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SMART METERING AND
CONTROL OF TRANSMISSION
“A smart grid uses digital technology to
improve reliability, security, and efficiency
(both economic and energy) of the electric
system from large generation, through the
delivery systems to electricity consumers and a
growing number of distributed-generation and
Characteristics of Smart Grid
Motivates and includes the consumer
Increases power quality
Accommodates all generation and storage
Enables electrical markets
Optimizes assets and operates efficiently
SMART GRID vs EXISTING SYSTEM
• Not self healing
• Does not allow integration of
• Real time data is not available
• Slow and manual
• Mostly involves analog functions
• Self healing
• Smart grid is designed
to integrate sources
• Real time data is
• Fast and automatic
• A complete digital
ADVANTAGES OF SMART GRID
• Peak Leveling
• More Reliable Power
• More Efficient Renewable Power
• A Cleaner Mix of Energy Sources
• Reducing our carbon Footprints
Disadvantages of smart grid
Security and privacy cost.
Two way communications can be
Technology components are expensive.
Present Infrastructure is inadequate and
requires augmentation to support the
growth of Smart Grids.
Challenges in adopting smart grid:
Gain control of meters
Security and privacy
Smart Metering Infrastructure
SMI is the totality of the systems and networks that
are used to measure, collect, store, analyse, and
use energy usage data.
In other words, SMI includes smart meters and all
other infrastructure components—hardware,
software, and communication networks that are
needed to offer advanced capabilities.
A typical SMI network employs a two-way
communication system and smart metering
SMI also uses the same system equipment to
send information back through the network to
meters to capture additional data, control the
meters, or update the meters’ firmware.
Major System components of SMI
A SMI system is comprised of a number of
technologies and applications that have been
integrated into one solution. The four major SMI
• Smart meters
• Communication system
• Meter data management systems (MDMS)
• Home area networks (HAN)
The measurements from both electromechanical meters
and non-smart digital meters are collected manually by
physical site visits and, thus, record only the readings at
the time of the visit.
Smart meters are intelligent, solid-state, programmable
devices that can perform many functions beyond
energy consumption recordings.
By using built-in memories, smart meters can record and
store readings at present intervals (e.g., 15 min, 30 min, or
hourly) and prescheduled times.
Typical smart meter functionalities include the following:
i. Record interval (daily, hourly, or sub hourly) energy
consumption and demand data
ii. Provide bidirectional metering, which will
accommodate distributed generations at customer
iii. Provide notification on loss of power and service
iv. Provide tamper alarms and enable theft detection
v. Provide voltage measurement, voltage alarms, and
power quality monitoring
Enable TOU rate billing
Protect meter data security
Communicate and interact with intelligent appliances or
devices in a customer’s locality
Smart Meter Communications
Smart Meter communicates with the base station or the
control centre on a bi-directional mode.
Some of the important channels that are available in
India for communication are: GSM, Wi-Fi, PLCC, PSTN,etc
The type of communication available depends severely
on the geographic location. Thus the communication
mode used should be a combination of available
Here we present a brief description of technology and
viability in Indian context.
PLCC – Power Line Carrier Communication.
As the name indicates PLCC associates the use of power
conductor for communication by imposing a modulated
carrier frequency signal over them.
They are the prime modes of communication between
substation in power sector.
The carrier signal degrades gradually along the length of
the line. So public repeaters are used which improve the
strength of the signal by demodulation and re-
Zigbee is the only standard based wireless technology
designed to address the unique needs of low cost low
power wireless sensor and control networks.
The technology specified by short distance data
It operates in the region of 2.4GHz
This bandwidth is enough for the implementation of SMI
and home automation
It is faster response than any other type of
It can be made to work in 3 modes
Coordinator: It forms the basic root of the system. It has
the capability to communicate with any other node
connected to network. It can even acts as a bridge
between two networks.
