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Stem, steam, make and design

  1. STEM, STEAM, Make, Design Dr. Clifford Choy School of Design, PolyU 11 Oct 2016
  2. STEM Education
  3. STEM Education (1) • Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics • According to EDB (2015, Dec): • We aim to further develop among students a strong knowledge base in step with the latest changes in these disciplines, and strengthen their ability to integrate and apply knowledge and skills, so as to nurture their creativity and innovation, collaboration and problem solving skills, which are essential skills and qualities required in the 21st century. The learning activities of STEM education also help students develop the essential qualities associated with an entrepreneurial spirit. Educational Development Bureau (2015, Dec) On-going Renewal of the School Curriculum – Focusing, Deepening and Sustaining: An Overview. Retrieved from
  4. STEM Education (2) • Creativity and Innovation • … creativity as the capability or act of conceiving something original or unusual, while innovation is the implementation or creation of something new that has realized value to others • Creativity isn't necessarily innovation • Entrepreneurial Spirit • … is a mindset. It’s an attitude and approach to thinking that actively seeks out change, rather than waiting to adapt to change • … is also associated with taking calculated risks, and sometimes failing • Problem solving • What about problem identification?
  6. STEAM Education
  7. STEAM Yakman, G. (2008). STEAM education: An overview of creating a model of integrative education. In Pupils' Attitudes Towards Technology (PATT-19) Conference: Research on Technology, Innovation, Design & Engineering Teaching, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
  8. STEAM • STEM + Arts • Arts - “ How society develops, impacts, is communicated and understood with its attitudes and customs in the past, present and future “ • Society, culture, belief, religion, politics, …
  9. Making
  10. Making • Turning ideas into tangible/perceivable form • Materials, Tools, Processes • Not merely about production and fabrication, but also involves self-learning, problem-solving, exploration, experimentation and critical thinking • Learn, create, share • Do-it-yourself (DIY) with others • Not just in local communities in old days, but through Internet to collaborate with people around the world • Do-it-yourself (DIY) with technology • Do-it-with-others (DIWO) • Not just with hand tools, but with digitally-enabled tools
  11. Make = DIY with Technology • Online platforms for learning, sharing and acquiring resources
  12. Make = DIY with Technology • Personal and digital fabrication
  13. Make = DIY with Technology
  14. Make = DIY with Technology • Materials, components, modules, systems range-sensor-to-gdc-hopes-to-put/
  15. Maker Movement • Growing culture of hands-on making, creating, designing and innovating • Despite its diversity [in makers’ interests], the movement is unified by a shared commitment to open exploration, intrinsic interests and creative ideas • When I talk about the maker movement, I make an effort to stay away from the word “inventor” – most people just don’t identify themselves that way. “Maker”, on the other hand, describes each one of us no matter how we live our lives, or what our goals might be. Peppler, K., Bender, S. (2013) Maker movement spreads innovation one project at a time. Kappan, v95, N3, pp22-27. Retrieved from Dougherty, D. (2012). The Maker Movement. Innovations, v7, n3, pp11-14
  16. MakerFaire Hong Kong 2015 (28-29 Nov 2015)
  17. MakerFaire Hong Kong 2015 (28-29 Nov 2015)
  18. FabFest Boston (8-9 Aug 2015)
  19. Maker Faire Hong Kong (28-29 Nov 2015)
  20. Youth in Innovation, San Mateo Innovation Week 2016, 19 May 2016
  21. Who are “makers”? • DIYers • Learners • Hobbyists • Designers • Artists • Inventors • Entrepreneurs • Note: only a small percentage of “makers” are entrepreneurs, and many of them are for fun or leisure
  22. “making” The Experiential Learning Cycle [Kolb and Kolb, 2005] Kolb, A., Kolb, D. (2005, May 15) The Kolb Learning Style Inventory – Version 3.1 2005 Technical Specifications. Retrieved from
  23. Attributes developed through Making • Tinkering, hacking • Hands-on approach in learning by doing • Exploration and Experimentation • Cross-disciplinarity • Learning through peer and community • Collaboration • Skills, craftsmanship, patience • Learning through sharing to community • “can-do” mindset • Live with failures
  25. Executive Office of the President, The White House, Washington (2014, June) Building a Nation of Makers: Universities and Colleges in Pledge to Expand Opportunities to Make. Retrieved from
  26. Design
  27. PolyU Design
  28. Why Design? • “Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones.” • “… design … makes ideas tangible, it [design] takes abstract thoughts and inspirations and makes something concrete.” • Designers think through making (Herbert Simon, 1981, as cited by John Hesket, 2009) (Mat Hunter, 2014) Heskett, J. (2009). Creating Economic Value by Design. International Journal of Design, v3, n1. Retrieved from: Hunter, M (2014) What is Design and Why it matters? Retrieved on 5 May 2015 from views/view-what-is-design-and-why-it-matters
