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  1. 1. Psychological Assessment and Testing Personality Assessment: Some Basic Questions Chapter 11: Personality Assessment BS in Psychology – 3rd Year Code: 1901
  2. 2. What is personality and personality assessment?
  3. 3. In a rock song in the 1950s titled Personality, Lloyd Price described the subject with the words, walk , talk, smile, and charm Personality is often referred to as a series of components of an individual that can elicit reactions from others Personality and Personality Assessment
  4. 4. There are dozens of different definitions of personality, some definitions appear to be all-inclusive ● McClelland defined personality as the most adequate conceptualization of a person’s behavior in all its detail ● Menninger defined it as the individual as a whole, his height and weight, love and hates and blood pressure and reflexes it is what what and what he is trying to become ● Others view personality as the individual in the context of society, and some focus only on particular aspects of the individual Personality and Personality Assessment
  5. 5. Personality An individual’s unique constellation of psychological traits that is relatively stable over time there, are variables on which individuals may differ, such as values, interests, attitudes, worldview, acculturation, sense of humor, cognitive and behavioral styles, and personality states. Personality and Personality Assessment
  6. 6. Personality assessment may be defined as the measurement and evaluation of psychological traits, states, values, interests, attitudes, worldview, acculturation, sense of humor, cognitive and behavioral styles, and/or related individual characteristics. Personality and Personality Assessment
  7. 7. Personality traits Just as no consensus exists regarding the definition of personality, there is none regarding the definition of trait. Theorists such as Gordon Allport (1937) have tended to view personality traits as real physical entities that are “bona fide mental structures in each personality Personality and Personality Assessment
  8. 8. We view psychological traits as attributions made in an effort to identify threads of consistency in behavioral patterns. In this context, a definition of personality trait is “Any distinguishable, relatively enduring way in which one individual varies from another.” Personality and Personality Assessment
  9. 9. The word distinguishable indicates that behaviors labeled with different trait terms are actually different from one another A behavior present in one context may be labeled with one trait term, but the same behavior exhibited in another context may be better described using another trait term Personality and Personality Assessment Friendly vs Friendly
  10. 10. Perfect consistency will never be found and must not be expected People may be ascendant and submissive, perhaps submissive only towards those individuals bearing traditional symbols of authority and prestige; and towards everyone else aggressive and domineering. The ever-changing environment raises now one trait and now another to a state of active tension. Personality and Personality Assessment
  11. 11. personality type as a constellation of traits that is similar in pattern to one identified category of personality within a taxonomy of personalities Whereas traits are frequently discussed as if they were characteristics possessed by an individual, types are more clearly descriptions of people Personality Type
  12. 12. The latter term has more far-reaching implications regarding characteristic aspects of the individual, such as the person’s worldview, activity level, capacity to enjoy life, and level of social interest. Personality Type
  13. 13. A typology devised by Carl Jung (1923) became the basis for many tests , these differences in perception and judging result in “corresponding differences in their reactions, in their interests, values, needs, and motivations, in what they do best, and in what they like to do.” Personality Type
  14. 14. A typology devised by Carl Jung (1923) became the basis for many tests , these differences in perception and judging result in “corresponding differences in their reactions, in their interests, values, needs, and motivations, in what they do best, and in what they like to do.” Personality Type Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & Briggs, 1943/1962)
  15. 15. Data from the administration of these tests, as with others, are frequently discussed in terms of the patterns of scores that emerge on the subtests. This pattern is referred to as a profile. Profile is a narrative description, graph, table, or other representation of the extent to which a person has demonstrated certain targeted characteristics as a result of the administration or application of tools of assessment.1 In the term personality profile, the targeted characteristics are typically traits, states, or types. Profile
  16. 16. Personality states The word state has been used in at least two distinctly different ways in the personality assessment literature. In one usage, a personality state is an inferred psychodynamic disposition designed to convey the dynamic quality of id, ego, and superego in perpetual conflict Personality States
  17. 17. refers to the transitory exhibition of some personality trait. Put another way, the use of the word trait presupposes a relatively enduring behavioral predisposition, whereas the term state is indicative of a relatively temporary predisposition Personality State
  18. 18. 1. For what type of employment is a person with this type of personality best suited? 2. Is this individual sufficiently well adjusted for military service? 3. What emotional and other adjustment-related factors may be responsible for this student’s level of academic achievement? 4. What pattern of traits and states does this psychotherapy client evince, and to what extent may this pattern be deemed pathological? 5. How has this patient’s personality been affected by neurological trauma? Personality Assessment: Some Basic Questions
  19. 19. • Personality assessment is a staple in developmental research, be it tracking trait development over time or studying some uniquely human characteristic such as moral judgment.
  20. 20. Military Organizations Health Psychology Corporate World Personality assessment in the following perspectives: There are a number of personality variables (such as perfectionism, self-criticism, dependency, and neuroticism) that have been linked to physical and psychological disorders. Personality assessment is a key tool of the human resources department, relied on to aid in hiring, firing, promoting, transferring, and related decisions. Perhaps as long as there have been tests to measure people’s interests, there have been questions regarding how those interests relate to personality. Leadership is a sought-after trait, and personality tests help identify who has it.
  21. 21. In the most general sense, basic research involving personality assessment helps to validate or invalidate theories of behavior and to generate new hypotheses.
  22. 22. Beyond the why of personality assessment are several other questions that must be addressed in any overview of the enterprise. WHAT is being assessed. HOW the assessment is conducted. WHO is being assessed. WHERE the assessment is conducted.
  23. 23. Who? Who is being assessed, and who is doing the assessing?
  24. 24. Some methods of personality assessment rely on the assesse’s own self-report. By contrast, other methods of personality assessment rely on informants other than the person being assessed to provide personality-related information.