Router: As the name indicates it indicates like a route
decider. It routes the data based on address information
received and pass it to respective destination
End Device: It has very limited functionality of just
communicating with the network co-ordinator.
Operating in the unlicensed 2.4GHz ISM band.
It involves broadcast and reception of data through
radio signals in an encrypted format and its advantage
is it cut the cost of the cables.
The main advantage of this over Zigbee is it can be used
for the communications over the range of 1-10KM
Nodes 1-7 represent the customers or the meters associated
The nodes or meters are connected to main module placed
at distribution transformer through Zigbee
As the ordinary meter transmits data of nearly 34MB per
month. Based on memory it transfers it will be charged.
As the range of Zigbee is less the distance between
Distribution transformer and nearest residential customer
ranges from 10-50m
The data collected at various distribution trsnformer is sent to
its parent substation through WiFi network as the distance
varies from 1-10KM
The backbone of the Smart Grid will be its network.
This network will connect the different components of the Smart Grid
together, and allow two-way communication between them.
Net- working the components together will introduce security risks
into the system.
The number of entry points that can be used to gain access to the
electrical power system will increase when all of the components
are networked together.
Cyber security is a concept that has become increasingly prevalent
with the development of the smart grid technology with the
increased use of digital information and controls technology to
improve reliability, security, efficiency of the electric grid and the
deployment of smart technologies (real - time, automated,
interactive technologies that optimize the physical operation of
appliances and consumer devices) for metering, communications
concerning grid operations and status, and distribution automation.
Problems Occurred Due to Lack Of
In 2001, hackers penetrated the California Independent System Operator, which
oversees most of the State’s electricity transmission grid; attacks were routed
through California, Oklahoma, and China.
Ohio’s Davis-Besse (Oak Harbor, Ohio, the United States )nuclear power plant
safety monitoring system was offline for five (5) hours due to the Slammer worm
in January 2003.
In March 2005, security consultants within the electric industry reported that
hackers were targeting the U.S. electric power grid and had gained access to
U.S. utilities electronic control systems.
In April 2009, the Wall Street Journal reported that spies hacked into the U.S.
electric grid and left behind computer programs that could allow them to
disrupt service. Associated Press on August 4, 2010 reported “Hackers Try to Take
overPower Plants.” In September 2010, cyber experts discovered for the first time
a malicious computer code, called a worm, specifically created to take over
systems that control the inner workings of industrial plants.
A worm is a small piece of software that uses security holes within
networks to replicate itself. The worm scans the network for another
computer that has a specific security hole. It copies itself to the new
machine exploiting the security hole, and then starts replicating
from that system as well. Once infected, the worm may send itself to
everyone in your address book. Using a network in this manner,
worms expand extremely quickly. The greatest danger from worms is
that they will eventually use all the memory available to a computer
or a network.
The Stuxnet Worm was reported in an Industrial Control Systems
Cyber Emergency Response Team Advisory on September 29, 2010.
Stuxnet is a Malware Targeting Siemens Control Software. It can be
used to infiltrate industrial control systems used in the power grid,
power plants and other infrastructure. It is reported to have the
ability to damage or possibly destroy control systems.
The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and
DOE released a report titled High-Impact, Low-Frequency Event Risk
to the North American Bulk Power System (June 2, 2010)16 that
identifies a certain class of high-impact, low-frequency risk shown to
have the potential to significantly affect the reliability of the North
American bulk power system..
Availability refers to ensuring timely and reliable access to
information, which is the primary security goal of a smart-grid
metering and control system. Malicious attacks targeting availability
can be considered as denial-of-service attacks, which intend to
delay, block, or even corrupt the communication in the system.
The jamming attack is able to defer the transmission of messages
and to distort the transmitted data signal. As a result, the legitimate
receiver cannot recover messages out of the damaged data
On the other hand, many man-in-the-middle attacks can be
launched only when the full or partial communication channels can
Integrity refers to preventing or detecting the modification or
destruction of information by unauthorized persons or systems.
