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Hypothesis

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- 1. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS DR. MAHESWARI JAIKUMAR maheswarijaikumar2103@gmail.com
- 2. HYPOTHESIS • Is a formal tentative statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables under the study.
- 3. • A hypothesIs helps to translate the research problem and objectives into a prediction of the expected results or outcomes of the research study.
- 4. • A clearly stated hypothesIs includes the variables to be manipulated or measured, identifies the population to be examined and indicates the proposed outcome for the study.
- 5. • The formulation of hypothesis plays an important role in the theory building.
- 7. DEFINITION • “Hypothesis is a tentative prediction or explanation of the relationship between two variables’ It implies that there is a systematic relationship between an independent and dependent variable”.
- 8. • “Hypothesis is a shrewd guess or inference that is formulated and provisionally adopted to explain observed facts or conditions and to guide in further investigations” … GOOD & HATT
- 9. IMPORTANCE OF HYPOTHESIS • Hypothesis enables the researcher to objectively investigate new areas of discovery, thus helps in theory building.
- 10. • Hypothesis provides objectivity to the research activity. • Hypothesis provides directions to conduct research.
- 11. • Hypothesis provides clear and specific goals to the researchers. These goals provide the investigator with a basis for selecting sample and research procedures to meet the set goals.
- 12. • Hypothesis provides a link between theories and actual practical research. • It serves as a bridge between theory and reality.
- 13. • A hypothesis suggests the methodology to be chosen to conduct the study. • It is a tentative statement of the anticipated results, it guides the researcher towards the direction in which the research should proceed.
- 14. • It stimulates the thinking process of the researcher a the researcher forms the hypotheses by anticipating the outcome. • It provides directions about the methodology to be chosen & techniques of data analysis.
- 15. • Hypothesis provides an understanding of the researchers about what to expect from the results of the study. • It serves as a framework for drawing conclusions of a research study.
- 16. • Without a hypothesis a research would be an aimless wandering.
- 17. CHARATERISTICS • A good hypothesis must be written in declarative form using present tense. • It must contain variables, population under study and should be relevant to the research problem & objectives.
- 18. A GOOD HYPOTHESIS 1. CONCEPTUAL CLARITY. 2. EMPIRICAL REFERENTS. 3. OBJECTIVITY. 4. SPECIFICITY. 5.RELEVANT. 6. TESTABILITY.
- 19. 7. CONSISTENCY. 8. SIMPLICITY. 9. AVAILABILITY OF TECHNIQUE. 10. PURPOSIVENESS. 11. VERIFIABILITY. 12. PROFOUNDITY OF EFFECTS. 13. ECONOMICAL.
- 20. CONCEPTUAL CLARITY • A good hypothesis consists of clearly defined and understandable concepts. • It is stated in a very clear terms, the meaning and implications of which cannot be doubted.
- 21. EMPIRICAL REFERENTS • A research must have an ultimate empirical referent. • No usable hypothesis can embody moral judgments. A good hypotheses must have empirical basis from the area of enquiry.
- 22. OBJECTIVITY • Hypothesis must be objective. (objectivity in data collection, and should be able to keep research activity from researcher value judgment.
- 23. SPECIFICITY • A good research hypothesis must be specific, not general and should explain the expected relations between variables . • ( E.g., Exercise and stress).
- 24. RELEVANT • The hypothesis should be relevant to the problem and objectives under enquiry. • In addition hypothesis must have relevance with a theory under test in a research process.
- 25. TESTABILITY • Hypothesis should be testable and should not be a moral judgment. • It should be directly or indirectly measurable.
- 26. • It must be verifiable. • E.g., a hypothesis such as “bad parents produce bad children”., cannot be tested.
- 27. • A testable hypothesis clearly states the manipulatable independent variables and measurable dependent variables in specific population which provides a clear idea about an interventional protocol and whether it will be implemented precisely and consistently as a treatment in the study.
- 28. • A good hypothesis states the causal link between independent and dependent variables, which is later evaluated by using inferential statistical tests.
