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Zolnai geobyte manuscript

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Geobyte was AAPG's computer magazine (1986-1992). Operation Database (vol. 5 #1, 1990; https://bit.ly/2ruDJyP) inspired this that was never published. It was followed 14 years later by another manuscript submitted to GSA Memoir (Topical Session 85) 2004 (https://bit.ly/1qKYeBC)

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Zolnai geobyte manuscript

  1. 1. NEW WAVE OR NEW AGE? THE QUEST FOR TRUE 3D DATABASES Andrew Zolnai, 424 Memorial Dr NW, Calgary AB, T2N .3C3 Tel: (403) 283 6193, Fax: (403) 270 2158 (Submitted to Fred Wagner, Editor, GEOBYTE, Dec 3/90) VISUALISATION SOFTWARE AND GIS ABOUND IN PETROLEUM APPLICATIONS, BUT TRUE 3D DATABASE ENGINES DO NOT. WHILE POINT, LINE AND SURFACE DATA CAN NOW BE TREATED IN MANY WAYS, DATABASES HAVE TO BE RESTRUCTURED TO ALLOW MEANINGFUL 3D QUERIES. SPATIALLY COHERENT SUBSETS OF DATA TABLES HAVE TO BE SEPARATED, QUERIED AND REJOINED INTO NEW SPATIALLY COHERENT SETS FOR DISPLAY IN CLASSICAL VISUALISATION TOOLS. Introduction Geological computer applications span from spreadsheet utilites on PCs to 3D rendering on supercomputers: "Operation Database" (Vol 4 # 2-4) and in-depth focuses (Vol 5 # 1, 5) addressed the state-of-the-art. The Symposium on 3D Computer Graphics in Modelling Geologic Structures and Simulation of Geologic Processes held in Freiburg, Germany last October (Vol 5 # 6) brought together the tenors in the field with a healthy legion of computer geologists (150 from N America and Europe, up from a planned 50 Europeans): They asked burning questions about "how these expensive toys are going to promote geologic investigation", to quote John Tipper. The symposium was a showcase of the best modelling and rendering tools, some of which do not know or care where the data came from or what they are supposed to signify! Data format standards have been addressed by number of consortia (Vol 5 # 2,5) to try and streamline the access to information. Caught in the middle between input and rendering are true geologic database engines. The Present While the geographic information system (GIS) issues showcase an array of excellent tools, none appear to be true 3D databases: This sampling of petroleum-oriented GIS offerings originated in other fields, such as remote-sensing and facilities management, excep~ing perhaps~r's ~eel~~o infeFmation system. The very nature of, say, Landsat imagery, pipelines and land ownership lent itself to 2D treatment, in fact 2~D if one considers the stacking of layers. Contour mapping, including 3D visualistations with 20 data draped over, offer excellent renderings of spatial data,
  2. 2. layer-by-layer. With the advent of exclusive rights (ownership over only a certain stratigraphic interval), horizontal drilling, better cross-sectioning tools and the merger of geological, geophysical and engineering software, true 3D databases become vital. Packages abound in their ability to display ribbon-sections among deviated wells and solids rendering. Beyond that, true 3D database engines will allow to query data volumetrically, not just in horizontal or vertical slices: The availability of hardware to handle massive data manipulations and visualisation dwarfs that of software to match. This stems in part from the difficulty in harnessing structured query languages {SQL) to geographically constrained data. One implementation is to tie attributes (pieces of data) to map data points. Attributes are stored in relational database management system (RDBMS) tables that can be queried and sorted; points, line or polygons satisfying given conditions can then be brought out on a map in a graphic or computer-aided design {CAD) system. New 3D incarnations ef CAB enable point and line attributes to be queried in 3D. Polygon processing likewise allows area attributes to be queried in 2D (2 ~D if one consideres stacking layers). Surface modelling finally allows queries of complex 3D entiti_es, even solids modelling; only one attribute is usually attached, however: Horizons can be picked, volumes delineated with faults or property boundaries, and parameters assigned such as porosity or permeability; it is vastly more difficult, however, to interactively query a database and automatically display the net pay distribution of a target horizon with a minimum percentage interest by two joint operators. So if one attribute can be had in 3D, or multiple attributes in less than 3D, WHERE IS THE HANG-UP? Let us digress for a moment into parallel-processing (eg: the Connection Machine, a cubic array of 65 536 chips or less, June 1987 Scientific American). Simple processors (PC-on-a-chip) can be arrayed in 3D configurations for complex real-time 3D modelling; each chip (cell) processes