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walls

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type of walls in interiors, materials, prices .etc

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walls

  1. 1. WALLS PRESENTEDBY- RASHI JAIN(2) RAVI VARSHNEY(3) SONALI SHARMA(26) SRISHTI BHARDWAJ(27) VANYA MATHUR(36)
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1. WALL INTRODUCTION • WALL FINISHES PAINTING SURFACE PREPERATION TYPES OF SURFACE FINISHES MARKET SUREVEY WALLPAPERS INTRODUCTION APPLICATIONS TYPES MARKET SURVEY LIVE STUDY CLADDING TYPES INSTALLATION PANELLING ADVANTAGES INSTALLATION TYPES • PARTITION WALLS ON THE BASIS OF DESIGN ON THE BASIS OF MATERIALS
  3. 3. Wall Finishing • It is the final touches placed on a wall to get an acceptable visual look. • The finish to a wall can range from simple paint to expensive wallpaper to elaborate work. Types of Wall Finishing • Painting • Wallpapers • Cladding • Panelling
  4. 4. Preparation a New Constructed Wall for Painting • Once the masonry is completed and the wall is properly cured, following materials are applied: 1) Cement Plaster
  5. 5. 2) Plaster of Paris 3)Primer
  6. 6. 4) Paint  Allow newly plastered surfaces to mature till the time it completely dries.  Fill and level the minor undulations of wall by applying putty.  In case of major undulations on the wall surface, Plaster of Paris (POP) needs to be applied.  One coat of Primer is recommended on puttied areas before applying the top coat. (10-12 hours of drying)  If the primer coat is not applied over the puttied areas, the top coat can appear patchy.
  7. 7. Previously Painted or Varnished Surfaces • The preparation required for previously painted surfaces is determined by the condition of the previous coating. • If the surface is intact and in good condition, it can generally be painted directly. • Low sheen or matt surfaces in good condition can be painted over after they have been cleaned to remove any dirt, grease or grime that may affect adhesion. • Glossy surfaces need to be cleaned and then sanded to a dull finish with a medium grit sandpaper.
  8. 8. • Checks and Measures:  Check the surface for incidence of dampness or water seepage.  Any loose plaster should be removed from the wall. Check for loose plaster by tapping on the walls. A hollow sound indicates loose plaster.  Masonry work is to be undertaken to fill up all cracks and repair broken plaster.  Please ensure sufficient curing time (7 to 21 days depending on extent of plastering).
  9. 9. Types of Surface Finishing • Matte Finishes: • is the least reflective sheen available • has a velvety texture • helps hides imperfections in walls and ceilings • Semigloss and Finishes: • have some reflectivity • offer improved durability
  10. 10. • frequently used in demanding environments, like kitchens and bathrooms, where easy clean up is required. • Gloss Finishes: • are the most reflective sheens • are highly durable and stand up to multiple cleanings • are traditionally used on baseboards, moldings, and doors • can make a statement, but also highlight imperfections
  11. 11. Standard Companies of Paints • Asian Paints • Berger • Nerolac • ICI Dulux
  12. 12. Details Of Various Types of Interior Paints • Dulux: 1) Velvet Touch • 7 years life • costs rs.320lit • covers 180 sq.m. in 1litre 2) 3 in 1 • 5 years life • costs Rs. 250lit • covers 160 sq.m. in 1litre 3)Light n Space • 3 years life • Costs 230lit • covers 120 sq.m. in 1lit 4)Duluxacrylic Emulsion • 3 years life • costs Rs. 180lit • covers 100 sq.m. in 1litre
  13. 13. 4)Super Coat Interior Emulsion • 2 years life • costs Rs. 110lit • covers 80 sq.m. in 1litre • Berger 1)Luxol silk • 7 years lifecosts Rs. 310/lit • covers 160 sq.m. in 1 lit 2)Rangoli • 3 years life • costs Rs. 180/lit • covers 120 sq.m. in 1 lit • Asian Paints 1)Royal touch • 7 years life • costs Rs. 300/lit • covers 170 sq.m. in I litre 2)Asian Premier Emulsion • 3 years life • costs Rs. 180/lit • covers 100 sq.m. in 1 litre 3)Asian Tractor Emulsion • 2 years life • costs Rs. 110/lit • covers 80 sq.m. in 1 lit
  14. 14. WALLPAPERS • Wallpaper is a kind of material used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, cafes, government buildings, museums, post offices, and other buildings • It is usually sold in rolls and is put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. • Used to help cover uneven surfaces and minor wall defects thus giving a better surface.