  25. 25. The self as the primary referent 01 Another person as the referent 02 The cultural background of assesses 03 • Self-report • Self-concept • Self-concept measure • Self-concept differentiation • Leniency error or Generosity error • Severity error • Halo effect • Error of Central Tendency • Cultural Diversity Who
  26. 26. A process wherein information about assessees is supplied by the assessees themselves. When researchers investigated the psychometric soundness of the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale with a sample of college students, only the students themselves could provide the highly personal information needed. Self-report 1. The Self as the Primary Referent In some cases, the information sought by the assessor is so private that only the individual assessees themselves are capable of providing it. Example:
  27. 27. Self-concept may be defined as one’s attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and related thoughts about oneself. Inferences about an assessee’s self-concept may be derived from many tools of assessment. In the Beck Self-Concept Test (BST; Beck & Stein, 1961), named after senior author, psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck, respondents are asked to compare themselves to other people on variables such as looks, knowledge, and the ability to tell jokes. Self-concept The Self as the Primary Referent self-concept measure; that is, an instrument designed to yield information relevant to how an individual sees him- or herself with regard to selected psychological variables. Example:
  28. 28. Self-concept measures for children: Tennessee Self-Concept Scale ● Contains 80 self-statements (such as “I don’t have any friends”) to which respondents from grades 3 to 12 respond either yes or no as the statement applies to them. ● Factor analysis has suggested that the items cover six general areas of self-concept: behavior, intellectual and school status, physical appearance and attributes, anxiety, popularity, and happiness and satisfaction. Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. 01 02
  29. 29. Self-concept measures for children: Beck Youth Inventories–Second Edition (BYI- II) ● Developed by senior author, psychologist Judith Beck. ● In addition to a self-concept measure, the BYI-II includes inventories to measures depression, anxiety, anger, and disruptive behavior in children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years. 03
  30. 30. Refers to the degree to which a person has different self- concepts in different roles (Donahue et al., 1993). A highly differentiated businessman in his 40s may perceive himself as motivated and hard-driving in his role at work, conforming and people-pleasing in his role as son, and emotional and passionate in his role as husband. Self-concept Differentiation The Self as the Primary Referent People characterized as highly differentiated are likely to perceive themselves quite differently in various roles. Example:
  31. 31. According to Donahue et al. (1993), people with low levels of self-concept differentiation tend to be healthier psychologically, perhaps because of their more unified and coherent sense of self.
  32. 32. Assuming that assessees have reasonably accurate insight into their own thinking and behavior, and assuming that they are motivated to respond to test items honestly, self-report measures can be extremely valuable. An assessee’s candid and accurate self-report can illustrate what that individual is thinking, feeling, and doing.
  33. 33. In some situations, the best available method for the assessment of personality, behavior, or both involves reporting by a third party such as a parent, teacher, peer, supervisor, spouse, or trained observer. The assessment of a child for emotional difficulties. The child may be unable or unwilling to complete any measure (self-report, performance, or otherwise) that will be of value in making a valid determination concerning that child’s emotional status. 2. Another Person as the Primary Referent Example:
  34. 34. Standardized interview of a child’s parent: Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) ● Although the child is the subject of the test, the respondent is the parent (usually the mother), guardian, or other adult qualified to respond with reference to the child’s characteristic behavior. ● The test consists of a series of true–false items designed to be free of racial and gender bias. The items may be administered by computer or paper and pencil. ● Test results yield scores that provide clinical information and shed light on the validity of the test taker’s response patterns. Personality Inventory for Children II (PIC-2) 01 02
  35. 35. Standardized interview of a child’s parent: ● The system is an approach to the assessment of children and adolescents that incorporates cognitive and physical assessments of the subject, self-report of the subject, and ratings by parents and teachers. ● Additionally, performance measures of the child alone, with the family, or in the classroom may be included. Multiaxial Empirically Based Assessment system 03
  36. 36. • Raters may vary in the extent to which they are, or strive to be, scrupulously neutral, favorably generous, or harshly severe in their ratings. • Generalized biases to rate in a particular direction are referred to in terms such as leniency error or generosity error and severity error. • Error of central tendency - A general tendency to rate everyone near the midpoint of a rating scale.
  37. 37. In some situations, a particular set of circumstances may create a certain bias. A teacher might be disposed to judging one pupil very favorably because that pupil’s older sister was teacher’s pet in a prior class. This variety of favorable response bias is sometimes referred to as a halo effect. Another Person as the Primary Referent Example:
  38. 38. Numerous other factors may contribute to bias in a rater’s ratings. ● The rater may feel competitive with, physically attracted to, or physically repelled by the subject of the ratings. ● The rater may not have the proper background, experience, and trained eye needed for the particular task. ● Judgments may be limited by the rater’s general level of conscientiousness and willingness to devote the time and effort required to do the job properly. ● The rater may harbor biases concerning various stereotypes. ● Subjectivity based on the rater’s own personal preferences and taste may also enter into judgments.
  39. 39. Different raters may have different perspectives on the individual they are rating because of the context in which they typically view that person. ● A parent may indicate on a rating scale that a child is hyperactive, whereas the same child’s teacher may indicate on the same rating scale that the child’s activity level is within normal limits. Can they both be right? ● Different informants may have different perspectives on the subjects being evaluated. These different perspectives derive from observing and interacting with the subjects in different contexts.
  40. 40. Regardless whether the self or another person is the subject of study, one element of any evaluation that must be kept in mind by the assessor is the cultural context. 3. The Cultural Background of Assessees Test developers and users have shown increased sensitivity to issues of cultural diversity. A number of concerns have been raised regarding the use of personality tests and other tools of assessment with members of culturally and linguistically diverse populations
  41. 41. How fair or generalizable is a particular instrument or measurement technique with a member of a particular cultural group? ● How a test was developed, how it is administered, and how scores on it are interpreted are all questions to be raised when considering the appropriateness of administering a particular personality test to members of culturally and linguistically diverse populations.
