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Vector active systems

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Vector active systems

  1. 1. VECTOR ACTIVE SYSTEM GROUP MEMBERS: Fahad S. Omkar S. Ali A. Pankaj N. Karan A. Salem M. Lulua N. Saquib S. Massarat S. Shoaib A.
  2. 2. VECTORACTIVE • Vector active structural systems are systems of short, solid, straight lineal members, in which the redirection of forces is effected by multidirectional splitting of single force simply to tension or compressive elements. • Compressive and tensile members in a triangular assembly form a stable composition that transmit loads over long distances without any intermediate support. • The structure experiences bending load as a whole but transforms them into axial load when the load is distributed among the members. INTRODUCTION Splitting of forces In multiple directions Force balancing in truss
  3. 3. TYPES OF VECTOR ACTIVE STRUCTURES FLAT TRUSS TREE SYSTE M SPACE FRAME CURVED TRUSS
  4. 4. VECTORACTIVE–FLATTRUSS  All members and nodes lie within a two dimensional plane.  Consists of straight members connected at joints. FLAT TRUSS Load distribution in a truss
  5. 5. VECTORACTIVE–FLATTRUSS MATERIALS Precast Trusses Wood Trusses Steel TYPES • King post: up to 4.5m • Queen post: up to 7.5m • Fink truss: up to 9m • Scissors truss: up to 18m • Howe truss: up to 60m • Pratt truss: 20 to 100m • Warren truss: 20 to 100m • Bowstring truss: 20 to 100m SPAN
  6. 6. Parts of a truss Flat Truss Shape VECTORACTIVE–FLATTRUSS
  7. 7. CURVED TRUSS E X AMPLES The Eiffel Bridge By Gustav Eiffel Hamburg Airport by Meinhard von Gerkan VECTORACTIVE–CURVEDTRUSS • A curved truss can be defined as a truss in which the top chord is in a curved shape. • Truss which consists of a parabolic shape
  8. 8. TYPES OF CURVED TRUSSES Bowstring truss Sloped bowstring truss Arched truss Sloped arched truss VECTORACTIVE–CURVEDTRUSS Types
  9. 9. CURVING PROCESS • Roller bending Involves progressive bending of a section by passing the member through a set of bending rolls. • Induction bending The section is passed through an electric coil. VECTORACTIVE–CURVEDTRUSS
  10. 10. SPACE FRAME  A space frame or space structure is a truss-like, lightweight rigid structure constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. Space frames can be used to span large areas with few interior supports.  Assembled linear elements are arranged to transfer the load. They take a form of a flat surface or curved surface. Designed with no intermediate columns to create large open area VECTORACTIVE–SPACEFRAME Montreal Biosphere by Fuller Rogers Centre by Rod Robbie E X AMPLES
  11. 11. • Single-layer grid: All elements are located on the surface to be approximated. approximated. Single layer grid Double layer grid Triple layer grid VECTORACTIVE–SPACEFRAME C L AS SIFICATION • A Space Frame structure can be defined as a rigid, lightweight, truss-like structure. It is constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. • A space frame structures robustness is due to its inherent rigidity of the triangle and flexing loads that are transmitted as tension and compression loads along the length of each strut. • Double layer grid: Elements are organized in two layers parallel to each other at a certain distance apart. • Triple-layer grid: Elements are placed in three parallel layers, linked by the diagonals.
