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Attitude scale

Tool for assessing effective domain

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Attitude scale

  1. 1. ATTITUDE SCALE  To assess the attitude or belief of an individual  Designed to measure attitudes of a subject or group of subject towards issues, institution, and groups of people.  “An attitude may be defined as a learned emotional response set for or against something” Barr, David, Johnson Meanings of attitude  Thurstone defines an attitude as the degree of positive or negative affect associated with some psychological objects.  Concept attitude denotes the “sum total of a man’s inclinations and feelings, prejudices or bias, ideas, tears about any specific topic.”  Attitude continuum extending from favourableness through neutral to unfavourableness.
  2. 2.  According to frerman (1965) there are three assumption upon attitude scale;  The scale should deal with a controversial question  An individual’s feelings and insights is regard to the question will determine his responses to various statements  The statements can be scaled regarding the degree to which the favour are opposed to question under consideration Assumptions
  3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS  It provides for quantitative measure on a uni-dimensional scale of continuum.  It uses statements from the extreme positive position to extreme negative position.  It generally uses a five point scale as: Strongly agree(SA), Agree(A), Undecided(U),Disagree(D) and Strongly disagree(SD). The individual gets the score as the sum of item credits.  It is usually standardized and norms are worked out  It disguises the attitude object rather than directly asking about the attitude on the subject
  4. 4. PURPOSE  In educational research , these scales are used especially for finding the attitudes of persons on issues like co-education, religions education, democracy in schools etc depending upon the need of the situation. Some Attitude Scales Methods of measuring attitudes indirectly, used for research purposes are;  Thurstone Technique  Likert’s Method of summated Rating  Guttman’s scale
  5. 5. THURSTONE’S TECHNIQUE  Attitude is accepted as an uni-dimensional linear continuum.  A large number of statements of various shades of favourable and unfavourable opinions.  large number of judges exercising complete detachment sort out into eleven piles ranging from the most statements to the most favourable ones.  First category each judge places the statements considers most favourable to the object.  Second ,those considered next most favourable.  Eleventh category considers most unfavourable .  Tabulations are made which indicate the number of judges who placed each item in each category.  Calculating cumulated proportions for each item and ogives are constructed.  Median of the frequency distribution in which the scores range from 0 to 11
  6. 6. Thurstone’s technique is also known as the technique of ‘equal appearing intervals’ statements Scale value  I think this company treats its employees better than any other company does.  If I had to do it over again I’d still work for this company.  The workers put as much over on the company puts over on them.  You have got to have pull with certain people around here to get ahead.  An honest man fails in this company 10.4 9.5 5.1 2.1 0.8 CONTINUES………….
  7. 7. LIKERT’S SCALE  Subject’s response to each item may be considered as his or her rating of attitude on a 5- point scale.  Strongly agree(SA), Agree(A), Undecided(U),Disagree(D) and Strongly disagree(SD). The individual gets the score as the sum of item credits.  Collection of a number of statements about the subject.  Items that to be either definitely favourable or definitely unfavourable to the attitude  All favourable statements are scored from the maximum to minimum.  From a score of 5 to 1or 5 for strongly agree and so on 1 for strongly disagree.  Total of these scores on all items measures a respondents favorableness.
  8. 8. CONTINUES…..  Eg : scale consists of 30 items , the following score values 30*5=150 ( most favourable response) 30*3=90 (neutral attitude) 30*1=30 (most unfavourable attitude) It is thus known as a method of summated ratings. Subject’s response to each item may be considered as his or her rating of attitude on a 5- point scale and the total score is obtained after all these weights are summated , the method is known as SUMMATED RATINGS .
  9. 9. GUTTMAN SCALE  Guttman applied this model in 1941 that each statement has an idea relationship of one type or another with the exacting measurement of the attitude.  Study in investigating a youngsters attitude to career.  The item in the questionnaire which following. 1. Military career is an attractive and yes no progressive career. 2. Multinational companies pay a heavy salary yes no Any set of items that produces a pattern of responses is called Guttman Scale.
  10. 10. LIMITATIONS OF ATTITUDE SCALE  An individual may conceal his real attitude and express socially acceptable opinions only.  An individual may not really know how he feels about a social issue.  An individual may not be able to express his attitude towards a situation in abstract.  It is unlikely that the statements are of equal value in forness or againstness