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Smart metering and control of transmission system

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An introduction to the emerging grid technology smart metering& control of transmission system.

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Smart metering and control of transmission system

  2. 2. “Smart Grids” “A smart grid uses digital technology to improve reliability, security, and efficiency (both economic and energy) of the electric system from large generation, through the delivery systems to electricity consumers and a growing number of distributed-generation and storage resources.”
  3. 3. Characteristics of Smart Grid  Self-healing  Motivates and includes the consumer  Increases power quality  Accommodates all generation and storage options  Enables electrical markets  Optimizes assets and operates efficiently
  4. 4. SMART GRID vs EXISTING SYSTEM Existing • Not self healing • Does not allow integration of sources • Real time data is not available • Slow and manual • Mostly involves analog functions smart grid • Self healing • Smart grid is designed to integrate sources • Real time data is available • Fast and automatic • A complete digital system
  5. 5. SMART GRID INCLUDES: • Integrated communications • Sensing and measurement • Smart meters • Superconductive wires • Storage devices • Wireless communication
  6. 6. ADVANTAGES OF SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY: • Peak Leveling • Self-Healing • More Reliable Power • More Efficient Renewable Power • A Cleaner Mix of Energy Sources • Reducing our carbon Footprints
  7. 7. Disadvantages of smart grid technology:  Security and privacy cost.  Two way communications can be hacked.  Technology components are expensive.  Present Infrastructure is inadequate and requires augmentation to support the growth of Smart Grids.
  8. 8. Challenges in adopting smart grid:  Costly  Complicated structure  Gain control of meters  Security and privacy  Hacker  Power theft
  9. 9. Smart Metering Infrastructure SMI is the totality of the systems and networks that are used to measure, collect, store, analyse, and use energy usage data. In other words, SMI includes smart meters and all other infrastructure components—hardware, software, and communication networks that are needed to offer advanced capabilities.
  10. 10.  A typical SMI network employs a two-way communication system and smart metering technology.  SMI also uses the same system equipment to send information back through the network to meters to capture additional data, control the meters, or update the meters’ firmware.
  11. 11. Major System components of SMI  A SMI system is comprised of a number of technologies and applications that have been integrated into one solution. The four major SMI components are: • Smart meters • Communication system • Meter data management systems (MDMS) • Home area networks (HAN)
  12. 12. Smart Meters  The measurements from both electromechanical meters and non-smart digital meters are collected manually by physical site visits and, thus, record only the readings at the time of the visit.  Smart meters are intelligent, solid-state, programmable devices that can perform many functions beyond energy consumption recordings.  By using built-in memories, smart meters can record and store readings at present intervals (e.g., 15 min, 30 min, or hourly) and prescheduled times.
  13. 13.  Typical smart meter functionalities include the following: i. Record interval (daily, hourly, or sub hourly) energy consumption and demand data ii. Provide bidirectional metering, which will accommodate distributed generations at customer sites iii. Provide notification on loss of power and service restoration iv. Provide tamper alarms and enable theft detection v. Provide voltage measurement, voltage alarms, and power quality monitoring
  14. 14.  Enable TOU rate billing  Protect meter data security  Communicate and interact with intelligent appliances or devices in a customer’s locality
  15. 15. Smart Meter Communications  Smart Meter communicates with the base station or the control centre on a bi-directional mode.  Some of the important channels that are available in India for communication are: GSM, Wi-Fi, PLCC, PSTN,etc  The type of communication available depends severely on the geographic location. Thus the communication mode used should be a combination of available options.  Here we present a brief description of technology and viability in Indian context.
  16. 16. PLCC  PLCC – Power Line Carrier Communication.  As the name indicates PLCC associates the use of power conductor for communication by imposing a modulated carrier frequency signal over them.  They are the prime modes of communication between substation in power sector.  The carrier signal degrades gradually along the length of the line. So public repeaters are used which improve the strength of the signal by demodulation and re- modulation
  17. 17. Zigbee  Zigbee is the only standard based wireless technology designed to address the unique needs of low cost low power wireless sensor and control networks.  The technology specified by short distance data transmission.  It operates in the region of 2.4GHz  This bandwidth is enough for the implementation of SMI and home automation  It is faster response than any other type of communication
  18. 18.  It can be made to work in 3 modes  Coordinator: It forms the basic root of the system. It has the capability to communicate with any other node connected to network. It can even acts as a bridge between two networks.  Router: As the name indicates it indicates like a route decider. It routes the data based on address information received and pass it to respective destination  End Device: It has very limited functionality of just communicating with the network co-ordinator.