  29. “making”
  30. Analysis-Synthesis Bridge Model (Dubberly and Evenson, 2011) Dubberly, H., Evenson, S. (2011) Design as Learning - or 'Knowledge Creation' - the SECI Model. Interactions. Jan+Feb 2011, pp 75-79. Retrieved from “making”
  31. “making”
  32. Why Design? • Problem exploration (clarification) and solution exploration • Less on what you can do, but more on why you should do • Understanding users • Not exactly ”problems”, but also “opportunities”, “insights”, “issues” • More meaningful if making is associated with people, not just making for the sake of making
  33. Meaning in Making • “Making” should be based on intrinsic interests • How to make it meaningful to students when making? • How to develop their abilities to “empathize”? • Four Levels of Making: • Making for self • Fun, self-use, solve your own problem, … • Making for someone you are familiar • For your best friend, for your parents, … • Making for others • For your classmates, for your neighbors, … • Making for social good • For disadvantaged group, for local community, for sustainability, for change, …. • “Making” provides an engaging way for individual to learn and apply STEAM knowledge
  34. How to make? What can be made? What to make? Why to make? STEM, STEAM, Make and Design • Knowing possibilities with personal and digital fabrication technologies (strength and limitations with each ”technology”, what can be done by combining multiple of those) • Develop tacit knowledge in using different materials, tools, processes • Understanding “users”, identifying opportunities • Evaluate, identify issues and improve STEM/STEAM Design
  35. Supporting infrastructure
  36. Infrastructure to Support Making • Space, tools, machines • Tinkerspace, Makerspace, Hackerspace, Fab Lab • Traditional tools • Digital Fabrication lab, techshop • Software (e.g. Blender, GIMP, Rhino, …) • Materials, kits, platforms • E.g. Material Resource Centre (PolyU JCIT 5-th floor) ( centre), Strawbees (, Arduino • Learning resources • Blogs, tutorials, discussion forums, youtube, …. • E.g. Instructables, Adafruits, Stackoverflow, … • Sharing and collaborative platforms • Git, WordPress, Google doc, Google hangout, YouTube, Vimeo, … • Events for sharing of knowledge • Exhibitions, science fair, fun fair, Maker Faire
  37. Supporting infrastructure Space, tools, machines, materials
  38. Makerspace, Hackerspace, Fab Lab • A space for all people to come to access to tools, usually under a membership system, and may have membership fee • Organize workshops/seminars for knowledge sharing • Attract talents and those who are willing to learn • Promote physical interactions, exchange of knowledge and ideas, collaborations • A community of practice of makers, which in turn attracts people who would like to get help from makers (e.g. those represent local needs)
  39. Futureward@Tatung University, Taipei
  40. CITRIS Invention Lab@UC Berkeley, Berkeley (1)
  41. CITRIS Invention Lab@UC Berkeley, Berkeley (2)
  43. Jacobs Institute for Design Innovation@UC Berkeley, Berkeley
  44. TechShop Tokyo
  45. Fab Labs • Fab Lab program from Neil Gershenfeld, Centre of Bits and Atoms, MIT • Since 2002 • More than 700 registered worldwide, some in rural areas • A small scale workshop to support digital fabrication • Provide a physical hub for people to meet • Provide an online hub for people to contribute knowledge and share ideas
  48. Large Format Machining Molding and Casting Laser Cutting and Engraving Video Conferencing Vinyl Cutting Precision Milling 3D Scanning and PrintingProgramming and Design Electronics Production
  49. Other Similar Establishments • Others • Make Lab • Digital prototyping labs • Hacker space • Tinkering space • In Hong Kong • Few privately run (DimSum Lab, Lab by Dimension+, MakerBay, Makelab, …), more coming, but tends to be like incubator or accelerator • Tends to be scattered and uncoordinated • Compare to >200 in ShenZhen
  50. Some Use Cases for Makerspace/Fab Lab • Talk, demo, workshop • Different types of privilege and abilities for members • Scrap materials for others to use • Volunteers willing to work in exchange for free use • Come to explore and have fun, may be newcomers, may be members • Come to look for collaborators • Want to prototype for a potentially commercializable product • Want to share what they have learned, and/or have made
  51. Supporting infrastructure Events for sharing of knowledge
  52. Maker Faire • A family-friendly festival of invention, creativity and resourcefulness • For makers to gather, show what they have made and share what they have learned • To demonstrate what is possible • To exchange knowledge and ideas • To inspire • Part of science fair, part of fun fair • You can perform/demonstrate “crazy” things • NOT “Book Fair”, “Computer Fair”, “Animation-Comic and Game Fair” in Hong Kong • NOT a trade fair dominated by traditional sales and marketing • NOT an invention show, NOT a technology expo • NOT a competition
  53. Maker Faire • First launch in Bay Area, USA, in 2006 • In 2014, 119 independently-produced Mini and 14 Featured Maker Faires around the world, including Tokyo, Rome, Detroit, Oslo and Shenzhen • 215,000 people attended the two flagship Maker Faires in the Bay Area and New York in 2014 • 150,000 people attended Maker Faire Bay Area in 2016 • Promote STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, Mathematics) education