Malicious attacks targeting the integrity of a smart grid attempt to
stealthily manipulate critical data such as meter readings, billing
information, or control commands
Integrity protection can be achieved by authentication,
certification, and attestation
Confidentiality refers to protecting personal privacy and proprietary
information from unauthorized access. Malicious attacks targeting
confidentiality aim at obtaining desirable information(e.g., power
usage, customer’s account information).
An emerging trend is for the smart meters to aggregate usage data
for billing purposes and support load-balancing and other
monitoring functions through peer-to-peer protocols that preserve
the consumer’s privacy.
Cryptography has been the most widely used
technique to protect information from
adversaries. A message to be protected is
transformed using a Key that is only known to the
Sender and Receiver. The process of
transformation is called encryption and the
message to be encrypted is called Plain text.
The transformed or encrypted message is called
Cipher text. At the Receiver, the encrypted
message is decrypted.
Authentication is required to verify the identities of communicating
parties to avoid imposters gaining access to information.
A digital signature allows the signing of digital messages by the Sender
in such a way that:
1. The Receiver can verify the claimed identity of the Sender
2. The Receiver can prove and the Sender cannot deny that the
message has been sent by the specific user (non-repudiation).
3. The Receiver cannot modify the message and claim that the
modified message is the one that was received from the Sender
Cyber solutions (academic)
An experimental study about the performance of a symmetric-key
cipher (i.e., DES-CBC) and a public-key cipher (i.e., RSA) on an
intelligent electronic device (IED) called TS7250 has been
conducted (Wang and Lu, 2013), where the IED is used for sending
the transformer status and receiving commands from the control
These experimental results show that the computational ability of an
IED becomes a bottleneck for the delay performance when
performing asymmetric-key cryptography
Due to the limited computational capabilities of devices, stringent
timing requirements, and high data-sampling rates in the smart grid,
traditional authentication schemes might not be applicable.
Universal Key:The heterogeneous communication architecture of
the smart grid has made the key management particularly
challenging, and it is not practical to design a universal key-
management scheme for the entire smart grid.
Authentication is crucial to protect the integrity of data and devices
in the smart grid.
A number of authentication schemes have been proposed in the
literature for smart grids. Szilagyi and Koopman (2009 and 2010)
proposed flexible and low-cost multicast authentication schemes for
embedded control systems
The basic idea is to verify truncated message authentication codes
(MACs) across multiple packets, thereby achieving a good trade-off
among authentication cost, delay performance, and tolerance to
Although many encryption, authentication, and key-management
schemes have been proposed, their performance does not seem to
fulfill the stringent timing requirements of the smart grid. Therefore,
fine-grained and advanced security protocols still need to be
developed for protecting different communication networks in
Imagine that you are communicating with your friend through a
chat client. How will your friend's machine know that the message
he received is exactly the same message that you send?. And how
will he verify that the message was not altered in the middle.
Even after implementing a secure authentication and data
encryption, integrity of the message needs to be versified, to
confirm, that the data was not tampered in the middle.
In communication everything send over wire is data. So the thing
that will give the sender and the receiver the assurance, of
untampered data is also a small fixed length data called
MAC(Message authentication code).
In a smart grid, the utility company needs the real-time power-
consumption data for planning purposes as well as for providing
accurate and authentic billing. For the utility company, the
correctness of the calculated bills is the most important issue
Researchers have designed privacy-preserving billing protocols
using advanced cryptographic techniques such as zero-knowledge
proof and homomorphic encryption
If proving the statement requires knowledge of some secret
information on the part of the prover, the definition implies that the
verifier will not be able to prove the statement in turn to anyone
else, since the verifier does not possess the secret information.
Homomorphic encryption is a form of encryption which allows
specific types of computations to be carried out on ciphertext and
generate an encrypted result which, when decrypted, matches the
result of operations performed on the plaintext.