  12. 12. SPACE FRAME JOINERY DETAILS Joinery elements Steel members connection Section 3d structure view VECTORACTIVE–SPACEFRAME
  13. 13. TREE/BRANCHING STRUCTURE • This system features the use of tree-like columns for support. • The column rises from the ground, like the trunk of a tree, and then starts branching near the top to extend over a bigger span. These columns are used for large spans or double height spaces. • The main principle is the focus of reducing the mass of structural materials while increasing efficiency. • This concept of "lightweight" structure requires less material, introducing optimal calculations to determine structural strength. Sincere Plaza (Shanghai) Architect – Woods Bagot Westend Gate (Germany) Architect - Just Burgeff Tree structure project Architect – Frei Otto VECTORACTIVE–TREESYSTEM E X AMPLES
  14. 14. Case Studies – Flat Truss
  15. 15. • NAME : HALLE • LOCATION : FRANCE, LYON • ARCHITECT : TONY GARNIER • INTRODUCTION : ORIGINALLY A SLAUGHTER HOUSE, THE BUILIDNG WAS RENOVATED IN 1987 AND OPENED AS A CONCERT HALL IN 1988. WITH A CAPACITY OF NARLY 17,000, IT IS THE THIRD BIGGEST VENUE IN FRANCE. CASE STUDY - FLAT TRUSS CASESTUDY–FLATTRUSS Front Elevation Halle
  16. 16. CASESTUDY–FLATTRUSS SPAN : 42m Interior View Bolted Truss system The lighting bounces off the truss and makes it an aesthetic element
  17. 17. • NAME : SCHULHAUS LEUTSCHENBACH. • LOCATION : SWITZERLAND, ZURICH. • ARCHITECT : CHRISTIAN KEREZ. • INTRODUCTION : THE NORTH OF ZÜRICH GAINED AN UNAMBIGUOUS STEEL AND GLASS BUILDING. THE LARGE LATTICE-CLAD VOLUME OF SCHULHAUS LEUTSCHENBACH APPEARS TO FLOAT ABOVE GROUND LEVEL.A SCHOOL BUILDING WHICH COMBINES A PRIMARY AND A SECONDARY SCHOOL. ONE OF THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE DESIGN WAS TO CREATE AS MUCH ROOM TO PLAY AS POSSIBLE. • THE SUPPORT SYSTEM IS MADE OF STEEL CASE STUDY 2 - FLAT TRUSS CASESTUDY–FLATTRUSS AREA : 11,500 sq. SPAN : 50m
  18. 18. CASESTUDY–FLATTRUSS Frame Model of Structure The depth of truss is equal to entire floor, This gives an open feeling to the floor 5m gap at every triangle base Joinery between beam and truss (Welded together)
  19. 19. Case Studies – Curved Truss
  20. 20. CASESTUDY - Friends arena • LOCATION – SWEDEN • ARCHITECT – C.F MOLLER ARCHITECTS • INTRODUCTION -FRIENDS ARENA, ALSO KNOWN AS NATIONALARENAN, IS A RETRACTABLE ROOF MULTI-PURPOSE STADIUM IN STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN. CASESTUDY–CURVEDTRUSS • Span : 162m
  21. 21. • A curved bowstring steel truss • 3-dimensional configuration. • The internal horizontal bracings help control buckling. Internal bracing CASESTUDY–CURVEDTRUSS Crocodile Nose joint 3D truss diagram Interior View Frame
  22. 22. • Pre‐stressed cables in the bottom chord: 1. Controls deflections 2. Counteracts self‐weight 3. Enhances the lateral stability of arched trusses in the case of uplift 4. Results in less material usage and more efficient design Prestressed cable at the bottom chord Bottom chord Truss components CASESTUDY–CURVEDTRUSS
  23. 23. The section through the mechanism The guide along which the roof moves CASESTUDY–CURVEDTRUSS Closed roof Open roof
  24. 24. CASESTUDY – WATERLOO STATION • LOCATION – LONDON • ARCHITECT – GRIMSHAW ARCHITECTS • INTRODUCTION -THE INTERNATIONAL TERMINAL AT WATERLOO STATION IN LONDON IS AN ELONGATED, FOUR-PLATFORM RAILWAY CONCOURSE WITH A SNAKING GLASS-AND-STEEL ROOF o ASSYMTRICAL ROOF-COMBINATION 2 SLOPING CURVED TRUSSES. o SPAN – 38M CASESTUDY–CURVEDTRUSS View Interior
  25. 25. •3 PINNED ARCHED •ASSYMETRY BECAUSE OF o SITE CONSTRAINTS o IRREGULAR PLATFORM ARRANGEMENT o CLEARANCE CONSTRAINTS •Telescopic members which allow to change the truss size according to the site restrictions CASESTUDY–CURVEDTRUSS Section PlanHuman for scale Hinges Minor Truss Major Truss
  26. 26. Primary Structure ( Major Truss + Minor Truss ) Major Truss – • Prismatic in cross section to avoid sagging. • 2 compression members on the outer side. • 1 tension member on the inside. Minor Truss – • Prismatic in cross section to avoid hogging. • 2 tension members on the outside. • 1 compression member inside. CASESTUDY–CURVEDTRUSS
