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  1. BIBLIOMETRICS and BIBLIOMETRIC LAWS School of Library and Information Science Devi Ahilya University Indore (MP) Submitted To:- Dr. G.H.S. Naidu HOD, School of LIS UTD,DAVV , Indore Submitted By:- D.P. Kushwah Roll No.M.Phil-04 DAVV , Indore
  2. Contents  Introduction to the term “Bibliometrics”  Origin of the term “Bibliometrics”  Definitions  Objectives  Scope  Why Bibliometrics  Applications of Bibliometrics  Bibliometrics Laws  Lotka’s Law  Bradford’s law  Zipf’s Law  Conclusion
  3. Introduction to the term "Bibliometrics” Origin of the term “Bibliometrics” Biblio + Metrics = Bibliometrics “Biblio” is originated from Greek word “Biblion” which means “Book” or “Paper” “Metrics” is originated from Greek or Latin word “Metricus” or “Metrikos” which means the science of Meter or to measure Continued ….
  4. Continued 1….  Bibliometrics is a set of methods used to study or measure texts and information. Citation analysis and content analysis are commonly used in Bibliometrics methods. While Bibliometrics methods are most often used in the field of library and information science.  Bibliometrics uses mathematical and statistical methods to analyse and measure the output of publications. Modern Bibliometrics has been largely inspired by Derek de Solla Price and the seminal work was carried out by him in the middle of the last century.
  5. Origin Of the term Bibliometrics The term “Bibliometrics” by Pritchard and “Scientometrics” by Nalimov and Mulchenko have been introduced almost simultaneously in 1969. While Pritchard explained the term Bibliometrics as "the application of mathematical and statistical methods to Bibliographic information of books and other media of communication”. Continued ….
  6. Nalimov and Mulchenko defined Scientometrics as "the application of those quantitative methods which are dealing with the analysis of science viewed as an information process" (Nalimov and Mulchenko, 1969). According to these interpretations, Scientometrics is restricted to the measurement of science communication, whereas Bibliometrics is designed to deal with more general information processes. Continued 1….
  7. Definitions According to Potter :- “The Study and measurement of Publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship”. According to Alan Pritchard :- “Studies which seek to quantify the process of written communication”. According to Alvin M. Schrader :- “Scientific study of recorded discourses”.
  8. Objectives  Analysis of Information Transfer Process and Control on.  To tell about the structure of Knowledge and its transmission.  The rendering of reliable statistics.  The definition of the delimitation of the subject.  Understanding of specific reading habits.  To point out the inherent relevant importance of Several types of documents in the various disciplines.
  9. Scope  Identification of the main journals.  Ranking of journals.  Selection magazines.  Sort of magazines.  Make known to the mutual influence of magazines.  Development and expansion of knowledge in various fields,  An institution, contribute to the scientific progress of the nation or individual, Continued ….
  10.  Research methodology in making.  Duties of different themes and readers in identifying documents.  Documentation in a specific area to detect progress.  The same theme order creating a list of scientists and information specialists.  Measuring the usefulness of information services,  Formulation of principles for standardization. Continued 1….
  11. Why Bibliometrics  To identify which areas are most active and which are becoming important.  Identify the influences & “cross fertilizations”.  Useful to the policy makers who are deciding the priority areas in a certain research domain.
  12. Applications of Bibliometrics  To identify research trends and growth of knowledge.  To estimate comprehensiveness of secondary periodicals.  Library selection, weeding, policies Information organization Information management.  To identify users of different subjects.  To identify authorship and its trends in documents on various subjects.  To forecast past, present and future publishing trends.  To predict productivity of publishers, individual authors, organizations and countries.
  13. BIBLIOMETRIC LAWS Lotka’s Law (1926) Bradford’s Law (1934) Zipf’s Law (1935)
  14. Lotka’s Law (1926) The Frequency Distribution of Scientific Productivity “It would be of interest to determine, if possible, the part which men of different caliber contribute to the progress of science considering first simple volume of production. Alfred J. Lotka.
