2. Concept of group dynamics
What is group???
Types of group
why people join groups??
Theory of group formation
Stages of group formation
Principles of group dynamics
Features of group dynamics
3. It was founded by Kurt Lewin to study group decision, group
productivity, group interaction, group cohesiveness and group
communication. The underlying assumption was that the laws of the
group behavior can be established independently of the goals or
specific activities of group irrespective of the structure of the group.
Group dynamics contains two terms: group and dynamics.
Group is basically a collectivity of two or more persons. Dynamics comes from
Greek word meaning FORCE.
Thus, “Group dynamics is concerned with the interactions of forces
among group members in a social situation.”
4. Two or more people
People see themselves
There is interaction
6. The people often join groups since the groups give the members a stability and
enhances their achievement capacity. The main reasons to join a group are:
Have a sense of security
Have a status
8. Set of beleifs, feelings, and attitudes commonly shared by
group members. These are also referred to as rules or
standards of behaviour that apply to group members. Norms
serve three functions namely
Predictive- basis for understanding Relational- some norms
the behaviour of others define relationships
Control- regulate the
behaviour of others
9. Represents characteristics of group
Basis for predicting and controlling behaviour of others
Related to behaviours considered important for their grp
They are applied to all memebrs.
10. -various parts played by group members.
There are two elements that define this role identity-
Role Perception-An individual is expected to behave
according to his own perception in the group.
Role Expectation-It is defined as how others believe one
should behave in a given situation.
11. Status is “ a socially defined position or rank given to groups or group
members by others.” Group members get high status or low status in the
Group based on their authority and performance.
High status members of the group have more freedom to deviate
from the norms. This facility enables them to have the discriminatory
powers in decision making. Low status members of the group should not
have freedom to deviate from the norms as it leads to status inequality.
the way in which skills and
the bonds of interpersonal
abilities of the group
attraction that link
members mesh to allow
13. Who won, and why?
Did your group act like this… … Or like this?
Groups with High Cohesiveness Get Better Results!
- Negative Feelings
- More Problems
- Positive Feelings
- Less Productive
- Ability to Cope with Problems
- More Productive
15. Balance Theory:
Propounded by “ Theodore New-Comb” which states that- “
Persons are attracted with one another on the basis of similar
attitudes towards commonly relevant objectives and goals.”
17. Propounded by “ Thaibaunt and Kelly”. This
theory is based on reward-cost outcomes of
interaction between employees.
The intraction between people is reward.
18. Stage V
Stage IV Adjourning
Stage III Group
Stage II Group disband
Stage I Members either
Members Work work after
come to Together towards meeting
Members Resist developing Getting their goals
get to know Control by Close their jobs or because
each other & group Relationships done members
set ground Leaders &
& feelings of Leave
19. 1 . The members of the group must have a strong sense of
belonging to the group .The barrier between the leaders and to
be led must be broken down.
2. The more attraction a group is to its members, the greater
influence it would exercise on its members.
3. The grater the prestige of the group member in the eyes of
the member in the eyes of the members , the grater influence
he would exercise on the theme.
20. 4.The successful efforts to change individuals sub parts of the
group would result in making them confirm to the norms of
5. The pressures for change when strong can be established in
the group by creating a shared perception by the members for
the need for the change.
21. Concerned with group
Rigidity or flexibility
22. The groups operate on a common task and common attitudes. The
group dynamics is concerned with the interaction between the group
members in a social situation. This is concerned with the gaining in the
knowledge of the group, how they develop and their effect on the
individual members and the organization in which they function.
The group dynamics is essential to study since it helps to find
how the relationships are made within a group and how the forces act
within the group members in a social setting. This helps to recognize the
formation of group and how a group should be organized, lead and
23. In 1980 , Richard semler joined SEMCO , founded by his father 27 years
earlier, having 100 employees and manufacturing hydraulic pumps for
ships, producing about $4million in revenue and tottered on the edge of
For the next 2 years, top managers constantly sought bank loans and
fought off rumors that the company was about to sink.
They also travelled 4 continents that enabled the company to reduce its
cyclical marine business to 60% of total sales.
Today SEMCO has many factories producing range of products like
marine pumps, digital scanners, commercial dishwashers, truck filters and
mixing equipment for substances ranging from bubble gum to rocket fuel.
Customers include Alcoa,saab,general motors and SEMCO is regarded as
one of the best company in Brazil to work for by press.
24. The company’s survival and ultimate success is due largely to a major change in its
SEMCO emphasized on 3 fundamental values- democracy , information , profit
sharing. These values helped in gaining confidence on work groups as a primary
mechanism for managing the company.
After some experimentations SEMCO found that they need 150 employees per
factory and all are divided into 10 member group given a major responsibilities for
outcomes associated with their areas.
Costs rose up because of duplication of effort and lost economies of scale. within a
year sales got doubled ,inventory dropped from126 to 46 days,8 new products
appeared that had been tied up in R&D for 2 years and the product rejection rate at
inspection dropped from 33 to 1% and increased productivity enabled the company
to reduce the workforce by 32& through attrition and early retirement.
At SEMCO once the members of a group agree on a monthly production schedule,
they meet it . At end of the month every body has done their work allotted except
for motors that had not yet arrived, despite repeated phone calls to the supplier.
finally 2 employees went to the supplier’s plant and got delivery on the last day of
the month and every one sat for the whole night till mng 4.45 and completed the
assignment ( meat slicers)
25. work groups have access to important information like Balance Sheet,P&L analysis,
cash flow statements for his or her division every month.
All workers voluntarily attend monthly classes so that they can learn to read and
understand the numbers.
Another factor is that although top level managers are strict about meeting the financial
targets, workers have wide latitude in determining the necessary actions and carrying
Profit sharing plan, twice a year employees receive about 25% of the after tax profits
for their division.
Employees vote on how to disburse the funds, which are visually distributed equally.
A survey was conducted by college graduates by Brazilian magazine found that 25% of
men and 13% of women cited SEMCO as the company they most wanted to work for.