This is a desirable feature in modern communication system
architectures. Homomorphic encryption would allow the chaining
together of different services without exposing the data to each of
those services, for example a chain of different services from
different companies could 1) calculate the tax 2) the currency
exchange rate 3) shipping, on a transaction without exposing the
unencrypted data to each of those services.[
Using those advanced cryptographic techniques, utility companies
only receive the commitments of the real-time power consumption
instead of the raw data from smart meters, and customers can
prove to the utility company that a utility bill has been correctly
However, from the customer’s perspective, privacy is the main
Garcia and Jacobs (2012) proposed the use of homomorphic
encryption to prevent the utility company from accessing the power
consumption data of individual households. Using those advanced
cryptographic techniques, utility companies only receive the
commitments of the real-time power consumption instead of the
raw data from smart meters, and customers can prove to the utility
company that a utility bill has been correctly generated
What is Self Healing??
SELF-HEALING of power delivery systems is a concept that enables
the identification and isolation of faulted system components and
the restoration of service to customers supplied by healthy elements.
Self-healing of power distribution systems is conducted via
Distribution Automation (DA), specifically through smart protective
and switching devices that minimize the number of interrupted
customers during contingency conditions by automatically isolating
faulted components and transferring customers to an optional
source when their normal supply has been lost.
Distribution Automation: Distribution Automation (DA) is a set of
technologies that enable an electric utility to monitor, coordinate,
and operate distribution components in a real-time mode from
An illustration of self healing
Automatic fail over scheme for transmission fault
so that if one supply line fails, the customers supplied via that circuit are quickly
transferred to the backup source by automatic failover control circuitry.
The limitation is while switching the load from second line to first line, the we
need to check supply should be greater than load
There are several additional practical aspects that need to be
considered when implementing self-restoration, besides the DA
system architecture it is necessary to consider loading ratings and
voltage limits, since transferring load to a highly loaded and long
feeder may end up generating power quality complaints (low
voltage in this case),
FLISR an application of Distribution
The smart grid concept is driving the implementation of a series of self-
restoration schemes in the form of DA applications. The most popular of these is
FLISR, which consists of the utilization of advanced protective and switching
devices to automatically locate and isolate faulted feeder sections and restore
the maximum number of customers possible located on healthy sections.
FLISR benefits include
Improve SAIDI, SAIFI, and other reliability statistics
Reduce “energy not supplied” (kWh)
Reduce fault investigation time
Provide “premium quality” service
Reduce customer cost of outage
Increase revenue (sell more energy)
Advantages of implementing FLISR
the advantages of implementing FLISR versus conventional
operation for a typical distribution feeder when conventional
operation (without FLISR)
there is a need for investigating the specific fault location and
conducting manual switching to isolate the faulted area and restore
service to customers located on healthy feeder sections.
Here customer trouble call may play an important role.
FLISR on the other side allows detecting faults and restoring affected
customers faster and with limited human intervention.
When FLISR is used power is quickly restored to customers located on
healthy sections of a feeder.
The overall objective of this approach is to identify those locations and
combinations of devices that attain the greatest cost-benefit ratio.
The key goal of smart grid is to promote active customer
participation and decision making as well as to create the
operation environment in which both utilities and electricity users
influence each other.
In smart grids, users can influence utilities by adding distributed
generation sources such as photovoltaic (PV) modules or energy
storage at the point of use, and reacting pricing signals.
SMART GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY
The electricity grid to accommodate higher percentage of
renewable energy would need large quantities of conventional
back up power and huge energy storage.
Smart grid technologies and concepts reduce barriers to the
integration of renewable resources and allow power grids to support
a greater percentage of variable renewable resources.
Enabling smart grid technology, such as distributed storage,
demand response, advanced sensing, control software, information
infrastructure, and market signals, increases the ability to influence
and balance supply and demand.
