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Communication, interaction, and motivation: Following theoretical footprints of distance education

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"Communication, interaction, and motivation: Following theoretical footprints of distance education" by Aras Bozkurt

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Communication, interaction, and motivation: Following theoretical footprints of distance education

  1. 1. Communication, interaction, and motivation: Following theoretical footprints of distance education Aras Bozkurt, Ph.D. Anadolu University, Turkey Digital Education: 21st Century - October 20, 2020 – Moscow, Russia Image Credit: https://unsplash.com/photos/NgU7IJ5XuyY
  2. 2. What is distance, anyway? UNESCO (2002, p. 22) presents a definition of DE: “Distance education is any educational process in which all or most of the teaching is conducted by someone removed in space and/or time from the learner, with the effect that all or most of the communication between teachers and learners is through an artificial medium, either electronic or print”. • UNESCO. (2002). Open and Distance Learning: trends, policy and strategy consideration. Paris: UNESCO. • Image Credit: https://unsplash.com/photos/oMpAz-DN-9I
  3. 3. Distance… As a relative term… Moore and Kearsley (2011, p. 2) define distance education as “teaching and planned learning in which teaching normally occurs in a different place from [the] learning, requiring communication through technologies, as well as special institutional organization” • Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (2011). Distance education: A Systems view of online learning (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. • Image Credit: https://unsplash.com/photos/pkKRdpurSPw
  4. 4. Extending territories… Distance Education is «any learning activities within formal, informal, and non-formal domains that are facilitated by information and communication technologies to lessen distance, both physically and psychologically, and to increase interactivity and communication among learners, learning sources and facilitators.» Bozkurt, A. (2019). From Distance Education to Open and Distance Learning: A Holistic Evaluation of History, Definitions, and Theories. In S. Sisman-Ugur, & G. Kurubacak (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Learning in the Age of Transhumanism (pp. 252-273). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Image Credit: https://unsplash.com/photos/4JL_VAgxwcU
  5. 5. Focus on distance in time and space… • Do we look at the right directions? • Moore (1993) claims that distance education is a pedagogical model and criticizes the overemphasize on separation in time and space. • Moore (1993) further notes that “transactional distance is a continuous rather than a discrete variable, a relative rather than an absolute term” (p. 20). • Moore, M. G. (1993). Theory of transactional distance. In D. Keegan, (Ed.), Theoretical principles of distance education. New York: Routledge. • Image Credit: https://unsplash.com/photos/KdOAFDzB_Mg
  6. 6. What is learning… • Object (Knowing - Learner) + Subject (Known – Learning resources) = Action (learning)
  7. 7. What is [meaningful] learning… • Communication and motivation (Keller, 2010), both intrinsic (cognitive) and extrinsic (social and emotional) Keller, J. M. (2010). Motivational design for learning and performance: The ARCS model approach (1st ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
  8. 8. What is [meaningful] learning [ecologies]… • Participation of all parties… • Interaction between and among (Moore, 1989) • Learner-learner • Learner-teacher • Learner-content • Learner-interface Moore, M. G. (1989). Three types of interaction. American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2), 1-6. Image Credit: https://unsplash.com/photos/JgDUVGAXsso
  9. 9. But, we need a social entity… • Rovai (2002) reports that spirit, trust, interaction, and commonality of learning expectations and goals are needed to develop a sense of community. • Rovai, A. P. (2002). Building sense of community at a distance. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 3(1). • Image Credit: https://unsplash.com/photos/IBaVuZsJJTo
  10. 10. A social entity that we can grow and progress… • Lave and Wenger (1991) highlight the importance of scaffolding learners to gain experiences and this is a shared responsibility by other members of the community. • Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. • Image Credit: https://unsplash.com/photos/ayWgRkCk2sQ
  11. 11. A space we can inquiry… • Garrison, Anderson and Archer (2000) argue the importance of teaching, cognitive and social presences in a community of inquiry; Which eventually leads to meaningful learning experiences… • Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2, 87–105. • Image Credit: https://unsplash.com/photos/1RE2Xn6rTQc
  12. 12. Is there a magical formula? • In all, there is no single recipe for a meaningful learning experience and distance education is a process formed by the interplay of different concepts.
  13. 13. The genesis: Transactional distance • In the end, no matter how well we design distance education and provide critical components, we are bound to fail unless we reduce transactional distance because it refers to psychological, social, emotional distances, and more.
  14. 14. Thank you for being here and listening me… Our critical inquiry is a never-ending processes. So, please, share your thoughts, communicate and let me know what you think • arasbozkurt@gmail.com • www.linkedin.com/in/arasbozkurt/ • https://twitter.com/arasbozkurt • Image Credit: https://unsplash.com/photos/1JWmFju8vVg