  42. 42. What? What is assessed when a personality assessment is conducted?
  43. 43. Primary Content Area Sampled 01 Testtaker Response Styles 02 Impression Management 03 WHAT
  44. 44. Personality measures are tools used to gain insight into a wide array of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors associated with all aspects of the human experience. An observational checklist may concentrate on classroom behaviors associated with movement in order to assess a child’s hyperactivity. 1. Primary Content Area Sampled Some tests are designed to measure particular traits (such as introversion) or states (such as test anxiety), whereas others focus on descriptions of behavior, usually in particular contexts. Example:
  45. 45. These measures of response pattern are also known as Measures of Response Set or Response Style. In addition to scales labeled Introversion and Extraversion, a test of introversion/extraversion might contain other scales. Such additional scales could be designed to shed light on how honestly testtakers responded to the test, how consistently they answered the questions, and other matters related to the validity of the test findings. Many contemporary personality tests, especially tests that can be scored and interpreted by computer, are designed to measure not only some targeted trait or other personality variable but also some aspect of the testtaker’s response style. Example:
  46. 46. Refers to a tendency to respond to a test item or interview question in some characteristic manner regardless of the content of the item or question. An individual may be more apt to respond yes or true than no or false on a short- answer test. This particular pattern of responding is characterized as acquiescent. Response Style Example: 2. Testtaker Response Styles
  47. 47. Types of Response Styles
  48. 48. A term used to describe the attempt to manipulate others’ impressions through “the selective exposure of some information (it may be false information) coupled with suppression of [other] information” Responding to a personality test in an inconsistent, contrary, or random way, or attempting to fake good or bad, may affect the validity of the interpretations of the test data. Impression management 3. Impression Management
  49. 49. Because a response style can affect the validity of the outcome, one particular type of response style measure is referred to as a validity scale. We may define a validity scale as a subscale of a test designed to assist in judgments regarding how honestly the testtaker responded and whether observed responses were products of response style, carelessness, deliberate efforts to deceive, or unintentional misunderstanding. Impression management Validity Scale
  50. 50. WHERE? Where are personality assessment conducted?
  51. 51. ⚪ Schools ⚪ Clinics ⚪ Hospitals ⚪ Academic Research Laboratories ⚪ Employment Counseling ⚪ Vocational Selection Centers ⚪ Offices of Psychologist and Counselors
  52. 52. HOW? How are personality assessment structured and conducted?
  53. 53. Scope and Theory Procedures and Format Frame of Reference HOW? 01 02 03 04 Scoring and Interpretation 05 Issues in Personality Test Development and Use
  54. 54. Scope and Theory • The scope of an evaluation may be very wide, seeking to take a kind of general inventory of an individuals personality. • The California Psychological Inventory (CPI 434) is an example of an instrument with a relatively wide scope. This test contains 434 true-false items. • It was originally conceived to measure enduring personality traits across cultural groups and predict the behavior of generally well functioning people ( Boer et. al., 2008) • Locus of Control - Locus ( meaning "place or "site") of control is a persons perception about the source of things that happen to him or her. • Internal Locus of Control • External Locus of Control 01
  55. 55. To what extent is a personality test- theory based or relatively altheoritical? • Instruments used in personality testing and assessment vary in the extent to which they are based on a theory of personality. • An example of a theory based instrument is the Blacky Pictures Test ( Blum, 1950) • The other side of the theory saturation coin is the personality test that is relatively altheoretical • The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory ( MMPI) - " the epitome of an altheoritical" dust bowl empiricism approach to the development of a tool to measure personality traits.
  56. 56. Procedures and Item Formats • Personality may be assessed by many different methods, such as face to face interview, computer administered tests, behavioral observation, paper and pencil test, evaluation of case history data, evaluation of portfolio data and recording of psychological responses. • Measures in personality vary in terms of the degree of structure built into them. For example, personality may be assessed by means of an interview, but it may also be assessed by a structured interview. • Aggressive may be defined in ways ranging from hostile and assaultive( as in the "aggressive inmate" ) to hold and enterprising ( " aggressive salesperson). 02
  57. 57. Frame of References • Frame of reference - may be defined as aspects of the focus of exploration such as the time frame as well as the other contextual issues that involves people, places and events. • Q-sort technique - originally developed by Stephenson (1953 ) is an assessment technique in which the task is to sort a group of statements, usually in perceived rank order ranging from most descriptive to least descriptive. • One of the best known application of Q-sort methodology in clinical and counseling setting was advocate by the personality theorist and psychotherapist Carl Rogers (1959) 03
  58. 58. Frame of References • Beyond its application in initial assessment and reevaluation of a therapy client, the Q-sort technique has also been used extensively in basic research in the area of personality and other areas. • Leadership Q-Test ( Cassel, 1958 ) - designed for use in military settings • Tyler Vocational Classification System ( Tyler, 1961 ) - contains cards on which occupations are listed. • Two other item presentation formats: Adjective checklist format and Sentence completion format. • Adjective checklist format- used in wide range of research studies to study assesses perception of themselves or others. • Sentence completion format- to complete an incomplete sentence. 03
