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2 Leading Teams - Motivation and Conflict

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2 Leading Teams - Motivation and Conflict

  1. 1. Leading People 2: Motivation and Conflict
  2. 2. Motivation <ul><li>Managers can't force staff to be motivated. </li></ul><ul><li>Management creates the conditions that best motivate individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>People react in a motivated way based on their own needs, wants, and ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective managers help by relationships they build with staff and making a good work environment . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Building Relationships <ul><li>We want to build trust and respect </li></ul><ul><li>Balance of being friends and maintaining authority, so that staff feel they can approach you but still obey instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on individuals </li></ul>
  4. 4. Motivation <ul><li>Consider why your staff go to work - why did they choose this job or choose to stay here? </li></ul><ul><li>Most managers don’t think about this and are happy if staff are getting their jobs done. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Motivation <ul><li>Working conditions - good equipment and facilities, hot, cold, breaks, hours </li></ul><ul><li>Social Interaction - isolation, social fun etc </li></ul><ul><li>Job Security – contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion and job title </li></ul><ul><li>Trust and respect - not a machine </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition, appreciation, praise </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility & Challenge – allowed to use skill and initiative, chance to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in decision making, feel belonging / part of a team </li></ul><ul><li>Salary - pay ok for the job </li></ul><ul><li>Management – no bad issues </li></ul>
  6. 6. How do we Motivate ? <ul><li>What are some of the things we do well? </li></ul><ul><li>What can we do better? </li></ul><ul><li>Give staff some power </li></ul><ul><li>Tell them they are important; recognise good work </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise the negatives </li></ul>
  7. 7. Motivate <ul><li>Should you treat everyone the same? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young person in first job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Former worker at another NGO for 10 years joining the team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TBA for 10 years joining the team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has been at HU and other NGOs for 20 years and close to retiring </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Motivate: Mix <ul><li>In health centres NGOs use enforceable contracts, financial incentives, user fees, and achievable goals to motivate staff. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Example: Allowing Responsibility <ul><li>Sok was a new manager who had been promoted in a large organisation. She wanted to be a good manager and make sure her team was completing its tasks well. After a short time, Sok became tired because she felt caught in the details of her team's work and unable to deal with larger issues. </li></ul><ul><li>She spoke with her boss about her frustration. He asked her how she was working with each team member, what did she expect. </li></ul><ul><li>He suggested to Sok that she sit down with each one and let them know what her expectations were for their work and for the team. He then advised Sok to ask each person how he or she would do the work to satisfy those requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>After doing this, Sok felt a weight had been lifted from her shoulders. The focus for doing high quality work had shifted from her to her team members. She also found that her staff seemed more satisfied with their work, and their performance improved. This allowed her more time to focus on bigger issues that needed attention, while letting her team members take responsibility for their own work. </li></ul><ul><li>This story says that effective managers will set high standards and expectations for their team members and then allow them to do their work to meet those standards and expectations. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Dealing With Problems <ul><li>One small issue can spoil all the motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember Starters and Stoppers </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. CONFLICT
  12. 12. What is Conflict? <ul><li>Conflict: a disagreement where the people involved see a threat to their needs, interests or concerns . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Perception <ul><li>People in conflicts tend to see their idea of the situation, </li></ul><ul><li>not an objective view of it. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conflict is Normal <ul><li>Think of conflicts likely to come in your workplace </li></ul>
  15. 15. Consider your own work place <ul><li>What are some sources of conflict in our workplace? </li></ul><ul><li>When do they tend to occur? </li></ul><ul><li>How do people respond to these conflicts? </li></ul><ul><li>When we solve problems: </li></ul><ul><li>do we fix it for now, or </li></ul><ul><li>do we make ways to fix these problems in the future? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Manage Conflict <ul><li>Are there seasonal peaks in our workload that tend to occur annually? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the time of such peaks, and ask if they can be managed as a normal period of stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Act before time </li></ul>
  17. 17. Manage Conflict <ul><li>Do we have a way to look at normal problems and concerns in a predictable, reliable manner? </li></ul><ul><li>Staff meeting is used as a tool for effective problem-solving for situations, including anticipated conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>If this method is seen by staff as closed, unsafe, and non-productive, it will be replaced by gossip and back-biting. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Manage Conflict <ul><li>Are there some things in the office that make problems worse, especially at times of conflict? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at how we manage during stressful times. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is work allocated? Resources? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often, our response during times of stress is to meet less frequently, because 'we have no time.' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We do things the old way, because 'we have no time to change.' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We repeat the same errors, rather than learn from the problems. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. 5 Ways to Manage Conflict <ul><li>4 Less-good ones </li></ul><ul><li>Competing - your own needs are put over others. It relies on an aggressive style, and the use of power. </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodating (smoothing) is the opposite of competing, diplomatic. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding is a common response to the ‘bad idea’ of conflict. &quot;Perhaps if we don't bring it up, it will blow over,&quot; we say to ourselves. But, most times the conflict gets worse until it becomes too big to ignore. </li></ul><ul><li>Compromising is an approach where people win and lose in a series of tradeoffs. While good, compromise is generally not satisfying. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The ‘Best Practice’ Way to Manage <ul><li>Collaborating - the pooling of individual needs and goals toward a common goal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often called &quot;win-win problem-solving,&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>needs assertive communication and cooperation to get a better solution than either individual working alone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A chance for agreement, to work together for our needs, and the chance to get entirely new outcomes. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Collaboration <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>You are unhappy your staff member is always slipping out early on Fridays, and his pc antivirus is never up to date </li></ul><ul><li>Your staff member says he needs to get to the mosque, and the internet is always too slow </li></ul><ul><li>You agree that he comes in an hour early every Friday </li></ul><ul><li>He gets to go early and meet his personal needs </li></ul><ul><li>In the morning the internet is fast and you get the antivirus update done. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Cambodian Style <ul><li>The direct approach ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it’s rude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>affected by power difference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get rewards for avoiding negotiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less powerful person – seen as polite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher person – seen as powerful, respected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do you overcome directness? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Effect of Power Difference
  24. 24. Take a Break
  25. 25. Some Tips <ul><li>(6) Steps to Dealing With Conflict </li></ul>
  26. 26. 1. Good Place <ul><li>To have a good open conversation, people need to feel they are in a &quot;safe place&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, use a private, neutral place to hold your conversation, best: a space that isn't &quot;owned&quot; by one person or the other. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the conversation starts in a more public place, suggest that it might be helpful if the two of you could move to a more private area. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. 1. Good Time <ul><li>Be sure that the time is also suitable. Do not rush. </li></ul><ul><li>If time is limited, agree on a topic for now and then set up a time to follow-up. </li></ul><ul><li>You might say, &quot;Let's get started now, have a think and then get together again.&quot; </li></ul>
  28. 28. 1. Use a Helper ? <ul><li>Consider the use of a third person to help with the situation </li></ul><ul><li>A mediator can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>give a feeling of fairness (a referee) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help with power difference. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. 2. Agree the Problem <ul><li>This sounds like an obvious step, but </li></ul><ul><li>… different needs, interests and goals - people see problems very differently. </li></ul><ul><li>You need to agree the problem before you'll find a good solution. </li></ul>
  30. 30. 3. Listen …. Hear <ul><li>&quot;Seek first to understand, </li></ul><ul><li>then to be understood&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Use Active Listening skills </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare to listen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take a deep breath and relax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove distractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sit to face the other person, with an open body posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on listening as your first priority </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Active Listening
  32. 32. 3. Active Listening <ul><li>Restate </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize </li></ul>
  33. 33. 4. Assert Your Needs <ul><li>Give your side </li></ul><ul><li>State what you need clearly </li></ul><ul><li>Stay clear in your own mind about the concerns that matter to you </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to listen </li></ul>
  34. 34. 5. Problem Solve <ul><li>Identify issues clearly and concisely </li></ul><ul><li>Explore several solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Be open to other views </li></ul><ul><li>Make the decision </li></ul><ul><li>Say what the reasons are for decision-making </li></ul>
  35. 35. 6. Follow Up <ul><li>Check that it went how you said </li></ul><ul><li>Booking a time for this gives staff positive feelings that you mean it </li></ul>
  36. 36. Discussion <ul><li>What is a conflict you have had or are having? </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss ways to work with it </li></ul>
  37. 37. What if: There Are Many Groups <ul><li>Patiently make sure that all points of view are heard, that issues are clear for all to see (on a board is best), and that all members in the group accept what is being negotiated. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes longer. </li></ul>
  38. 38. What if: They Don’t Want to Talk <ul><li>It is much better if both people want to fix the conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>By first listening, you see what he or she wants, to talk things out. This isn't about being 'right' or 'wrong', but getting the other person to join in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the other person may still not want to negotiate a solution! </li></ul><ul><li>In this situation, shift away from the problem and focus first on procedure. </li></ul>
  39. 39. What if: They Don’t Want to Talk <ul><li>Another idea is to focus on the future, rather than solving problems we had in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>By being flexible about the agenda - topics you care about, but not the most urgent - you can reduce the fears that stop a solution. </li></ul><ul><li>While you may not be able to solve the conflict, you will still be able to manage some of the key issues that exist and prevent those issues from getting worse. </li></ul>
  40. 40. What if: We Get Stuck <ul><li>You can not see a solution. People feel stuck, frustrated, angry, they might either dig their heels in, or pull out from negotiation. </li></ul><ul><li>At such times, it is important to refocus efforts on the underlying needs, interests and concerns of the conflict: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do I really need here? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are my desired outcomes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are my alternatives if I pull out? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the ideas before: focus on procedure, the future. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can we go to other issues we need to discuss? </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. What if: Its Not Working <ul><li>Check what is truly happening: Is it a real difference of ideas about the problem, or is it trying to &quot;save face&quot; in an embarrassing stand-off? Giving people a way out may help. So try to be patient, stay open to new ideas and look for ways to keep the dialogue open for another day. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Thankyou
  43. 43. <ul><li>Produced by Tony Hobbs </li></ul><ul><li>Health Unlimited, </li></ul><ul><li>Ratanakiri, Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>www.healthunlimited.org </li></ul><ul><li>With the support of </li></ul><ul><li>Australian Volunteers International </li></ul><ul><li>www.australianvolunteers.com </li></ul><ul><li>© 2009 HU. Use with Acknowledgement </li></ul>

Notas do Editor

  • This follows on from the Leadership Skills session. The second part in a series on Project Cycle and general management for NGO mid level staff in developing countries. Slide 22 is country specific
  • But, a little effort with this pays off as better work from each person and from those around them.
