O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×

Chapter 10 power point

Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Próximos SlideShares
Chapter 5 power point
Chapter 5 power point
Carregando em…3
×

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 23 Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Diapositivos para si (20)

Quem viu também gostou (18)

Anúncio

Semelhante a Chapter 10 power point (20)

Anúncio

Mais recentes (20)

Chapter 10 power point

  1. 1. © Cengage Learning 2016© Cengage Learning 2016 An Invitation to Health: Building Your Future, Brief Edition, 9e Dianne Hales Major Diseases 10
  2. 2. © Cengage Learning 2016 After reading this chapter, the student should be able to: • List the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases • Summarize the risks and signs of metabolic syndrome • Explain the impact and treatment of diabetes Objectives
  3. 3. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Discuss the risk factors and management of hypertension • Specify the effects and management of blood cholesterol levels • Outline the patterns and consequences of cardiovascular diseases Objectives (cont’d.)
  4. 4. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Identify the risk factors and common causes of strokes • Review the causes, risk factors, and types of cancer • Describe the agents of infection and their effects on human health Objectives (cont’d.)
  5. 5. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Risk factors – Overweight/obesity – Body fat – Waist circumference – Physical inactivity – Tobacco use – High blood pressure – Blood glucose and cholesterol – Family history, race, and age Your Cardiometabolic Health
  6. 6. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Cluster of disorders of body’s metabolism • Risk factors – Large waist circumference – High triglyceride level – Lower than normal HDL level – Higher than normal fasting blood sugar • Obese people who lose seven to ten percent of body weight – May reverse metabolic syndrome risk Metabolic Syndrome
  7. 7. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Insulin secretion deficient or nonexistent – Result: glucose unable to enter body cells – Unused glucose passes through kidneys and out of the body in urine • Insulin resistance – Body produces insulin but does not use it properly • Prediabetes – Indicated by higher than normal blood glucose Diabetes
  8. 8. © Cengage Learning 2016
  9. 9. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Elevated blood pressure over time – Stage 1 • Systolic pressure from 140 to 159 • Diastolic pressure from 90 to 99 – Stage 2 • Systolic pressure 160 or higher • Diastolic pressure 100 or higher • Can cause deterioration of the heart, brain, and kidneys – Family history has an influence Hypertension
  10. 10. © Cengage Learning 2016
  11. 11. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Total cholesterol • LDL (bad) cholesterol – Builds up plaque in the arteries • HDL (good) cholesterol – Helps prevent cholesterol buildup • Triglycerides – Blood fats released into the bloodstream after a meal Your Lipoprotein Profile
  12. 12. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Reduction of blood flow to the heart • Affects more than 65 million Americans • Young athletes face special risk – Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) • Excessive heart muscle thickness that causes dangerous irregularities • Psychological risk factors for heart disease – Depression, anger, and “type A” personality Cardiovascular (Heart) Disease
  13. 13. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Coronary artery disease – Impairment of blood flow through the vessels • Atherosclerosis – Plaque buildup in arteries – Can produce angina (chest pain) • Heart attack (myocardial infarction) – Affects 1.5 million Americans yearly – Symptoms include chest pain, anxiety, sweating, and shortness of breath Crises of the Heart
  14. 14. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Blocked blood supply to the brain • Ranks as third most prevalent cause of death in the U.S. – 80 percent are preventable with lifestyle modification • Many risk factors exist • Types of stroke – Ischemic – Hemorrhagic Stroke
  15. 15. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells – Without treatment, cancer cells crowd out and replace healthy cells • Cancer cells may metastasize, or spread to other parts of the body • One-third of cancers related to tobacco use • Heredity is a factor Cancer
  16. 16. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Triggered by various pathogens – Countered by body’s natural defenses • Viruses – Cause colds, flu, herpes, hepatitis and AIDS • Bacteria – Most plentiful in the body but can also be most pathogenic • Fungi – Example: athlete’s foot caused by fungus Infectious Diseases
  17. 17. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Skin – Keeps out most potential invaders • White blood cells (lymphocytes) – Consume antigens • Human body produces antibodies against specific antigens – After a vaccine or fighting an infection • Stress response dampens immunity How Your Body Protects Itself
  18. 18. © Cengage Learning 2016
  19. 19. © Cengage Learning 2016
  20. 20. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Common cold – Can strike any time of year – Rhinoviruses tend to cause more symptoms above the neck – Adenoviruses tend to affect trachea and bronchi • Cold viruses spread by coughs, sneezes, and touch • Antibiotics not effective against colds Upper Respiratory Infections
  21. 21. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Attacks membranes around brain and spinal cord – Can result in hearing loss, kidney failure, and brain damage – Most common in first year of life • Can be prevented by vaccination • Symptoms – Sudden, high fever – Severe, persistent headache Meningitis
  22. 22. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Five different viruses • Hepatitis A – Less serious – Transmitted by poor sanitation • Hepatitis B – Potentially fatal disease – Transmitted through blood and body fluids • Hepatitis C – Blood transfusion or drug use Hepatitis
  23. 23. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Lyme disease – Spread by ticks – Treated with antibiotics • West Nile virus – Transmitted by mosquitos and other methods – Causes inflammation of brain tissue • MRSA – Resistant to antibiotics Insect- and Animal-Borne Infections

Notas do Editor

  • Figure 10.2 How diabetes affects the body
    Diabetes affects almost every organ system of the body in complex and often subtle ways.
  • Figure 10.3 Consequences of high blood pressure
    If left untreated, elevated blood pressure can damage blood vessels in several areas of the body and lead to serious health problems
  • Figure 10.11 The human lymphatic system and its functions
    The lymphatic system helps filter impurities from the body.
  • Figure 10.12 The immune response
    Some T cells can kill infected body cells. B cells churn out antibodies to tag pathogens for destruction by macrophages and other white blood cells.

×