  59. 59. Scoring and Interpretation • Personality measures differ with respect to the way conclusions are drawn from the data they provide. For other measures, a computer programmed to apply highly technical manipulation of the data is required for purposes os scoring and interpretation. • Nomothetic approach - assessment is characterized by efforts to learn hown a limited number of personality traits can be applied to all people. • Idiographic approach - assessment is characterizer by efforts to learn about each individuals unique constellation of personality traits, with no attempt to characterized each person according to any particular set of traits. • The idiographic approach to personality assessment was describe in detail by Allport ( 1937; Allport & Odbert 1936 ). 04
  60. 60. Scoring and Interpretation • Normative approach - a testtakers responses and the presumed strength of a measured trait are interpreted relative to the strength of that trait in a sample of a larger population • Ipsative approach - a testtakers responses, as well as the presumed strength of measured traits are interpreted relative to the strength of measured traits for that same individual. 04
  61. 61. Issues in Personality test Development and Use • Many of the issues inherent in the test development process mirror the basic questions just discussed about personality asssessment in general. • As previously noted, personality assessment that relies exclusively on self- report is a two eyed sword. • Building validity scales into self- report tests is one way that test developers have attempted to deal with the potential problems. • In arguing the case of the inclusion of validity scales, it has been asserted that " detention of an attempt to provide misleading information is a vital and absolutely necessary component of the clinical interpretation of test results and that using any instrument without validity scales runs counter to the baic tenets of clinical assessment ( Ben-Porath & Waller 1992 ). 05
  62. 62. Psychological Assessment and Testing Developing Instruments to Assess Personality Chapter 11: Personality Assessment BS in Psychology – 3rd Year Code: 1901
  63. 63. 1. Logic and Reason 2. Theory 3. Data Reduction Methods 4. Criterion Groups Developing Instruments To Assess Personality
  64. 64. Logic and Reason - Content or content-oriented approach o Example: True–False Test of Extraversion “I consider myself an outgoing person” - Personal Data Sheet o Robert S. Woodworth (1917) o Woodworth Psychoneurotic Inventory o Contained items designed to elicit self-report of fears, sleep disorders, and other problems deemed symptomatic of a pathological condition referred to then as psychoneuroticism. 01
  65. 65. Logic and Reason - Clinically actionable information can be collected in relatively little time: o Self-Report Instruments o Computerized Report o Psychological Tests – identify conditions of “medical necessity” - Research o Typical companion to logic, reason, and intuition in item development 01
  66. 66. Logic and Reason - Clinical experience o Helpful in item criterion - Correspondence with experts on the subject matter of the test o Aid in the test development process ❑ Experts who have researched and published on the subject matter ❑ Experts who have known to have amassed great clinical experience on the subject matter 01
  67. 67. Theory 02 - Personality measures differ in the extent to which they rely on a particular theory of personality in their development as well as their interpretation.
  68. 68. Data Reduction Methods 03 - Include several types of statistical techniques collectively known as factor analysis or cluster analysis. - To aid in the identification of the minimum number of variables or factors that account for the intercorrelations in observed phenomena.
  69. 69. Data Reduction Methods 03 - Example: “the most important individual differences in human transactions” o How many primary factors of personality are there? ▪ Raymond Bernard Cattell (1940s) – 16 factors ▪ Surface traits – personality elements that can be directly observed ▪ Source traits – must be inferred through statistical methods. It is the building blocks or sources of human personality. ▪ Sixteen Personality Factor (16 PF) Questionnaire - Raymond Cattell (1949)
  70. 70. Data Reduction Methods 03 - Eysenck (1991) – three primary factors - Church and Burke (1994) – maybe four, five, or six factors - Waller and Zavala (1993) – seven-factor model - Costa and McCrae (1992) – five-factor models
  71. 71. Data Reduction Methods 03 - The Big Five o Five-dimension (or factor) model of personality and a total of 30 elements or facets that define each domain. NEO Personality Inventory Original version (measurement of first three domains: Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness) NEO PI-R Revised version (measurement of two additional domains: Agreeableness and Conscientiousness)
  72. 72. Data Reduction Methods 03 - The Big Five o Big Five Inventory (BFI) - John, Donahue, and Kentle (1991) o Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) - Gosling, Rentfrow, and Swann (2003) o Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (FF-NPQ) - Paunonen, Jackson, and Ashton (2004)
  73. 73. Empirical Criterion Keying ● May be defined as a standard on which a judgement or decision can be made ● scoring or keying of items has been demonstrated empirically to differentiate among groups of test takers. Criterion Groups
  74. 74. The MMPI - was the product of collaboration between psychologist Starke R. Hathway and psychiatrist/neurologist John Charnley McKinley. - It contained 566 true-false items and was designed as an aid to psychiatric diagnosis with adolescent and adults 14 years of age and older. - can be traced to an approach to test development that was based on logic and resaon.
  75. 75. The Clinical Criterion Groups for MMPI-Scales Scale Clinical Criterion Group 1. Hypochondriasis (Hs) - Patients who showed exaggerated concerns about their physical health. 2. Depression (D) – Clinically depressed patients; unhappy pessimistic about their future. 3. Hysteria (Hy) – Patients with conversion reaction 4. Psychopathic deviate (Pd) - Patients who had histories of delinquency and other antisocial behavior 5. Masculinity-femininity (Mf) – Minnesota draftees, airline stewardesses, and male homosexual college students from the University of Minnesota campus community
  76. 76. Paranoia (Pa) – Patients who exhibited paranoid symptomatology such as ideas pf reference, suspiciousness, delusions of persecution, and delusions of grandeur . Psychasthenia (Pt) – Anxious, obsessive-compulsive, guilt ridden and self- doubting patients Schizophrenia (Sc) – Patients who were diagnose as schizophrenic (various subtypes) Hypomania (Ma) – Patients, most diagnosed as manic-depressive, who exhibited manic symptomatology such as elevated mood, excessive activity, and easy distractibility Social Introversion (Si) – College students who had scored at the extremes on a test of introversion/extroversion
  77. 77. L scale (Lie scale) F Scale (Frequency Scale) (Infrequenfcy scale) K - Correlation Cannot Say Scale- also referred to simply as the ? (question mark) scale.