  19. 19. Wi-Fi  Operating in the unlicensed 2.4GHz ISM band.  It involves broadcast and reception of data through radio signals in an encrypted format and its advantage is it cut the cost of the cables.  The main advantage of this over Zigbee is it can be used for the communications over the range of 1-10KM
  20. 20. Proposed Communication architecture  Nodes 1-7 represent the customers or the meters associated with them.  The nodes or meters are connected to main module placed at distribution transformer through Zigbee  As the ordinary meter transmits data of nearly 34MB per month. Based on memory it transfers it will be charged.  As the range of Zigbee is less the distance between Distribution transformer and nearest residential customer ranges from 10-50m  The data collected at various distribution trsnformer is sent to its parent substation through WiFi network as the distance varies from 1-10KM
  21. 21.  The backbone of the Smart Grid will be its network.  This network will connect the different components of the Smart Grid together, and allow two-way communication between them.  Net- working the components together will introduce security risks into the system.  The number of entry points that can be used to gain access to the electrical power system will increase when all of the components are networked together.
  22. 22. Cyber security  Cyber security is a concept that has become increasingly prevalent with the development of the smart grid technology with the increased use of digital information and controls technology to improve reliability, security, efficiency of the electric grid and the deployment of smart technologies (real - time, automated, interactive technologies that optimize the physical operation of appliances and consumer devices) for metering, communications concerning grid operations and status, and distribution automation.
  23. 23. Problems Occurred Due to Lack Of Cyber Security  In 2001, hackers penetrated the California Independent System Operator, which oversees most of the State’s electricity transmission grid; attacks were routed through California, Oklahoma, and China.  Ohio’s Davis-Besse (Oak Harbor, Ohio, the United States )nuclear power plant safety monitoring system was offline for five (5) hours due to the Slammer worm in January 2003.  In March 2005, security consultants within the electric industry reported that hackers were targeting the U.S. electric power grid and had gained access to U.S. utilities electronic control systems.  In April 2009, the Wall Street Journal reported that spies hacked into the U.S. electric grid and left behind computer programs that could allow them to disrupt service. Associated Press on August 4, 2010 reported “Hackers Try to Take overPower Plants.” In September 2010, cyber experts discovered for the first time a malicious computer code, called a worm, specifically created to take over systems that control the inner workings of industrial plants.
  24. 24. Worm  A worm is a small piece of software that uses security holes within networks to replicate itself. The worm scans the network for another computer that has a specific security hole. It copies itself to the new machine exploiting the security hole, and then starts replicating from that system as well. Once infected, the worm may send itself to everyone in your address book. Using a network in this manner, worms expand extremely quickly. The greatest danger from worms is that they will eventually use all the memory available to a computer or a network.
  25. 25.  The Stuxnet Worm was reported in an Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team Advisory on September 29, 2010. Stuxnet is a Malware Targeting Siemens Control Software. It can be used to infiltrate industrial control systems used in the power grid, power plants and other infrastructure. It is reported to have the ability to damage or possibly destroy control systems.  The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and DOE released a report titled High-Impact, Low-Frequency Event Risk to the North American Bulk Power System (June 2, 2010)16 that identifies a certain class of high-impact, low-frequency risk shown to have the potential to significantly affect the reliability of the North American bulk power system..
  26. 26.  Cyber Security includes  Availability  Integrity  Confidentiality
  27. 27. Availability  Availability refers to ensuring timely and reliable access to information, which is the primary security goal of a smart-grid metering and control system. Malicious attacks targeting availability can be considered as denial-of-service attacks, which intend to delay, block, or even corrupt the communication in the system.
  28. 28.  The jamming attack is able to defer the transmission of messages and to distort the transmitted data signal. As a result, the legitimate receiver cannot recover messages out of the damaged data packets.  On the other hand, many man-in-the-middle attacks can be launched only when the full or partial communication channels can be jammed.