  • 3 Clicks Do you spend time after work, in the village, have a drink. In Cambodia you can have problems with external relationships – family etc
  • But, a little effort with this pays off as better work from each person and from those around them.
  • Remember before we looked at Herzberg’s list of demotivators and satisfiers, what I called Starters and Stoppers. Basic conditions to meet and then added factors to motivate. Which is which?
  • 1. Don’t micromanage – give staff some power. 2. Tell them they are important and do a good job – but don’t make it up if unwarranted. 3. Empathise with team about negatives; acknowledge frustrations and realities of the job. It is not useful to dwell on negatives, but showing an understanding of these things can build morale and trust and improve motivation. 3 Clicks
  • Everyone is equal, Right?? GROUP DISCUSSION of each person in list Young person – will need guidance to feel secure NGO worker – changed jobs: want challenge? Move up? Training, tasks, exposure to practical work, advancement TBA for 10 years – may want to widen the scope of their influence, exposure to business methods. 20 year service – may want to work out their time in peace – stability,
  • 4 Clicks
  • DEAL with problems
  • Important to clarify the issues. Write things up.
  • Go to next for discussion
  • 4 clicks
  • 3 Clicks. Clear the air. Meetings have to stick to the Agenda, but ‘other business’ should be available.
  • Examine your systems for managing problems, including dispute resolution systems, - use quiet times to look at process improvements that can be used in times of stress.
  • Competing - your own needs are put over others. It relies on an aggressive style of communication, low regard for future relationships, and the exercise of coercive power. Those using a competitive style tend to seek control over a discussion, in both substance and ground rules. They fear that loss of such control will result in solutions that fail to meet their needs. Competing tends to result in responses that increase the level of threat. Accommodating , also known as smoothing, is the opposite of competing. Persons using this style yield their needs to those of others, trying to be diplomatic. They tend to allow the needs of the group to overwhelm their own, which may not ever be stated, as preserving the relationship is seen as most important. Avoiding is a common response to the negative perception of conflict. &amp;quot;Perhaps if we don&apos;t bring it up, it will blow over,&amp;quot; we say to ourselves. But, generally, all that happens is that feelings get pent up, views go unexpressed, and the conflict festers until it becomes too big to ignore. Like a cancer that may well have been cured if treated early, the conflict grows and spreads until it kills the relationship. Because needs and concerns go unexpressed, people are often confused, wondering what went wrong in a relationship. Compromising is an approach to conflict in which people gain and give in a series of tradeoffs. While satisfactory, compromise is generally not satisfying. We each remain shaped by our individual perceptions of our needs and don&apos;t necessarily understand the other side very well. We often retain a lack of trust and avoid risk-taking involved in more collaborative behaviours.
  • 4 Clicks Number 5 is the most productive method Go to next slide for example
  • 1 Click
  • 1. Power distance example: in the first module we saw this… Air Crash Investigation – Dutch airliner taking off at Tenerife, KLM culture is high power distance in the cockpit, copilot was unable to question his boss, crashed into Pan Am jumbo taxiing on runway, lead to 583 deaths.
  • As with all these areas of management, there are many theories. One is the 8 steps to conflict resolution, but we will not find these useful as they are used in the west.
  • More… next slide ‘active listening’
  • 4 Clicks By this stage, the conflict may be resolved: Both sides may better understand the position of the other, and a mutually satisfactory solution may be clear to all. However you may also have uncovered real differences between your positions. This is where a technique like win-win negotiation can be useful to find a solution. There are three guiding principles here: Be Calm, Be Patient, Have Respect… 4: Reason for decision: budget, time, needs of others, policy…
  • 3 Clicks Focus on procedure – so this is how we will work forward… this when we will meet .. Once you start to agree on this you have started agreeing!
  • 4 Clicks Focus on procedure – so this is how we will work forward… this when we will meet .. Once you start to agree on this you have started agreeing!
  • 1 Click
  • 1 Click