- 29. CONSISTENCY • A hypothesis should be consistent with an existing body of theories, research findings and other hypothesis. • It should correspond with existing knowledge.
- 30. SIMPLICITY • A hypothesis should be formulated in simple and understandable terms. • It should require fewer conditions and assumptions.
- 31. AVAILABILITY OF TECHNIQUE • The researcher must ensure that scientific methods are available for testing their proposed thesis.
- 32. PURPOSIVENESS • The researcher must formulate only purposeful hypothesis. • Purposiveness refers to the relevance of hypothesis to the research problem and its objectives.
- 33. VERIFIABILITY • A good hypothesis should be verifiable in practical terms.
- 34. PROFOUNDITY OF EFFECT • A good hypothesis should have profound effect upon a variety of research variables.
- 35. ECONOMICAL • The expenditure of resources can be controlled if the hypothesis underlying the research that which is undertaken is good.
- 36. SOURCES OF HYPOTHESIS • Research hypothesis are generated from a variety of sources such as theoretical or conceptual frameworks.
- 38. THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK Theoretical framework or conceptual framework are the most important sources of hypothesis.
- 39. • Through a deductive approach these hypothesis are drawn for testing them. • E.g., Pavlov’s theory – a hypothesis can be drawn about modification of behaviour.
- 41. PREVIOUS RESEARCH Findings or previous research may be used for framing the hypothesis for a new study that have an area of relevance.
- 42. REAL-LIFE EXPERIENCES • Real life experiences may contribute in the formulation of hypothesis.
- 43. • Newton had life changing experience of the falling of an apple and formulated the hypothesis that the earth attracts all the mass towards its center before generating a law of gravity.
- 44. ACADEMIC LITERATURE Academic literature is based on formal theories, empirical evidences, experiences, observations and conceptualizations of academicians.
- 45. • These literatures may serve as good source for formulating hypothesis for research studies.
- 46. TYPES 1. SIMPLE or COMPLEX HYPOTHESIS. 2. ASSOCIATIVE or CAUSAL HYPOTHESIS. 3. DIRECTIONAL or NON DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS. 4. NULL or RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS.
- 47. SIMPLE/COMPLEX HYPOTHESIS • SIMPLE HYPOTHESIS: It is a statement which reflects the relationship between two variables. • (E.g., low levels of hemoglobin & risk of infection)
- 48. • COMPLEX HYPOTHESIS : It is a statement which reflects the relationship between more than two variables. • (E.g., satisfaction among patients who are older & dwelling in rural areas than those who are younger & living in urban areas)
- 49. ASSOCIATIVE/CAUSAL HYPOTHESIS • ASSOCIATIVE HYPOTHESIS : Reflects a relationship between variables that occurs or exists in natural settings without manipulation. • This hypothesis is use in correlational research studies.
- 50. • CAUSAL HYPOTHESIS : Predicts the cause-and-effect relationship between two or more dependent and independent variables in experimental or interventional setting, where independent variable is manipulated by researcher to examine the effect on dependent variable.
- 51. DIRECTIONAL/NON DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS • DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS: Specifies not only the existence, but also the expected direction of the relationship between variables.
- 52. • E.g., There is a positive experience between years of teaching experience and job satisfaction among teachers.
- 53. • NON DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS : Reflects the relationship between two or more variables, but it does not specify the anticipated direction and nature of relationship such as positive or negative.
- 54. • It indicates the existence of relationship between the variables. • E.g., There is a relationship between years of teaching experience and job satisfaction among teachers.
- 55. NULL/RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS • NULL HYPOTHESIS (Ho) : It is also known as STATITICAL HYPOTHESIS. And is used for statistical testing and interpretation of statistical outcomes.
- 56. • It states the existence of no relationship between the independent and dependent variable. • E.g., There is no relationship between smoking and incidence of lung cancer.
- 57. • RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS (H1) : It states the existence of relationship between two or more variables. • E.g., There is relationship between smoking and incidence of lung cancer.
- 58. THANK YOU