  15. 15. ADVANTAGES • wallpapers are one of the most environmentally friendly materials. • Wallpaper Adhesive database also contains no harmful chemical components for use favorable. • Benefit of using wallpaper is the huge variety of decorating options you have. • Wallpaper is easy to clean. • For rooms where the walls are prone to get dirty, wallpaper is a great. • wallpaper can hide blemishes in the wall’s plaster far better than a coat of paint. DISADVATAGES • wallpapers are not particularly strong. • Approximate limit of life is five years. They are not durable. • We cannot use wallpaper in water prone areas. • wallpaper is epensive by square meterage and labour. • Installing' wallpaper is harder in order to do than painting. • Fades in color with time.
  16. 16. TYPES OF WALLPAPER HAND PRINTED BLOCK WOOD WALLPAPER:- • These exclusive handmade wallpapers are meticulously cut by the artist into lino blocks, either in relief or intaglio. Each roll is printed by hand with pigments specially mixed to create a wide range of contemporary colour combinations.
  17. 17. VINYL WALLPAPER:- • vinyl wallpapers are true classic in the world of wallpapers. • They are washable ,light-resistant, and durable. • Vinyl wallpaper consists of backing layer, paper, and PVC. • They have exclusive designs with 3D effects. • 3 dimensional vinyl wallpaper is just not pleasing to the eye but also incredibly tactile and sensuous to the touch. • They have strong and bright colors ,innovative patterns and designs.
  18. 18. FABRIC WALLPAPER:- • Bright colours ,fine texture. • It is costly than other types of wallpaper available in market.
  19. 19. WOOD CHIP WALLPAPER:- • Ingrain or wood chip wallpaperis a decoration material for walls. • It consists of two layers of paper with wood fibre in between. • It can be only applied after several coats of paints on wall or it can be only applied on a very smooth finished wall.
  20. 20. 1. Vinyl wallpaper:- DIMENSIONS:- 120 INCH X 48 INCH PRICE:- RS 2,687 2. Vinyl textured wallpaper:- DIMENSIONS:- 48 INCH X 48 INCH PRICE:- RS 863 3. Hand printed wallpaper:- DIMENSIONS:- 48 INCHX 24 INCH PRICE :- RS 450 4.Wood chip wallpaper:- DIMENSION:- 20 INCH X 30 INCH PRICE :- RS 244 TYPE OF WALLPAPER RATE PER SQUARE FEET COST OF ROLL (57 SQ.FT) 1. VINYL COATED RS.30-40 RS. 1710- 2687 2. VINYL WALLPAPER RS.40-60 RS.2280- 3340 3. SOLID VINYL WALLPAPER RS. 60-80 RS. 3420- 4560 4. PAPER BACKED VINYL RS. 85-110 RS. 4848- 6270 5.FABRIC WALLPAPER RS. 130-150 RS. 7410- 8550
  21. 21. APPLICATION OF WALLPAPER • First determine how much wallpaper is needed for the wall measure the height and the length of the room. • Choose an appropiate pattern of wallpaper for the room.  use horizontal patterns to make the room seems wider.  Use vertical patterns to make ceiling seems higher. • Clean the wall throughly. • Smooth the cracks in the wall. • Apply primer on wall. • Apply the wallpaper on it flattened the wallpaper with the wallpaper brush and clean it.
  22. 22. LIVE CASE STUDY
  23. 23. Fabric wallpaper Vinyl wallpaper
  24. 24. VINYL WALLPAPER
  25. 25. CLADDING
  26. 26. Wood/Timber • Wood/timber cladding is used in commercial and domestic buildings and especially in interiors to infuse warmth into the space. • Wood being a lightweight material eliminates heavy masonry outer walls, leading to the size and hence cost reduction of foundations. • The wide choice of hardwoods, softwoods or engineered woods available, • the ability of the cladding panels to be pre-fabricated, great thermal and sound insulation, ease of repair are the other benefits of wooden cladding. • PRICES: 100-500 RS/SQ FT
  27. 27. Concrete • Used for commercial, industrial, institutional and residential applications, GRC (Glass fibre reinforced concrete) is used as a cladding material for decorative purposes. • With easy maintenance and installation and without any requirement of painting and plastering, they can be fixed directly over brickwork or masonry. • Sizes:costumise range (2450x1200 mm,2750x1200mm,3000x1200mm)
  28. 28. Brick Cladding • A cheaper alternative and one that has been used for a long time, brick cladding repels water and aesthetically can be stimulating with its variety of patterns or courses that it can run into.