  27. 27. CASESTUDY–CURVEDTRUSS Truss Joinery at the bottom Truss Components 3d View Purlins Glass Steel Cladding Telescopic Members
  28. 28. Case Study – Space Frames
  29. 29. • NAME: JACOB K JAVATIS CONVENTIONAL CENTER • LOCATION: NEW YORK • ARCHITECT: JAMES INGO FREED (PEI COBB FREED & PARTNERS) • COMPLETION: 1986 • TYPE: PUBLIC BUILDING. • STRUCTURE BY: DSI Spaceframes. THE PROJECT FEATURES 38000 SQM AND 23000 SQM EXHIBITION SPACES, A HALL WITH SEATING CAPACITY 3800 AND FEW MEETING ROOMS. THE STRUCTURE ALSO HOUSES CAFETERIA, LOUNGE, A CRYSTAL PALACE, GALLERY AND RIVER PAVILION. CASESTUDY–SPACEFRAME SPACE FRAME-CASE STUDY
  30. 30. SECTIONS: Section near column CASESTUDY–SPACEFRAME Parts
  31. 31. WHOLE STRUCTURE CONSISTS OF SPACE FRAMES FOR VERTICAL AS WELL AS HORIZONTAL MEMBERS. CASESTUDY–SPACEFRAME
  32. 32. • Name: Heydar Aliyev cultural center • Location: Baku, Azerbaijan • Architect: Zaha Hadid architect • Completion: 2013 • Type : Public building • Structure by: Space frame THE STRUCTURE 101801 SQM BUILDING COMPEX. THE CENTRE ACCOMMODATE 1000 AUDITORIUM, TEMPORARY EXHIBITION SPACE A CONFERENCE CENTRE, WORKSHOPS AND MUSEUM CASESTUDY–SPACEFRAME SPACE FRAME - CASE STUDY 2
  33. 33. STRUCTURE CONSIST OF SPACE FRAME ROOF CASESTUDY–SPACEFRAME SECTION
  34. 34. Case Study - Tree System
  35. 35. LOCATION - Stuttgart ,Germany ARCHITECTS - Gerkan, Mag and Partners. TYPE- Airport BUILT IN- 1948 • The Stuttgart Airport uses Tree-like Support Structures in the entry terminals to create an ascending open warehouse-like space. • The monopitch roof is supported by 18 filigree tree-columns and creates a delicate and interior space. Gardens by the Bay, Singapore CONCEPT - The concept of Biomimicry, considered as the science and philosophy of learning from nature , is a source of architectural design inspiration with different approaches undertaken by architects and engineers. Stuttgart Airport Terminal CASESTUDY–TREESYSTEM
  36. 36. BACKGROUND What makes this airport unique is that for a relatively small airport, the use of bio-mimicry in light weight structural members creates a powerful with the built and natural environment giving the building an open and inspiring vibe. SPECIFICATIONS •Gross floor area-57,000 m² (613,542 sq. Ft) •Dimensions - 175 X 96m •Height - 5 to 18m •Span b/w 2 columns- 30m Tree-like Support Structures in the entry terminals create an ascending open warehouse-like space. Grid of the tree like structureSection CASESTUDY–TREESYSTEM
  37. 37. STRUCTURAL DESIGN • The entire roof is divided into twelve sections partitioned by skylights, two-way slabs. Each of these areas are supported by the steel tree-like The branches direct the forces into smaller resultant points ;and then transfer into the four tubular poles that acts as one. These "columns“ then gather all the loads passing down through the branches which are translated into the trunk and then down to the foundation. 1 single support contains four attached tubular poles forming trunk of the tree; and spread into 3 different levels (forms into the branches). (They are distributed to carry the roof loads in compression with minimal bending moments. ) Design of a single tubular pole dividing into several branches CASESTUDY–TREESYSTEM
  38. 38. STRUCTURAL DESIGN • A perfect example of umbel system; the total load is distributed to one point and from there, it transmits total load via a single member to a support point. • Umbel structures start to split and divide loads that meet at nodes. are many variations to these that can be determined by the number tiers and number of nodes needed for support. Interior roofing made of Gypsum boards resting on I- section steel grid Model of the tree structure- Load getting distributed evenly among the branches due to triangulation. CASESTUDY–TREESYSTEM
  39. 39. THANK YOU

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