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  1. Chapter 1 Classification of Horticultural Crops CHS 2502 Horticultural Crops Production
  2. Definition of Horticulture • The growing of flowers, fruits and vegetables, and of plants for ornament and fancy (Liberty Hyde Bailey, American Scholars of Horticulture.) • The art and science of plant production for both beauty and utility.
  3. • The descriptors of horticulture: 1. Horticulture differs from agronomy in many ways but some crops can be classified as both horticultural and agronomic depending on use (e.g. sweet corn is horticultural, grain or forage corn is agronomic).
  4. 2. Horticulture deals with high-value crops which are intensively cultivated with high infusion of capital in terms of production inputs, labor and technology per land area.
  5. 3. Protected cultivation, as in glasshouses and plastic tunnels, and irrigation are common.
  6. 4. The production units for horticultural crops: gardens, orchards, groves, vineyards, greenhouses, nurseries, and some plantations.
  7. 5. Horticulture supports environmental enhancement through a special branch of horticulture called environmental or urban horticulture which includes home gardening, landscaping, arboriculture (growing of trees), and interior decorating with the use of plants. These activities have been applied in horticultural therapy in which horticultural plants are used as therapeutic tools.
  8. • The main divisions or branches of horticulture are: 1. Olericulture - the production of vegetables including storage, processing, and marketing. Vegetable crops are grown for their succulent and edible parts such as the roots, stems, leaves, young tops, flowers, fruits, or seeds for use in culinary preparations either fresh or preserved in the fresh state.
  9. 2. Pomology - the branch of horticulture which deals with fruit crop production. • Fruit crops are grown for their edible fruits which, as a rule, are consumed raw
  10. 3. Floriculture - the cultivation and management of cut flowers, flowering plants, and foliage plants (Louisiana State University 2011) including their use in ornamental construct such as flower arrangement (ISHS 2011).
  11. 4. Plant Propagation/Nursery Crop Culture - the propagation and production of seedlings, young trees, shrubs and vines, as well as ground covers, turf, ornamental plants and other crops in nurseries for landscaping, interior plantscaping, or outplanting.
  12. 5. Landscape horticulture - the branch of horticulture which includes the design, construction and care of landscapes taking into consideration proper choice of plants and aesthetic effects for homes, businesses and public places.
  13. Crops for horticulture: • Perennial bush and tree nuts; and aromatic and medicinal foliage, seeds and roots (ISHS 2011). • Trees, shrubs, turf and ornamental grasses propagated and produced in nurseries for use in landscaping or for establishing fruit orchards or other crop production units.
  14. • Horticultural plants also used by animals to produce the end product. ▫ Honey is a good example and is often considered to be a horticultural product.
  15. ▫ Raw silk is produced by silkworms feeding on mulberry trees (which also produce an edible fruit) but silk is not a horticultural crop. ▫ Cultivated or gathered mushrooms (edible fungi) are most often classed as horticultural crops.
  16. Agronomic Classification of Crops
  17. Classification according to use • Cereal (Grain) ▫ A cereal crop may be defined as a crop that is grown for its edible seed.
  18. • Forage Crop ▫ A forage crop is one grown for the vegetative matter that is produced and is in turn fed to livestock. ▫ The reproductive structures will be harvested with the vegetative matter and then fed to the animal. ▫ There are several uses or subdivisions of forage crops depending upon how the vegetative matter is used or fed to livestock.
  19. a. Silage Crop • Crop stored in a green and succulent condition, allowed to ferment, and is used for livestock feed. • In this particular case, the green vegetative material would be harvested and put in a silo for storage and then removed periodically for feeding to livestock. • For example, corn in which harvested during the soft dough to hard dough stage, chopped up, and then stored in a silo.
  20. b. Pasture Crop • Crop grown and grazed by livestock. • A pasture crop is one that is grown to be grazed by livestock.
  21. c. Hay Crop • A crop that is cut, allowed to dry and the vegetative matter fed dry to the livestock usually after forming into bales.
  22. • Soiling Crop ▫ A soiling crop is one that is cut and its vegetative material fed green and succulent to livestock. ▫ In some cases this may be referred to as "green crop". ▫ The main difference between this type of crop and a pasture crop is that the material is harvested and then fed to the livestock whereas in a pasture crop the livestock would be allowed to free- graze and harvest the vegetative material themselves.
  23. • Green Manure Crop ▫ A green manure crop is one that is grown and ploughed under or into the soil while in a green and succulent condition for the improvement of the soil. ▫ In this particular case, when the vegetative material is turned under the soil and begins to decompose it returns not only nutrients to the soil but also increases the organic matter content of the soil and increases the desirability of the soil for growing other crops.
  24. • Companion Crop ▫ A crop, usually a small grain crop such as wheat, oats, rye, or barley, that is planted and grown with a seedling such as alfalfa to obtain a return from the land and/or to prevent soil erosion while the forage or other seedling is becoming established. ▫ A good example of a companion crop would be the interseeding of rye, which is a cold hardy crop, with alfalfa during the fall of the year. ▫ In many cases the establishment of an alfalfa pasture is very desirable, however, the alfalfa seeded in the fall may not be hardy enough to over-winter that first winter season.