  29. 29. Stone • Stone is a natural and eco-friendly material and can be seen in interiors too where walls are highlighted using stone cladding. • There are options of granite, slate, marble, sandstone, limestone and kota stone as well as stone veneers. • Specific stones like Jodhpur stone, Jaisalmer stone etc are also available. • The maintenance is simpler with textured walls requiring only regular vacuuming or feather dusting to ward off the dust • stone mosaics, table tops, sandstone, granite, stone pebbles, cobble stone, stone chips, stone veneers, semiprecious stones etc
  30. 30. • Material : Beige Sandstone • Finish: Riven ( Natural surface), edges machine cut • Size: 600x300x12-18mm • Price: INR 25/Sqft • Size: 300x150x10-15mm • Price: INR 15/Sqft • Size: 300x75x8-12mm • Price: INR 15/Sqft
  31. 31. Glass • Much has been said about glass its versatility, its aesthetics, its ability to blur boundaries, visually enlarging a space and for admitting natural daylight. • in market there is impact resistant glass, burglar resistant glass.
  32. 32. • enameled and laminated safety glass, lacquered glass or even ceramic printed glass (with increased resistance to pressure, impact and temperature fluctuations). • Glass has also enabled acoustical comfort and one also witnesses louver embedded glass panels that can direct the sun rays when needed • Rates: 250-800RS/SQ FT • SIZES:MAX 2000X4000MM
  33. 33. UPVC Cladding • Seen mostly in interiors and somewhat in exterior cladding too, • uPVC, on account of its water-resistant nature scores as a good bet in wet areas like kitchens and bathrooms. • It comes out to be much cheaper (as compared to wood, fibre cement, stucco, brick and stone sidings) and easier to install than tiling and exists in a variety of colours and styles. • The accumulated dirt is easier to clean; however, it remains a non-friendly environment material. • Available sizes: Standard lengths: 1,2 m - 2,6 m en 4 m • Standard widths: 10 cm, 25 cm en 37,5 cm • 5-9.5MM THICK • Alternative lengths and widths are available • RATES:50-300 RS/SQ FT
  34. 34. Tiles • Tile cladding comes in various materials (concrete, granite, ceramic, brick or glazed tiles, marble, stainless steel) as well as various designs (rustic, strip, wave etc). • Whereas concrete tiles are durable, fire and water resistant (with usage both in load-bearing and non-load bearing walls), • the weather resistant granite tiles are good for exteriors as well as interiors
  35. 35. • Marble tiles, expensive and relatively needing more maintenance . • Vitrified ceramic tiles have low water absorption (good for cold areas) and are resistant to stain and corrosion. • Mosaic cladding tiles find their way in bathrooms since they dry up easily. • RATES: RS 28-130 /SQ FT
  36. 36. Boards • The market today has designer and compressed cement boards, gypsum boards, calcium silicate boards, fibre cement boards, e- boards and even eco- friendly boards. • These can be finished in various options. Laminates also remain an ideal option for interiors. • Today, high pressure laminates are used in places like hospitals where hygiene is most important.
  37. 37. Metal Cladding • Metal cladding is generally a favourite with industrial buildings. Aluminium and steel cladding are generally used • Steel is used for exterior as well as interior surfaces and comes in various finishes like mirror, hairline, texture, custom and perforated designs. • Its advantages attractive aesthetics, durability, resistance to corrosion and flame, termites and its ability to be carved in different shapes. It is a good option in high-humidity surroundings. • However, its affinity to rust and regular maintenance have to be kept in mind. Mild and stainless steel are the two primary forms employed. While mild steel is used for cladding, stainless steel is used for backsplashes and furniture tops.
  38. 38. • In case of aluminium, solid aluminium, aluminium composite panels (ACP), extruded aluminium are used in wall cladding. • They are light weight, non-corrosive and recyclable in nature, have high strength-to- weight ratio and come in diverse colours and finishes • Copper, another type of metal cladding is used for its aesthetics alone. • Zinc, a very expensive option (and thus not used to that extent in India) is aesthetically eye-catching and is durable. • Titanium Zinc, gaining popularity in India is said to have a much longer life. Making buildings practically maintenance free, the usage of sealants is avoided in this dry joint system.