  29. 29. Integrity  Integrity refers to preventing or detecting the modification or destruction of information by unauthorized persons or systems. Malicious attacks targeting the integrity of a smart grid attempt to stealthily manipulate critical data such as meter readings, billing information, or control commands  Integrity protection can be achieved by authentication, certification, and attestation
  30. 30. Confidentiality  Confidentiality refers to protecting personal privacy and proprietary information from unauthorized access. Malicious attacks targeting confidentiality aim at obtaining desirable information(e.g., power usage, customer’s account information).  An emerging trend is for the smart meters to aggregate usage data for billing purposes and support load-balancing and other monitoring functions through peer-to-peer protocols that preserve the consumer’s privacy.
  31. 31. Cyber Solutions  Data encrypton  Authentication  Digital signatures
  32. 32. Data Encryption  Cryptography  Cryptography has been the most widely used technique to protect information from adversaries. A message to be protected is transformed using a Key that is only known to the Sender and Receiver. The process of transformation is called encryption and the message to be encrypted is called Plain text. The transformed or encrypted message is called Cipher text. At the Receiver, the encrypted message is decrypted.
  33. 33. Substitution cipher Transposition cipher
  34. 34. Authentication  Authentication is required to verify the identities of communicating parties to avoid imposters gaining access to information.
  35. 35. Digital Signatures A digital signature allows the signing of digital messages by the Sender in such a way that:  1. The Receiver can verify the claimed identity of the Sender (authentication).  2. The Receiver can prove and the Sender cannot deny that the message has been sent by the specific user (non-repudiation).  3. The Receiver cannot modify the message and claim that the modified message is the one that was received from the Sender
  36. 36.  Cyber solutions (academic)  An experimental study about the performance of a symmetric-key cipher (i.e., DES-CBC) and a public-key cipher (i.e., RSA) on an intelligent electronic device (IED) called TS7250 has been conducted (Wang and Lu, 2013), where the IED is used for sending the transformer status and receiving commands from the control centre.
  37. 37.  These experimental results show that the computational ability of an IED becomes a bottleneck for the delay performance when performing asymmetric-key cryptography  Due to the limited computational capabilities of devices, stringent timing requirements, and high data-sampling rates in the smart grid, traditional authentication schemes might not be applicable.
  38. 38.  Universal Key:The heterogeneous communication architecture of the smart grid has made the key management particularly challenging, and it is not practical to design a universal key- management scheme for the entire smart grid.
  39. 39. Authentication Security  Authentication is crucial to protect the integrity of data and devices in the smart grid.  A number of authentication schemes have been proposed in the literature for smart grids. Szilagyi and Koopman (2009 and 2010) proposed flexible and low-cost multicast authentication schemes for embedded control systems
  40. 40.  The basic idea is to verify truncated message authentication codes (MACs) across multiple packets, thereby achieving a good trade-off among authentication cost, delay performance, and tolerance to attacks.  Although many encryption, authentication, and key-management schemes have been proposed, their performance does not seem to fulfill the stringent timing requirements of the smart grid. Therefore, fine-grained and advanced security protocols still need to be developed for protecting different communication networks in smart grids.
  41. 41. MACs  Imagine that you are communicating with your friend through a chat client. How will your friend's machine know that the message he received is exactly the same message that you send?. And how will he verify that the message was not altered in the middle.  Even after implementing a secure authentication and data encryption, integrity of the message needs to be versified, to confirm, that the data was not tampered in the middle.
  42. 42.  In communication everything send over wire is data. So the thing that will give the sender and the receiver the assurance, of untampered data is also a small fixed length data called MAC(Message authentication code).
  43. 43. Confidentiality Security  In a smart grid, the utility company needs the real-time power- consumption data for planning purposes as well as for providing accurate and authentic billing. For the utility company, the correctness of the calculated bills is the most important issue  Researchers have designed privacy-preserving billing protocols using advanced cryptographic techniques such as zero-knowledge proof and homomorphic encryption
  44. 44. Zero-knowledge proof  If proving the statement requires knowledge of some secret information on the part of the prover, the definition implies that the verifier will not be able to prove the statement in turn to anyone else, since the verifier does not possess the secret information.
