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饾懇饾拪饾拹饾拲饾拹饾拡饾挌.pptx

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饾懇饾拪饾拹饾拲饾拹饾拡饾挌.pptx

  1. 1. The Nervous System The Nervous System 饾敼饾暁饾暊饾暆饾暊饾晿饾暘
  2. 2. Function of the Nervous System 飦甂eeps us informed about the outside world through sensory organs. 飦瓹ontrols and harmonises all voluntary muscular activities, e.g running and writting. 飦瓻nables us to remember, think and reason. 鈥 Our nervous system consist of brain, spinal cord, sense receptors and nerves. The Nervous System
  3. 3. Neuron: The Unit of the Nervous System Structure of the Neuron Three main parts of the neuron: 飦 Cell body: It has a well- defined nucleus and granular cytoplasm. 飦 Dentrites: They are the branched sytoplasmic projections of the cell body. 飦 Axon: 飩 It is the long process of the body. 飩 The Axon is covered by a myelin sheath. 飩 The myelin sheath shows graps throughout its lenght known as Nodes of Ranvier.
  4. 4. Synapse 鈥 A Synapse is a point of contact between the terminal branches of the axon of the neuron and the dentrites of the another neuron. 鈥 As the nerves impulse reaches the axon terminal of the neuron, tha neurotransmitter Acetycholine is released by the bulbs present in the axon. 鈥 Acetycholine is then broken down by an enzyme to ensure the synapse is ready for the transmission of the next nerve impulse.
  5. 5. Types of Neurons 鈥 Sensory Neurons: Convey the impulse from the receptors (sense organs) to the main nervous system (the brain or spinal cord). 鈥 Motor Neurons: Carry impulse from the main nervous system to an effector e.g gland or muscle. 鈥 Associated Neurons: They interconnect sensory and neurons. Types of Nerves Tha nerve is thee bundle of nerve fibers (axon) separate neurons enclosed ina tubular sheath. Ganglia are an aggregation of the nerve cells (cell bodies) from which the nerve fibers arise or enter.
  6. 6. Division of the Nervous System The Central Nervous System The central nervous system includes the brain and the spinal cord.
  7. 7. MidBrain: 飩 This small tube like part is responsible for reflexes involving the eyes and ears. Hind Brain: 飩 The cerebellum coordinates mascular activity and balance of the body. 飩 The pons carrise impulses from one hemisphere to the other hemisphere and coordinates muscular movements on both sides of the body. 飩 The medulla oblongata controls the activity of internal organs, hearthbeat, breathing, etc. Parts of the brain
  8. 8. The Spinal Cord
  9. 9. 鈥 Cranial Nerves: 12 pairs emerge from the brain. 鈥 Spinal Nerves: 31 pairs: 8 pairs in the neck region, 12 pairs in the thorax, 5 pairs in the lumbar region, 5 pairs in the sacral region and 1 pair in the coccygeal region. Autonomic Nervous System The Autonomic Nervous System controls the involuntary of the internal organs. Somatic Nervous System
  10. 10. The reflex action is a automatic, quick and involuntary action in the body brought about by stimulus. Reflexes
  11. 11. The Sense Organs The sense of organs enables us to be aware of the condition of the invironment. A receptor is any specialised tissue or cell sensitives to a specific stimulus.
  12. 12. Function of the ear Two function of the ear are hearing and body balance.