  39. 39. WALL PANELLING
  40. 40. INTRODUCTION • A wall panel is single piece of material, usually flat and cut into a rectangular shape, that serves as the visible and exposed covering for a wall. Wall panels are functional as well as decorative, providing insulation and soundproofing, combined with uniformity of appearance, along with some measure of durability or ease of replace ability. Wall paneling is an architectural element often installed in residential or commercial buildings. • While there is no set size limit for a piece of material fulfilling these functions, the maximum practical size for wall panels has been suggested to be 7metres by 2.4metres, to allow for transportation.
  41. 41.  ADVANTAGES OF WALL PANELLING • Wall panelling looks very elegant. • Panelling offers excellent thermal and acoustic insulation. • Renovating an old house with flawed walls, the wall panelling can cover up the flawed plasterwork. • They provide a clean finish, smooth and pleasant to touch as well as view. • Better Durability. Wall panels typically enjoy a long life, even with minimal upkeep. What isn’t obvious, though, is that they can also help to extend the life of your walls themselves. By protecting your walls from wear and tear, they ensure that important structural components of your home can live even longer.
  42. 42. High-Tech Materials • Wood may be the most traditional material used for wall panels and the first one that comes to mind, but it’s certainly not the only one available. MDF (medium density fiberboard) is one of the most common composite materials, as it has the benefit of flexibility when it comes to multiple textures, designs, and patterns. Melamine is another common option that allows for some of the more innovative wall décor and high impact prints. Polyurethane panels provide a surface for some of the most advanced designs and materials on the market today.
  43. 43. Numerous Design Choices Many reflect natural wood grain. Others use faux materials to mimic limestone, granite, marble, stone, and even bark. You can even design custom panels printed with leather, snakeskin, or three- dimensional textures. With design choices this diverse, you can introduce a natural or high-end design aesthetic into your home without using labor intensive or high-cost materials.
  44. 44. Minimal Upkeep Wallpaper and basic painted walls may seem like simple solutions for walls, but they often require continual maintenance. While both of these methods can attract scratches, marks, and indentations, wall panels actually resist impact. That means that with wall panels, you can rest easy without having to do frequent touch ups or wall repairs.
  45. 45. • Easy Installation • When it comes to wall panels, installation is much easier than it looks. • In fact, unlike other types of wall decor materials, you don’t even have to worry about grout lines, exposed adhesive, or other remnants of installation. • Many contemporary wall panels feature a tongue and groove system or clip and rail system, which makes installation almost as easy as fitting together the pieces of a puzzle. • Wall panels even offer the extra benefit of concealing wires, cables, and built-in wall components that are better left unseen.
  46. 46. INSTALLATION • If ordered raw, panels can be screwed (and glued if preferred) directly to the walls, screw holes puttied, then sanded and painted. If ordered finished, the panels can be mounted with aluminum brackets or split battens. We can supply 5mm thick x 2mt long aluminum mounting brackets. • Using aluminum Z brackets to fix finished panels to the walls is • Low profile with a gap of approximately 5mm between wall and wall panels.Lightweight and strong. Easily removable. The dimensions of the Z brackets are 5mm thick x 46mm wide x 2000mm long. • Wall panels can be installed using nails and adhesives.
  47. 47. WALL PANELLING IN RESIDENCES • In the home, wall panels are usually used for visual appeal. • Something less extensive than paneling or wainscoting, faux finishes or even faux panels may work well in residences. • A faux finish can be used to create the look of wood, stone or fabric panels. • Wall panelling that is commonly used for living rooms are decorative panels which are available in different colours, size and style. • While that type of decorative wall panelling is good for common interior areas, such as the living or dining room, there are other types that are more suited for kitchens or bathrooms.
  48. 48. • These are coated with protective layers that can stand up to high levels of moisture. • Other types of temporary wall panels are employed in the home. Many homeowners do not want or cannot afford modular panels, but they may use fabric panels to quickly and inexpensively give a basement, attic or garage a finished look. These are made from heavy fabric such as canvas, and can be easily hung in a matter of hours to cover unfinished ceilings and walls, giving any space a clean, refined look.