  78. 78. Welsh codes – referred to as such because they were created by Welsh (1948-1956) Example of Welsh code: 6* 78’’’ 1-53/4:2# 90 F’L-/K
  79. 79. - Much of what has already been said about the MMPI in terms of its general structure, administration, scoring, and interpretation is applicable to the MMPI-2. - Approximately 14% of the MMPI items were rewritten to correct grammatical errors and to make the language more contemporary, nonsexist, and readable. - Items thought to be objectionable to some test takers were eliminated. The MMPI-2
  80. 80. - contains items seldom endorsed by test takers who are candid, deliberate, and diligent in their approach to the test. - scale is designed to identify acquiescent and non-acquiescent response pattern. - designed to identify indiscriminate response pattern Back Page Infrequency Scale True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN)
  81. 81. James Butcher- developed yet another validity scale after the publication of that test. ● The S scale is a validity scale designed to detect self-presentation in a superlative manner. Another proposed validity scale, this one designed to detect malingerers in personal injury claims and was proposed by Paul R. Lees-Haley and his colleagues. FBS (Faking Bad Scale) - this scale was originally developed as a means to detect malingerers who submitted bogus personal injury claims.
  82. 82. James Butcher (1933) ● Senior author of MMPI-2 ● Army Infantryman at Outpost Yoke in South Korea in 195 ● Earned a Ph.D. at University of North Carolina ● First Teaching Job was at the University of Minnesota
  83. 83. The MMPI-2-RF - The need to rework the clinical scales of the MMPI-2 was perceived by Tellegen et al. - (2003) as arising, at least in part, two basic problems with the structure of the scale - One basic problem was overlapping items. - The method of test development initially to create the MMPI, empirical criterion keying, practically ensured there would be some develop.
  84. 84. 1. Identify the “core components” of each clinical scale 2. Create revised scales to measure these core components (referred to as each clinical scale) 3. Derive a final set of Revised Clinical (RC) scale using the MMPI-2 item pool. Restructured clinical (RC) – scales were less intercorrelated than the original clinical scales, and their convergent and discriminant validity were greater than those original scales.
  85. 85. Description of a Sampling of MMPI-2-RF Scales Clinical Scales Group Scale Name Scale Description Demoralization (RCd) General malaise, unhappiness, and dissatisfaction Somatic Complaints (RC1) Diffuse complaints related to physical health Low Positive Emotions (RC2) A “core” feeling of vulnerability in depression Cynicism (RC3) Beliefs nonrelated to self that others are generally ill- intentioned and not to be trusted Antisocial Behavior (RC4) Acting in violation of societal or social rules
  86. 86. Ideas of Persecution (RC6) Self-referential beliefs that one is in danger or threatened by others Dysfunctional Negative Emotions (RC7) Disruptive anxiety, anger, and irritability Aberrant Experiences (RC8) Psychotic or Psychotic like thoughts, perceptions, or experiences Hypomanic Activation (RC9) Over activation, grandiosity, impulsivity, or aggression
  87. 87. Validity Scales Group Variable Response Inconsistency Revised (VRIN-r) True response inconsistency revised (TRIN-r) Infrequent Responses Revised (F-r) Infrequent Psychopathology Responses Revised (Fp-r) Infrequent Somatic Responses (Fs) Symptom Validity (aka-Fake Bad Scale-Revised; FBS-r) Uncommon Virtues (aka Lie Scale-Revised; L-r)) Adjustment Validity (aka Defensiveness Scale- Revised; K-r)
  88. 88. Specific Problem (SP) Scales Group Suicidal/Death Ideation (SUI) Helplessness/Hopelessness (HLP) Self-Doubt (SFD) Inefficacy (NFC) Cognitive Complaints (COG) Juvenile Conduct Problems (JCP) Substance Abuse (SUB) Sensitivity/Vulnerability (SNV) Stress/Worry (STW) Anxiety (AXY) Anger Proneness (ANP) Behavior Restricting Fears (BRF) Multiple Specific Fears (MSF) Juvenelle Conduct Problems (JCP) Aggression (AGG) Activation (ACT)
  89. 89. Interest Scale Group Aesthetic Literary Interest (AES) Mechanical Physical Interest (MEC) PSY-5 SCALES GROUP The five Scales are Revised versions of MMPI-2 measures. ● Aggressiveness Revised (AGGR-r) ● Psychoticism-Revised (DISC-r) ● Dis constraint -Revised (DIC-r) ● Negative Emotionally/Neuroticism-Revised (NEGE-r) ● Introversion/Low positive Emotionally Revised (INTR-r
  90. 90. The MMPI-A ● Its developers had recommended the original MMPI for use with adolescents. ● Test users had evinced skepticism of this recommendation through the years. ● Early on it was noticed that adolescents as a group tended to score somewhat higher on the clinical scales than adults, a finding that left adolescents as a group in the unenviable position of appearing to suffer from more psychopathology than adults. ● The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Adolescents (MMPI-A; BUTCHER et. al., 1992) is a 478-item, true or false test designed for use in clinical, counseling, and school setting for the purpose of assessing psychopathology and identifying personal, social, and behavioral problems. ● The MMPI-A contains 16 basic scales, including 1 clinical scales and six validity scale.
  91. 91. The MMPI and its revision and progeny in perspective The MMPI burst onto the psychology scene in the 1940s and was greeted as an innovative, well researched, and highly appealing instrument by both clinical practitioners and academic researchers.