  45. 45. Homomorphic Encryption  Homomorphic encryption is a form of encryption which allows specific types of computations to be carried out on ciphertext and generate an encrypted result which, when decrypted, matches the result of operations performed on the plaintext.  This is a desirable feature in modern communication system architectures. Homomorphic encryption would allow the chaining together of different services without exposing the data to each of those services, for example a chain of different services from different companies could 1) calculate the tax 2) the currency exchange rate 3) shipping, on a transaction without exposing the unencrypted data to each of those services.[
  46. 46.  Using those advanced cryptographic techniques, utility companies only receive the commitments of the real-time power consumption instead of the raw data from smart meters, and customers can prove to the utility company that a utility bill has been correctly generated  However, from the customer’s perspective, privacy is the main concern.
  47. 47.  Garcia and Jacobs (2012) proposed the use of homomorphic encryption to prevent the utility company from accessing the power consumption data of individual households. Using those advanced cryptographic techniques, utility companies only receive the commitments of the real-time power consumption instead of the raw data from smart meters, and customers can prove to the utility company that a utility bill has been correctly generated
  48. 48. SELF HEALING
  49. 49. What is Self Healing??  SELF-HEALING of power delivery systems is a concept that enables the identification and isolation of faulted system components and the restoration of service to customers supplied by healthy elements.  Self-healing of power distribution systems is conducted via Distribution Automation (DA), specifically through smart protective and switching devices that minimize the number of interrupted customers during contingency conditions by automatically isolating faulted components and transferring customers to an optional source when their normal supply has been lost.  Distribution Automation: Distribution Automation (DA) is a set of technologies that enable an electric utility to monitor, coordinate, and operate distribution components in a real-time mode from remote locations.
  50. 50. An illustration of self healing  Automatic fail over scheme for transmission fault  so that if one supply line fails, the customers supplied via that circuit are quickly transferred to the backup source by automatic failover control circuitry.  The limitation is while switching the load from second line to first line, the we need to check supply should be greater than load
  51. 51.  There are several additional practical aspects that need to be considered when implementing self-restoration, besides the DA system architecture it is necessary to consider loading ratings and voltage limits, since transferring load to a highly loaded and long feeder may end up generating power quality complaints (low voltage in this case),
  52. 52. FLISR an application of Distribution Automation  The smart grid concept is driving the implementation of a series of self- restoration schemes in the form of DA applications. The most popular of these is FLISR, which consists of the utilization of advanced protective and switching devices to automatically locate and isolate faulted feeder sections and restore the maximum number of customers possible located on healthy sections.  FLISR benefits include  Improve SAIDI, SAIFI, and other reliability statistics  Reduce “energy not supplied” (kWh)  Reduce fault investigation time  Provide “premium quality” service Monetary benefits:  Reduce customer cost of outage  Increase revenue (sell more energy)
  53. 53. Advantages of implementing FLISR  the advantages of implementing FLISR versus conventional operation for a typical distribution feeder when conventional operation (without FLISR)  there is a need for investigating the specific fault location and conducting manual switching to isolate the faulted area and restore service to customers located on healthy feeder sections.  Here customer trouble call may play an important role.  FLISR on the other side allows detecting faults and restoring affected customers faster and with limited human intervention.  When FLISR is used power is quickly restored to customers located on healthy sections of a feeder.
  54. 54. The overall objective of this approach is to identify those locations and combinations of devices that attain the greatest cost-benefit ratio.
  56. 56.  The key goal of smart grid is to promote active customer participation and decision making as well as to create the operation environment in which both utilities and electricity users influence each other.  In smart grids, users can influence utilities by adding distributed generation sources such as photovoltaic (PV) modules or energy storage at the point of use, and reacting pricing signals.
  57. 57. SMART GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEM  The electricity grid to accommodate higher percentage of renewable energy would need large quantities of conventional back up power and huge energy storage.  Smart grid technologies and concepts reduce barriers to the integration of renewable resources and allow power grids to support a greater percentage of variable renewable resources.
  58. 58.  Enabling smart grid technology, such as distributed storage, demand response, advanced sensing, control software, information infrastructure, and market signals, increases the ability to influence and balance supply and demand.  With smart grid technology, grid operators can better coordinate and control the system in response to grid conditions, thus allowing integration of increasingly greater levels of renewable resources more effectively and at lower cost.