data as representative of an area in space, working simultaneously (in parallel) with others. In parallel-processing, linear programming no longer works, as each cell evolves as a function of neighbouring cells, not just in a sequential fashion. From "add, then multiply the result, then substract it from ... ", one has to "add, wait for the (possibly many) neighbours' results, multiply and feed that result to neighbours, etc.": 3D processing rapidly evolves into a data-communications concern, and network swithching devices are heavily used. Operating systems (OS) have been written for the sole purpose of "traffic control"; as such traffic depends heavily on hardware configurations, such an OS is site-specific. UNIX was written to handle multiple devices, hardware networks and file transfer protocols, but parallel processing consists rather of "software networks"!
  3. 3. The Future Multi-processing has been used in on-line queries (real-time changes in networked, or distributed, relational databases) to off-load tasks on separate processors as SQL binds these queries together. Splitting up tasks works with homogenous (dimensionless) data that have no spatial constraints (just register addresses in virtual space}. Financials and statistics for example have only virtual locations, ie. tables can be broken up, manipulated and rejoined; queries can furthermore be optimised without affecting - indeed ensuring and improving - the integrity of the database. This is much harder to do with geographically (spatially in real- world coordinates) constrained data, as splitting up and rejoining volumetric data affects the integrity of the database ... Complex rules govern the coexistence of data in real space, and subsurface data certainly doe not behave mathematically: If there is some quantifiable logic, it has yet to be found! One item (eg: pressure, temperature, composition, or some mathematical combination thereof) can be modelled in massive 3D arrays, or complex tables (eg: well headers, tops, DSTs and IPs) can be manipulated in 2D, but not in 3D. Consider an RDBMS-per-chip in parallel processors, and imagine the spaghetti-links among tables: Assuming flawless data traffic COntrol fWhQ haS Seenc.�~f~l~awleSS-"database tabl-e j OifiS anyway?) I the delays in processing and sorting tables might just bog any system down. Conversely, if tables with an XYZ component are queried, ensuring the continuity and preserving the contiguity of data (via software, rather than hardware as above) is not obvious. Raster-imaging techniques may be applied to spatial table queries: Quad-treeing is, for example, a technique to split up a planar array of points into its smallest collection of coherent areas (likewise in 3D arrays, at non-negligible computational cost). If a 3D database were subdivided into a collection of spatially coherent tables, queries could be performed within predefined spatial boundaries without violating spatial continuity criteria. Tables can, moreover, be split into subsets that maximise their coherence over a larger spatial area, similarly to quad-treeing. The difficulty still lies in defining those areas, ie: having enough room in the tables to store strings of XYZ coordinates for points, polylines or polygons; considerable forethought has to be put into it, and there are software and hardware limitations in table widths and string lengths, as well as ways to circumvent these. Once the spatially coherent subsets are defined, queries will likely result in further subsets, which may furthermore be coherent with other new subsets in contiguous, originally non-coherent areas: Network traffic control (cf: parallel processing) will have to be treated in software as well as in hardware; multi-processing can be brought to bear on matching subsets among incoherent areas into coherent subsets, provided data strings are long enough to maintain positive identification! Once the new tables have been created, they can be passed on to a visualisation device, using XYZ keys to locate the data points and attached attributes.
  4. 4. Conclusion Interactive processing may prove difficult, as the very structure of the database, not just points, has to be ''sliced and diced" to produce the queries. Hardware is constantly getting faster and cheaper, but software often lags behind as RDBMSs have to be rethought, much like OS in parallel-processing. This quick tour will have delved into some issues and exposed some new directions. When we ask programmers to deliver dream machines according to our specifications, we can perhaps better grasp what is involved: Managing expectations is key in any new technology. The payoff, true 3D database engines, will enhance the already impressive array of tools to access and massage data more efficiently and better manage our resources.