  92. 92. Psychological Assessment and Testing Personality Assessment and Culture Chapter 11: Personality Assessment BS in Psychology – 3rd Year Code: 1901
  93. 93. ACCULTURATION - is an ongoing process by which an individual’s thoughts, behavior, values, worldview, and identity develop in relation to the general thinking, behavior, customs, and values of a particular cultural group. ❖ The process of Acculturation begins at birth. ❖ Agents of Acculturation - this are the individuals or institutions who serve as source of consumer information and/or model of Consumption behavior. Acculturation and Related Consideration
  94. 94. ● Describe yourself. ● Describe your family. Who lives at home? ● Describe roles in your family, such as the role of mother, the role of father, the role of grandmother, the role of child, and so forth. ● What traditions, rituals, or customs were passed down to you by family members? ● What traditions, rituals, or customs do you think it is important to pass to the next generation? ● With regard to your family situation, what obligations do you see yourself as having? ● What obligations does your family have to you? ● What role does your family play in everyday life? ● How does the role of males and females differ from your own cultural perspective? ● What kind of music do you like? ● What kinds of foods do you eat most routinely? ● What do you consider fun things to do? When do you do these things? ● Describe yourself in the way that you think most other people would describe you. How would you say your own selfdescription would differ from that description? ● Describe yourself in the way that you think most other people would describe you. How would you say your own selfdescription would differ from that description? Some sample question to assess Acculturation
  95. 95. ● VALUES - are that which an individual prizes or the ideas an individual believes in. ● ROKEACH (1973) - differentiated what he called instrumental from terminal values. Acculturation and Related Consideration
  96. 96. Example: Happiness is a terminal value where as being ambitious to earn a million dollars is a way to get happiness for some people. INSTRUMENTAL VALUE TERMINAL VALUES Are guiding principles to help one attain some objectives. Example: Imagination, ambition, and cheerfulness Are guiding principles and a mode of behavior that is an endpoint. Example: comfortable life, exciting life, accomplishment, self-respect.
  97. 97. ● Personal Identity - is intimately tied to the concept of Acculturation. ● IDENTITY - is defined as a set of cognitive and behavioral characteristics by which individuals define themselves as member of a particular group. ● IDENTIFICATION - a process by which an individual assumes a pattern of behavior characteristics of other people and referred to it as one of the “central issues that ethnic minority groups must deal with. ● WORLDVIEW - the unique way people interpret and make sense of their perceptions as a consequence of their learning experience, cultural background, and related variables.
  98. 98. Chapter 11: Personality Assessment 16 Personality Factor (16PF) BS in Psychology – 3rd Year Code: 1901
  99. 99. Objective Personality Test ● Present specific stimuli and involve administering a standard set of items, each of which is answered using a limited set of response options (true or false; yes or no; strongly disagree, slightly disagree, slightly agree, strongly agree) 16 Personality Factors (16PF)
  100. 100. Background and Development of the Test ● Raymond Cattell (1949) ○ Cattell worked with psychologist Charles Spearman, who was known for his pioneering work in statistics. Cattell would later use the factor analysis techniques developed by Spearman to create his own personality taxonomy. ○ Cattell reviewed previous research by Allport and Odbert (1936), which suggested that there were more than 18,000 personality trait names and terms in the English language. Of these, only about a quarter were “real traits of personality” as many of these traits are highly similar, making it difficult to distinguish some traits from others. ○ Cattell analyzed Allport’s list and reduced it to 171 characteristics ○ 36 traits – surface traits (personality elements that can be directly observed) ○ 16 traits – source traits (building blocks or sources of human personality) 16 Personality Factors (16PF)
  101. 101. Background and Development of the Test ● 16 years and older ● Used in variety of settings (clinical/counseling, industrial/organizational, research, and schools) ● Revisions of the test were published in 1956, 1962, 1968, and 1993. In 2002, the fifth edition of the test was published with supplemental updated norms 16 Personality Factors (16PF)
  102. 102. Background and Development of the Test ● 16PF Fifth Edition ○ 185 items that comprise 16 primary personality factor scales and the Impression Management (IM) scale. Each scale contains 10-15 items. ○ Average test-completion time ranges from 35-50 minutes (paper-and-pencil administration) and 25-35 minutes (computer administration) ○ Internal consistency coefficient alpha reliabilities average .76, with a range from .68 to .87. Test-retest reliabilities average .80 for a 2-week interval and .70 for a 2-month interval. 16 Personality Factors (16PF)
  103. 103. 16 Personality Factors (16PF)
  104. 104. FACTOR A - (Warmth) Warm vs Reserved Factor A addressees the tendency to be warmly involved with people verus the tendency to be more reserved social and interpersonally A - (reserved) people tend to be more cautious in involvement and attachments A+ (Warm) people tend to have more interest in people and to prefer occupations dealing with people, they tend to be comfortable in situations that call for closeness with other people 16 Personality Factors (16PF)
  105. 105. FACTOR B - (Reasoning) Abstract vs Concrete Factor B is the ability ot solve problems using reasoning, described as a brief measure of reasoning or intelligence 16 Personality Factors (16PF)
  106. 106. FACTOR C - (Emotional Stability) Emotionally Stable vs Reactive Concerns feelings about coping with day-to-day life and its challenges. High scorers tend to take life in stride and to manage events and emotions in a balanced, adaptive way. Low scorers feel a certain lack of control over life. Whereas high scorers make adaptive or proactive choices in managing their lives 16 Personality Factors (16PF)
  107. 107. FACTOR E - (Dominance) Dormant vs Deferential This factor involves the tendency to exert one’s will over others (Dominance) versus accommodating others’ wishes (Deferene) Most High scorers tend to be forceful, vocal in expressing their wishes and opinions even when not invited to do so, and pushy about obtaining what they want. Low scorers tend to avoid conflict by acquiescing to the wishes of others. They are willing to set aside their wishes and feelimgs 16 Personality Factors (16PF)