  15. Lotka’s law: xn • y = C Xnœ1/y xn = c1/y C=xn y The total number of authors y in a given subject, each producing x publications, is inversely proportional to some exponential function n of x. Where: x = number of publications y = no. of authors credited with x publications n = constant (equals 2 for scientific subjects) C = constant inverse square law of scientific productivity
  16. Lotka’s Law The number of authors making n contributions to the literature is about 1/n2 of those making one – 60% of authors make one contribution – 15% of authors make two contributions – <7% of authors make three contributions – <4% of authors make four contributions – <2.5% of authors make five contributions – 1.25% of authors make six contributions – <1% of authors make seven contributions
  17. Lotka’s Law Example : Out of 1000 authors – 608 publish 1 article – 152 publish 2 articles – 68 publish 3 articles – 38 publish 4 articles – 24 publish 5 articles – 17 publish 6 articles – 12 publish 7 articles Not exact prediction but holds true overall in most fields
  18. Bradford’s Law (1934) "If scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups or zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus, when the numbers of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be as n : n2 : n3. Samual.Climent Bradford
  19. © Tefko Saracevic 19 Bradford's Law of Scattering – zones 3 sources 130 articles 9 sources 130 articles 27 sources 130 articles Garfield hypothesis nucleus
  20. Bradford’s Law of Scattering In any field of interest, relevant journals can be split into three groups Each group contributes the same number of relevant articles to citations in the field # of 1st group journals = k 3 sources = 130 articles # of 2nd group journals = k*n 9 sources = 130 articles # of 3rd group journals = k*n2 27 sources = 130 articles
  21. © Tefko Saracevic 21 Bradford's Law of Scattering – an idealized example No. of source journals 1 2 1 2 2 4 10 7 5 5 No. of articles per source 60 35 30 25 9 8 6 5 4 3 Total no. of articles 60 70 30 50 18 32 60 35 20 15 9 27 130 130 1303
  22. © Tefko Saracevic 22 Zipf’s law(1935) : r • f = c Rœ1/f R= c1/f r • f = c Where: r = rank (in terms of frequency) f = frequency (no. of times the given word is used in the text) c = constant for the given text  For a given text the rank of a word multiplied by the frequency is a constant  Works well for high frequency words, not so well for low – thus a number of modifications George Kingsley Zipf
  23. Zipf’s Law of term distribution  In a document of ca. 10,000 words the most frequently used word is “the” at 950 Times.  the 2nd most frequently used word is “a” at 490 Times.  the 3rd most frequently used term is “in” at 340 Times.  the 1000th most frequently used term is “fruit” at 1 time.
  24. Zipf’s Law of term distribution Frequency x occurrences = constant 1 x 950 = 950 2 x 490 = 980 3 x 340 = 1020 1000 x 1 = 1000 Constant = 1000 for this document
  25. Conclusion As conclusion we can say that, Bibliometrics is a major sub-discipline of quantitative research. This is a tool used by the library and information science professionals for studying the communication processes, information flows, and for better understanding and effective management and dissemination of information. Bibliometrics techniques are being used for a variety of purposes like determination of various scientific indicators, valuation of scientific output, selection of journals for libraries and even forecasting the potential of a particular field. Continued…
  26. Continued 1…. It is effective for, measuring the scattering of articles on a subject in various periodicals (Bradford), measuring the productivity of an author based on the number of published articles. (Lotka), Ranking of words in a text based on frequency of occurrence of words. (Zipf), Productivity count of a literature, identifying the peers, social change and the core journals etc. (Citation Analysis), Bibliographic control, Preparation of retrospective bibliography and better Library Management. Hence We can conclude that, There is an important role of Bibliometrics and Bibliometrics Laws in the field of Library and Information Science.
  27. Reference  Google search-  Notes of related subject Teacher Mr. Ritesh Tiwari  Use of journals.  Study Materials.  Sharma,A.K. Research Methodology and Information Technology.New Delhi : Ess Ess Publication p 162-69  BROOKES, B.C., Biblio-, sciento-, infor-metrics??? What are we talking about, In: L. Egghe, R. Rousseau (Eds.), Informetrics 89/90, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1990, 31-43

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