Un fucking believable! </li></ul><ul><li>Abso goddam lutely! </li></ul>
  19. 19. Acronyms <ul><li>Sometimes words are created because of acronyms. Acronyms are abbreviations pronounced as if they were words. They have proloferated. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SIDA (Sindrome de Inmuno-Deficiencia Adquirida) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OVNI (Objeto Volador No Identificado) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radar (Radio Detecting and ranging) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Analogies <ul><li>It’s when you use a word to compare the person. </li></ul><ul><li>Technobabble </li></ul><ul><li>Telethon </li></ul><ul><li>Smart cookie </li></ul>
  21. 21. Compound Processes <ul><li>Sometimes in order to form a word we can combine some of the previous processes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deli (borrowing from German Delicatessen/Clipping) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yuppie (Young Urban Professional (Acronym+ie(hypocorsim) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Morphemes <ul><li>A morpheme is the minimal unit of a word. </li></ul><ul><li>There are different types of morphemes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Morphemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bound Morphemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lexical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derivational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflectional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allomorphs </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Free Morphemes <ul><li>These are morphemes that stand by themselves as single words, for example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Bound morphemes <ul><li>The bound morphemes are those that are attached to a free morpheme to have a meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>All prefixes and suffixes are bound morphemes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Un-dress-ed care-less-ness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: reduce, receive and repeat (bound stems) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Free Morphemes-Lexical & Functional <ul><li>Lexical morphemes are usually free morphemes. They carry their full meaning in the word itself. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nouns, adjectives and verbs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional Morphemes are words that bring a function inside of them. They assist lexical morphemes to add details to the meaning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conjunctions (and...) prepositions, articles, pronuouns </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Bound morphemes-Derivational and inflectional Morphemes <ul><li>Derivational morphemes: They refer to those bound morphemes that create new words out of/with a free morpheme. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay-ment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick-ly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>God-ess </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Inflectional morphemes. These are morphemes that help the words to change their grammatical function. They are suffixes </li></ul><ul><li>Car-car s </li></ul><ul><li>Do-Do ne </li></ul><ul><li>Cold-Cold est </li></ul>Bound morphemes-Derivational and inflectional Morphemes
  28. 28. Morph and Allomorphs <ul><li>A morph is a modification of a morpheme. The basic example of it is the plural ‘s’. </li></ul><ul><li>Bus-Bus es </li></ul><ul><li>Girl-Girl s </li></ul><ul><li>Baby-bab ies </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep- sheep </li></ul>The allomorph is the set of morphs