  108. 108. FACTOR F - (Liveliness) Lively vs Serious This factor involves the tendency to exert one’s will over others (Dominance) versus accommodating others’ wishes (Deferene) High scorers are enthusiastic, spontaneous and attention-seeking; they are lively and drawn to simulating social situations. Extreme scorers may reflect a flighty quality that is seen as unreliable or immature. The Low scorers tend to say that they prefer working on a quiet hobby rather than attending a lively party. 16 Personality Factors (16PF)
  109. 109. FACTOR G - (Rule-Consciousness) Rule-Conscious vs Expedient This factor addresses the extent to which cultural standards of right and wrong are internalized and used to govern behavior. It has been associated with the psychoanalytic concept of the superego High scorers tend to perceive themselves as strict followers of rules, principles, and manners. Low scorers ten to eschew rules and regulations, doing so either because they have a poorly developed sense of right and wrong or they ascribe to values that are not solely based on conventional mores for their actions 16 Personality Factors (16PF)
  110. 110. FACTOR H - (Social Boldness) Socially Bold vs Shy Social Boldness (H+) Shyness (H-) High scorers consider themselves to be bold and adventurous in social groups, and show little fear of social situations. They tend to initiate social contacts and aren’t shy in the face of new social settings. Low scorers tend to be socially timid, cautious, and shy; they find speaking in front of a group to be a difficult experience 16 Personality Factors (16PF)
  111. 111. FACTOR I - (Sensitivity) Sensitive vs Utilitarian Focuses on people’s sensitivities and sensibilities’ that is high scorers tend do base judgements on personal tastes and aesthetic values, whereas low scorers tend to have more utilitarian focus Sensitive (I+) people rely on empathy and sensitivity in their considerations, (I-) Utilitarian people evince less sentimentality, attending more to how things operate or work. At the extreme I+ people may be so focused on the subjective aspects of situations that they overlook more functional aspects. Low scorers tend to be concerned with utility and less on feelings and considerations 16 Personality Factors (16PF)
  112. 112. This factor relates to the tendency to trust versus being vigilant about others’ motives and intention. Trust (L-) is the socially desirable pole for Factor L. General Factor Meaning Factor L (Vigilance): Vigilant versus Trusting High Scorers (L+) - May be unable to relax their vigilance when it might be advantageous to do so. - At the extreme, mistrust may have an aspect of animosity . - Sometimes a vigilant stance is in response to life circumstances. Low Scorers (L-) - Tend to expect fair treatment, loyalty, and good intentions from others. - Extremely low scorers may be taken advantage to because they do not give enough thought to others’ motives.
  113. 113. Factor M addresses the type of things to which people give thought and attention. Grounded (M-) is more socially desirable than abstractedness. General Factor Meaning Factor M (Abstractedness): Abstracted versus Grounded High Scorers (M+) - More oriented to internal mental processes and ideas rather than to practicalities. - Often occupied with thinking and often get lost in thought. - Extreme scorers have less self-control. Low Scorers (M-) - Focus on their senses, observable data, and the outer realities of their environment in forming their perceptions. - may be so overly concrete or literal - “miss the forest for the trees”
  114. 114. Addresses the tendency to be forthright and personally open versus being private and non-disclosing. Forthrightness (N-) is the socially desirable pole. General Factor Meaning Factor N (Privateness): Private versus Forthright High Scorers (N+) - “play their hands close to their chest” - Tend to be personally guarded. - At extreme, tend to maintain their privacy in expense of developing close relationships with others. Low Scorers (N-) - “put all the cards in the table” - Tend to talk about themselves readily; they are genuine, self-revealing, and forthright.
  115. 115. Worrying can have positive results, in that a person can anticipate dangers in a situation and can see how actions might have consequences. Self-assured (O-) response choices are the socially desirable pole. General Factor Meaning Factor O (Apprehension): Apprehensive versus Self-Assured High Scorers (O+) - Tend to worry about things and to feel apprehensive and insecure. - High scorers can make a poor social presence. Low Scorers (N-) - Tend to be more self-assured, neither prone to apprehensiveness nor troubled about their sense of adequacy. - Confident and self-satisfied. - At extremes, self-assurance may result from blocking out awareness of negative elements of self.
  116. 116. Factors between thinking of ways to improve things or to prefer things the traditional ways. General Factor Meaning Factor Q1 (Openness to Change): Open to Change versus Traditional High Scorers (Q1+) - Enjoy experimenting. - If they perceive the status as unsatisfactory or dull, they are inclined to change it. Low Scorers (Q1-) - They don’t question the way things are done. - They prefer life to be predictable and familiar, even if life is not ideal.
  117. 117. This factor tends to be about maintaining contact with or proximity to others. It appears to be more socially favourable to present oneself as Group-Oriented (Q2-). General Factor Meaning Factor Q2 (Self-Reliance): Self-Reliant versus Group-Oriented High Scorers (Q2+) - They enjoy time alone and prefer to make decisions for themselves. - They have difficulty in working alongside with others, and find it hard to ask help when necessary. Low Scorers (Q2-) - They prefer to be around people and like to do things with others. - Extreme scorers, may not be optimally effective in situations where help is unavailable or where others are providing poor direction or advice.
  118. 118. Perfectionistic people are likely to be most comfortable in highly organized and predictable situations and may find it hard to deal with unpredictability. Perfectionism can have positive results but is not always desirable. General Factor Meaning Factor Q3 (Perfectionism): Perfectionistic versus Tolerates Disorder High Scorers (Q3+) - Want to do things right. - They tend be organized, to keep things in their proper places, and to plan ahead. - At the extreme, they may seen as inflexible. Low Scorers (Q3-) - Leave more things to change and tend to be more comfortable in disorganized setting. - They may not able to have a clear motivation for behaving in planned or organized ways.
  119. 119. This scale is associated with nervous tension. The items are fairly transparent, they can be presented to as favourable or unfavourable. General Factor Meaning Factor Q4 (Tension): Tense versus Relax High Scorers (Q4+) - Tend to have a restless energy and to be fidgety when made to wait. - Extremely high tension can lead to impatience and irritability. Low Scorers (Q4-) - Tend to feel relaxed and tranquil. - Patient and slow to become frustrated. - In extremes, low level of arousal can make them unmotivated.