  54. What do you expect in Maker Faire? • Makers show-and-tell their works/projects • Presentation • Demonstration/Performance • Hands-on activities • Workshops
  56. Maker Faire Hong Kong 2015 (28-29 Nov 2015)
  57. Maker Faire Hong Kong 2015 (28-29 Nov 2015)
  58. Supports Three Broad Stages of Makers • Zero to Maker • Arouse interest of those with no experience in making to become a maker • In Maker Faire: Through hands-on activities, through workshops, through inspiring talks, through inspiring works from other makers • Maker to Maker • Sharing of knowledge between makers • Collaborate and access to others’ expertise • Work together on shared platforms • In Maker Faire: Through show-and-tell their projects, through offering hands-on activities and organizing workshops, through interact with visitors and other makers • Maker to Market • Some creations of makers have commercial appeal and get into the market • In Maker Faire: Through presenting their journey to other makers, through collecting feedbacks from visitors on their creations Hagel, J. Brown, J,, Kulasooriya, D. (2014) A Movement in the Making. Deloitte University Press. Retrieved from
  59. Some Facts on Maker Faire Hong Kong 2015 • • More than 200 makers participated • More than 170 exhibits/activities/workshops/talks show-cased/delivered • Estimated 15,000 per day on average visited • 4 local primary schools, 8 local secondary schools, and 1 international school participated; more schools are interested and will join next year • Makers come from HK, Taiwan, mainland China, Japan, France, Barcelona, UK • From embroidery to robotics, from amateur/hobbyists to professionals
  60. Some observations • Most HK people have no concept on a “fair” during which people share their works and knowledge • General impression - “Fair” is about selling things only • We have makers who are good at crafts and would like to apply technology, but don’t know how. We have makers who are good in technology, but don’t know how they can be used to create objects which are useful and appealing. • Many teachers have difficulties in understanding why they have to participate in Maker Faire • This is not a competition. Why join? What benefits? What they may gain? • Many teachers do not talk to those in different disciplines • Many teachers do not know what is “Design” (thought that it is about making things prettier), and haven’t heard of “Design Thinking”
  61. Maker Faire Hong Kong 2017 • 8 and 9 Apr 2017 (Sat and Sun) • Plan to have 250 booths, and 60,000 visitors • More schools and universities, local and overseas • Activities to engage with local schools and communities • Would like to see a lot of interesting maker projects from schools, especially those originated from students
  62. How can students participate? (1) • Show-and-tell interesting inventions or art/craft, or demonstrate interesting works/experiments • Gain confidence through show-and-tell and interacting with visitors of a wide range of backgrounds • Practice their presentation and communication skills • Prepare to communicate to visitors who speak in Cantonese, Putonghua and English • Suitable for students in primary and secondary levels • No need to be something award-winning or revolutionary, just something creative and/or demonstrate resourcefulness
  63. How can students participate? (2) • Lead or support workshops to teach others how to make something: • Gain confidence through interacting with others, especially helping others to learn • Learn more when teaching others • Practice communication skills • Suitable for students in secondary levels
  64. How can teachers participate? (1) • Deliver workshops • Engage parents and possibly other kids in making, thereby helping to promote maker culture (zero to maker) • Share new techniques of making to others, and get feedback from others and find collaborators • Share experience in promoting STEAM education • Share experience and good practice • Connect with other teachers/educators/makers and share resources
  65. Nerdy Derby
  66. Hebocon 2015
  68. Wooden Go-Kart
  69. Bamboo Pavilion
  70. Let’s Build Something Really Big Together Minion-Halloween-costume/ d-Ironman-Mark-VI-out-of-makedo- and-cardboard-/
  71. Supporting infrastructure Sharing and collaborative platforms
  73. Glossary
  74. Inspirations on Maker Projects and for Maker Education (1) • Instructables ( • MAKE magazine ( • Adafruit ( • Sparkfun ( • DesignSpark (
  75. Inspirations on Maker Projects and for Maker Education (2) • Meaningful Making: Projects and Inspirations for FabLabs and Makerspaces ( making-book) • STEM inc ( • Interview of Mr. Gopal on 27 Jun 2016 ( • Presentation in MFSG 2015 ( • Maker City Playbook ( • Fab City Initiative (
  76. Inspirations on Maker Projects and for Maker Education (3) • Themes: • Agriculture • Well-being (youth, elderly) • Health care • Transportation • Energy • Plastic • Sustainable materials • Disadvantaged
  77. Questions?

Notas do Editor

  1. 3d printed hat
  2. Kolb, A., Kolb, D. (2005, May 15) The Kolb Learning Style Inventory – Version 3.1 2005 Technical Specifications. Retrieved from
  3. SD maker portfolio??