  59. 59.  Advanced Metering Instrument (AMI) and internet-based services engage demand response and distributed storage to accommodate higher penetration and cost-effective integration of renewable energy generation.  Advanced and automated integration systems, such as inverters and converters with communications software interfaces, enable distributed management and application integration for renewable generation.
  60. 60. SOLAR PV DESIGNS FOR SMART GRID INTEGRATION  A typical solar PV should provide two-way flows of power and communication between the smart grid and the solar PV system.  Three solar PV inverters are available which are the string, the central and the newly developed micro inverter, known also as integrated AC module inverter.
  61. 61. CENTRAL INVERTERS:  The conventional solar PV installations feed DC voltage to a central inverter for conditioning and distribution locally or across the power grid.  The DC voltage carried through the array to the central inverter may have significant fire and safety hazards, leading to increased costs for cabling and, in turn, higher costs for installation and maintenance.
  62. 62. STRING INVERTERS  string inverters eliminate the need for a central inverter by providing DC-AC conversion at the output of each string.
  63. 63. MICRO INVERTERS:  Recent researches focus on micro inverters which take the concept of string inverters to the next level - providing DC-AC conversion from each individual panel rather than an entire string.  algorithms for efficient DC-AC conversion, circuit protection and PV panel power optimization through maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) (di/dv) + (i/v) of the PV array is zero (derived from dP/dv = 0).
  64. 64.  This concept is shown in this Fig. The processor and control unit is used to control power flow from the PV panel to the grid and executes the MPPT algorithm, fault control, and digital communication routines.
  65. 65. BENEFITS OF SMART GRID RENEWABLE ENERGIES  First, enabling renewable energy resources to accommodate higher penetration with cost effective while improving power quality and reliability.  Second, integrating consumers as active players in the electricity system; savings, achieved by reducing peaks in demand and improving energy efficiency, as well as cutting greenhouse gas emissions.  Finally, voltage regulation and load following enables reducing cost of operations based on marginal production costs.
  66. 66. Future Advances and Implementations of SMART GRID
  67. 67. WinD EnergY
  68. 68. Smart grid integrates all the small electric heat pumps. It controls or coordinates a whole lot of heat pumps according to the variations in the demand side. If wind energy is utilized properly, it would even satisfy the electrical needs of the country easily.
  69. 69. ElectriC VehicleS We can say that the invention of electric vehicles was a great Achievement, even though it was Invented a long time ago, its Importance is seen with the advent of this great technology Smart Grid. Due to the use of electric vehicles, there is a significant reduce in the amounts of usage of fossil fuels and thereby reducing the green house effect. We can charge these vehicles whenever we need electricity and discharge this and give it back to the system whenever the system needs it.
  70. 70. ActivatioN Of EquipmentS This is the best feature of SMART GRID. We can know Peak hours times and the availability of electricity at low cost times. We can therefore use the electricity efficiently and economically.
  71. 71. ProsumerS
  72. 72. The producer is alerted the condition of a low electricity status, he can thereby transfer the stored energy to the required place, with just a click on his phone. No mediators are involved in this process
  73. 73. ZerO EnergY HousE  A zero-energy building, also known as a zero net energy (ZNE) building, net-zero energy building (NZEB), or net zero building, is a building with zero net energy consumption, meaning the total amount of energy used by the building on an annual basis is roughly equal to the amount of renewable energy created on the site.  These buildings still produce greenhouse gases because on cloudy (or non-windy) days, at night when the sun isn't shining, and on short winter days, conventional grid power is still the main energy source.  The zero net energy consumption principle is viewed as a means to reduce carbon emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels.
  74. 74. ZerO EnergY HousE
  75. 75. Conclusion  Smart grid is the key to integrating large amounts of renewable energy into the power system. The smart grid intelligently binds the entire energy system together and the most effective way of expanding the power system to meet the challenges of the future.  After few years smart grid roll out will revolutionize the day–to-day life we use energy . With the advent of this technology people get familiar with the theories of power systems.  In the 19th and 20th century electrification developed to the industrial revolution, likewise in the 21th century is most likely to the significant contribution to the transition to the sustainable society based on renewables to the benefit of people , the economy and the environment through out the world
  76. 76. THANK YOU