  120. 120. Computer Administration ● The 16PF Fifth Edition can be administered via personal computer using IPAT OnSite System Software or online using NetAssess or 16PF world.com services. ● These system feature item-by-item test administrations. ADMINISTRATION
  121. 121. Paper and Pencil Administration ● Testing materials include the Fifth Edition test booklet and the corresponding answer sheet which may be hand or computer scored. ● Simple and clear instructions for examinees are printed in the test booklet. ● Booklet starting the test, examinees are asked to complete the grids for name and gender on the left-hand side of the answer sheet. ● During the test, the administration should check that examinees are making responses appropriately. ● At the conclusion of testing, the administrator should review each answer sheet to ensure that the name ( or I.D number ) and gender grids have been completed and that all responses are scorable. ADMINISTRATION
  122. 122. ● GENERAL INTERPRETIVE INFORMATION - the interpretive information that follows is based on the preliminary body of evidence available for the fifth edition. ● FACTOR ANALYSIS - The evolution of the 16PF has reflected Cattell’s use of the factor-analytic approach in identifying the basic structure of human personality. Profile Interpretation
  123. 123. Primary Factor Scale Description
  124. 124. ● BIPOLAR SCALE - indicates a respondent to balance two different qualities, defining the relative proportion of those qualities. ● GLOBAL SCALE - in addition to the primary scales, the 16PF contains a set of five scales that combine related primary scales into global factors of personality.
  125. 125. Global Factor Scale Description
  126. 126. Sten Distribution STEN SCALE - the 16PF “standardized ten” (sten) score scales.
  127. 127. Interpreting the results of a 16 personality types test is critical to your hiring decision. There are four main categories that your candidates can fall into: ● Candidates who are introverts vs those who are extroverts. ● Candidates who sense information vs those who augment information with intuition. ● Candidates who prefer thinking logically vs those who prefer making decisions based on feeling. ● Candidates who like to make decisions and judge information vs those who like to perceive new information. How to Interpret the result of 16PF test
  128. 128. ● Extraverted Intuitive Thinking Judging (ENJT) - Natural leaders ● Extraverted Intuitive Thinking Perceiving (ENTP) - Typically smart and insightful ● Extraverted Intuitive Feeling Judging (ENFJ) - they are constantly learning new things ● Extraverted Intuitive Feeling Perceiving (ENFP) - can come up with exceptional ideas and share them with others, as they are also keen to get along with their co-worker. ● Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ESTJ) - they typically abide by the rules and perform best in work environment with organized team.
  129. 129. ● Extraverted Sensing Thinking Perceiving (ESTP) - they typically work best by combining logic with emotions. ● Extraverted Sensing Feeling Judging - (ESFJ) - they can understand complex problem, like an ENFP personality type, but will delegate tasks to help solve them. ● Extraverted Sensing Feeling Perceiving (ESFP) - are outgoing extroverts who who will enjoy being in the limelight. ● Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging (INTJ) - get their energy from working independently as oppose to others.
  130. 130. ● Introverted Intuitive Thinking Perceiving (INTP) - they think logically, focus on being creative, and prefer creative work environment. ● Introverted Intuitive Feeling Judging (INFJ) - usually prefers working independently and gets their energy from working on tasks alone. ● Introverted Intuitive Feeling Perceiving (INFP) - they enjoy learning new skills and work towards bringing positive change to their work environment. ● Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ISTJ) - they value the importance of working hard. ● Introverted Sensing Thinking Perceiving (ISTP) - prefer working in quiet environments, and can be quiet themselves, but tend to join forces with team members in time s of need.
  131. 131. ● Introverted Sensing Feeling Judging (ISFJ) - will deliver high-quality work and are both loyal and reliable in professional environments. ● Introverted Sensing Feeling Perceiving (ISFP) - enjoy working in a team despite being introverts.
  132. 132. Hand Scoring 1. Using the appropriate scoring key, obtain the total raw score of the items in the scale that have baan completed. 2. Divide the total raw score by the number of items completed. 3. Multiply the quotient obtained in procedure 2 by the total number of items in the scale. 4. Raound the product obtained in procedure 3 to the nearest whole number, which becomes the estimated full scale score. SCORING 16PF
  133. 133. 1. Align the left edge of the first scoring key over the answer sheet, making sure that the stars on the right side of the answer sheet appear through the corresponding holes on the right side of the key. 2. Count the marks visible though the holes in the area labeled. 3. Continue scoring the remaining four factors that correspond with the first key. STEP 1: Score the Test
  134. 134. 1. Determine whether combined-sex or sex-specific norms for Factor A are more appropriate for testing and appilication. 2. Locate the examinee’s raw score for Factor A in the row that corresponds to the norms selected. 3. Draw your finger up the column in which the raw score appears. STEP 2: Convert Raw Scores to Sten Scores
  135. 135. 1. Transfer the examinee’s primary factor sten scores from answer sheet to the left-hand column labeled “sten” on the individual record form. 2. Begin by scoring Factor A, which is the first row/Multiply examinees’s Factor A Sten score by the decimal. 3. Repeat procedure. 4. Add the numbers in each pair of vertical columns separately. 5. After you have totaled all the columns, subtract each sum in a shaded box from the sum in a clear box. STEP 3: Calculate Global Factor Sten Scores
  136. 136. 1. Write the examinee’s primary and global factor sten scores in the Sten column at left of the profile sheet. 2. In the appropriate spaces on the grid, mark a dot that corresponds to each rounded global factor sten scoe and to each personality factor sten score. 3. Connect the dots using a series of short straight lines. STEP 4: Profile Sten Scores
  137. 137. ● Computer scoring and interpretation of the 16pf questionnaire has several important advantages over hand scoring, such as 1. Quick turnaround of results. 2. Less possibility for error and 3. The ability to report additional administrative indices and other composite scores that enrich test result. ● 16PF fifth edition answer sheets can also be fixed to IPAT, reports are returned within minutes ● Also can be administered and scored on personal computers using IPAT Onsite System software or one of the online services. Additional information regarding these scoring options can be obtained by calling IPAT at 800-225-4728 Computer Scoring

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