  25. • Small Grain Crop ▫ The small grain crop classification refers to any grain crop in which the seed are smaller than corn and would be used for the edible seed. ▫ Examples: wheat, oats, barley, rye, and other crops of this nature.
  26. • Oil Crop ▫ Another crop based upon use is that of an oil crop. ▫ As the name implies, an oil crop would be one that is grown for its oil. ▫ Examples of oil crops would be sunflower, sesame, soybean, peanut, and other crops of this nature.
  27. • Fiber Crop ▫ A fiber crop would be grown for its fiber and probably the most outstanding example of a fiber crop would be cotton.
  28. • Root Crop ▫ A root crop is one that is grown for its edible root. • Tuber Crop ▫ It is grown specially for its tubers.
  29. • Medicinal Crop ▫ Another crop based upon use is that of the drug crop and is one that is grown for the drugs that it produces. ▫ An example of a drug removed from plants would be belladonna and digitalis. ▫ The belladonna is primarily a circulatory stimulant while the digitalis is primarily a heart stimulant and pulse regulator.
  30. • Cover Crop ▫ A cover crop is one that is grown to prevent water or wind erosion of the soil. ▫ In other words it is planted in areas to hold the soil in place instead of allowing it to be moved away - by either wind or water.
  31. Classification according to life span • Based upon life span, we have three categories of plants. These are the annuals, the biennials, and the perennial type plants. a. Annuals ▫ An annual plant is one that completes its entire life cycle in less than one year and are usually perpetuated by the seed. ▫ Can be classified as winter annuals and summer annuals.  A winter annual type plant would be one that is planted and germinates in the fall and lives in the vegetative state over the winter and then produces seed the following spring or early summer.
  32. b. Biennials ▫ A biennial would be a plant that lives more that one year but not over two years. ▫ Usually during the first year the plants store food reserves and the second year they flower and set seed. ▫ Examples of biennial type plants would be sugar beets, carrots, and onions. c. Perennial ▫ Defined as plants that live for more that two years.
  33. Classification according to growth habit • In this particular category there are basically two types: those being the woody and herbaceous type of plants. a. Woody ▫ Woody type plants are those that develop extensive secondary stem tissue. ▫ Within the woody classification, there are two basic sub-types; those being the evergreen and deciduous type plants.  Evergreen type plants keep or retain their leaves throughout the year.  Deciduous plants drop their leaves sometime during the year and usually this is during the winter season.
  34. Woody plants and deciduous plants
  35. b. Herbaceous  A herbaceous plant is one that is succulent and has very little secondary tissue.  Many of these plants are use as herbs (medicinal use).
  36. Classification according to climatic adaptation • Tropical plants ▫ These are the plants that grow in the tropical areas or warm climates where freezing occurs very rarely, if ever. ▫ In general, the tropical area runs from approximately 20° south latitude to 20° north latitude. ▫ In most cases, tropical plants do shed their leaves for a portion of the season, however, it is usually only for a very brief period of time.
  37. Tropical plants in Malaysia
  38. • Temperate plants ▫ These are the plants that grow in the temperate climates or in climates where there is a very distinct winter season. This region runs from approximately 20° N. latitude to 60° N. latitude. Hence, most of the crops grown in this area would be the temperate type. ▫ Can be further subdivided into three different regions:  Sub-tropical areas and are those areas that border on the tropical areas.  Freezing does occur but is usually for very short periods of time and the temperatures do not go much below freezing.
  39. Temperate plants
  40. • Arctic plants ▫ Plants that grow in areas where most of the season is cold to very cold. ▫ The arctic area runs from approximately 60° ' N. latitude to 80° N. latitude.
  41. Classification according to water requirement • Hydrophytes ▫ These are the plants that grow where water is very abundant. ▫ Examples of hydrophytes would be cattails, water lilies, and other plants that grow in and around water.
  42. • Mesophytes ▫ These would be the plants that grow where the amounts of water are intermediate. ▫ Most agronomic crops like cotton, grain sorghum, and corn would be indicative or representative of the mesophyte type of plants.
  43. • Xerophytes ▫ These are the plants that grow in very dry areas. ▫ Many of the desert plants, such as cactus etc., would be representative of the xerophytes.
  44. Agronomic vs Horticultural Crops • Agronomic crops consist of cereal or grain crops, grain legumes or pulses and oilseed crops for food, feed or industrial use, pasture and forage crops, fiber crops, sugar crops, and starchy root and tuber crops. • Horticultural crops consist of the olericultural or vegetable crops, pomological or fruit crops and edible nuts, ornamental crops, and nursery crops. In addition, the aromatic crops and the medicinal crops are generally included. The ornamental crops are further grouped into flowering and foliage plants which are grown for special purposes such as for cutflowers, potted plants, landscaping, interior decoration, or floral arrangement.