With smart grid technology, grid operators can better coordinate
and control the system in response to grid conditions, thus allowing
integration of increasingly greater levels of renewable resources
more effectively and at lower cost.
Advanced Metering Instrument (AMI) and internet-based services
engage demand response and distributed storage to
accommodate higher penetration and cost-effective integration of
renewable energy generation.
Advanced and automated integration systems, such as inverters
and converters with communications software interfaces, enable
distributed management and application integration for renewable
SOLAR PV DESIGNS FOR SMART GRID
A typical solar PV should provide two-way flows of power and
communication between the smart grid and the solar PV system.
Three solar PV inverters are available which are the string, the
central and the newly developed micro inverter, known also as
integrated AC module inverter.
The conventional solar PV installations feed DC voltage to a central inverter for
conditioning and distribution locally or across the power grid.
The DC voltage carried through the array to the
central inverter may have significant fire and safety
hazards, leading to increased costs for cabling and,
in turn, higher costs for installation and
string inverters eliminate the need for a central inverter
by providing DC-AC conversion at the output of
Recent researches focus on micro inverters
which take the concept of string inverters to the
next level - providing DC-AC conversion from
each individual panel rather than an entire string.
algorithms for efficient DC-AC conversion, circuit protection
and PV panel power optimization through maximum power-point tracking
(MPPT) (di/dv) + (i/v) of the PV array is zero (derived from dP/dv = 0).
This concept is shown in this Fig. The processor and control unit is used to control
power flow from the PV panel to the grid and executes the MPPT algorithm, fault
control, and digital communication routines.
BENEFITS OF SMART GRID RENEWABLE
First, enabling renewable energy resources to accommodate higher
penetration with cost effective while improving power quality and
Second, integrating consumers as active players in the electricity
system; savings, achieved by reducing peaks in demand and
improving energy efficiency, as well as cutting greenhouse gas
Finally, voltage regulation and load following enables reducing cost
of operations based on marginal production costs.
Future Advances and
Implementations of SMART
Smart grid integrates
all the small electric
It controls or
coordinates a whole
lot of heat pumps
according to the
variations in the
If wind energy is
utilized properly, it
would even satisfy the
electrical needs of the
We can say that the invention of
electric vehicles was a great
Achievement, even though it was
Invented a long time ago, its
Importance is seen with the advent
of this great technology Smart Grid.
Due to the use of electric vehicles,
there is a significant reduce in the
amounts of usage of fossil fuels and
thereby reducing the green house effect.
We can charge these vehicles whenever we need electricity and discharge this and
give it back to the system whenever the system needs it.
ActivatioN Of EquipmentS
This is the best feature
of SMART GRID. We
Peak hours times and
the availability of
electricity at low cost
times. We can
therefore use the
The producer is alerted
the condition of a low
electricity status, he can
thereby transfer the stored
energy to the required
place, with just a click on
No mediators are
involved in this process
ZerO EnergY HousE
A zero-energy building, also known as a zero net energy (ZNE)
building, net-zero energy building (NZEB), or net zero building, is a
building with zero net energy consumption, meaning the total
amount of energy used by the building on an annual basis is roughly
equal to the amount of renewable energy created on the site.
These buildings still produce greenhouse gases because on cloudy
(or non-windy) days, at night when the sun isn't shining, and on short
winter days, conventional grid power is still the main energy source.
The zero net energy consumption principle is viewed as a means to
reduce carbon emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels.
Smart grid is the key to integrating large amounts of renewable
energy into the power system. The smart grid intelligently binds the
entire energy system together and the most effective way of
expanding the power system to meet the challenges of the future.
After few years smart grid roll out will revolutionize the day–to-day
life we use energy . With the advent of this technology people get
familiar with the theories of power systems.
In the 19th and 20th century electrification developed to the
industrial revolution, likewise in the 21th century is most likely to the
significant contribution to the transition to the sustainable society
based on renewables to the benefit of people , the economy and
the environment through out the world