  49. 49. WALL PANELLING IN OFFICE SETTING • In the business setting, there are portable or temporary wall panels that can be used to divide a space into cubicles. • Modular panels may be constructed of wood or metal and are often covered with textured materials, fabrics, paneling or wallpaper to make them more aesthetically pleasing. • There are also acoustical and sound absorbing versions that are perfect for the studio.
  50. 50. WALL PANELLING IN MUSEUMS AND GALLERIES • Wall panels serve many functions, from providing descriptions of exhibits in museums and galleries to hiding away electronics such as stereo speakers. • As a decor element, they are an excellent way to break up wall space. • This can be achieved by paneling the upper or lower half of the wall, installing wainscoting, creating a faux finish, or one of several other methods.
  51. 51. TYPES OF WALL PANELS • DECORATIVE WALL PANELS • Decorative wall panels are available in many different materials. They are often used to change the look of the wall, but may also be installed to help protect the wall from damage. • Wainscoting is one of the most commonly used wall panels. It is made from wood or synthetic materials patterned with carvings and designs. Wainscot is usually installed on the lower half of a wall, but heights and styles may vary. • Pre-fabricated panels may be used. Other common materials used for decorative paneling include laminate, stainless steel and plastics.
  52. 52. • TILEBOARD • Tileboard panels are made from melamine or resin and are used to mimic the look of ceramic tile. • They are textured and colored to look like tile, and are attached to a moisture-resistant surface. • These panels are an affordable alternative to ceramic and are much easier to install. • Tileboard panels also do not have grout lines, which make for easier cleaning, as there is nowhere for trapped dirt to accumulate.
  53. 53. • UTILITY PANELLING • Utility paneling, often called pegboard, is made from perforated hardboard and is used for its function and appearance. • These panels contain rows of small holes that can be used to hang objects from nails or pegs. • They are frequently used in kitchens or garages, as well as in commercial applications. • Utility paneling is available in standard white or natural wood finishes and also in custom colors. These panels can be installed over the entire wall or just in small areas as needed.
  54. 54. • ACOUSTICAL PANELS • Acoustical panels are used to control noise levels in a space and to block noise transfer through walls. • They're made from foam or wood cores wrapped with a layer of vinyl or fabric. These panels are available in a wide variety of colors and textures to match the room's decor. • The panels help absorb sound and are commonly used n schools, auditoriums and hotels. • Acoustical panels can be installed temporarily using clips or magnets, or with nails or adhesive for more permanent applications.
  55. 55. • INTERLOCKING PANELS • These panels are popular because they are extremely easy to install and maintain. • No grout is necessary for installation, and they are waterproof for optimal upkeep. • They can also be fitted over existing surfaces, such as bathroom or kitchen tile. • They come in many colors and designs to fit the tastes of many.
  56. 56. • WALLBOARD PANELS • These panels are designed to give a look of the natural stones (marble, granite and travertine) and be conveniently lightweight and durable. • They can be fashioned to fit many different projects, including the paneling of shower floors, tub or shower walls, shelves, hot tub decks, and more. They are incredibly diverse and long lasting.
  57. 57. • DESIGNER PANELS • These panels are created to mimic expensive designs like brick, ceramic, stone, and metal, but act as a more affordable alternative. • They are coated with quality Tuff for durability, maintenance, and long-lasting beauty.
  58. 58. • SLATE VENEER PANELS • Slate Veneer is known for being incredibly lightweight, making it easy to transport and install at home. • It is also extremely flexible to fit the shape of wall. • Despite being light and flexible, however, slate veneer is also incredibly durable. • It is waterproof to prevent damage from showering, or other causes of moisture, and built to last.
  59. 59. PARTITION WALLS
  60. 60. TYPES OF PARTITION WALL • Movable partitions are walls that open to join two or more rooms into one large floor area. These include: • Sliding—a series of panels that slide in tracks fixed to the floor and ceiling, similar sliding doors • Sliding and folding doors —similar to sliding folding doors, these are good for smaller spans • Folding partition walls - a series of interlocking panels suspended from an overhead track that when extended provide an acoustical separation, and when retracted stack against a wall, ceiling, closet, or ceiling pocket. • Screens—usually constructed of a metal or timber frame fixed with plywood and chipboard and supported with legs for free standing and easy movement
  61. 61. SLIDING SCREEN FOLDING
  62. 62. TYPES OF WALL ON THE BASIS OF MATERIALS
  63. 63. GLASS • Glass partition walls are constructed using glass sheets or hollow blocks. • There are various types Of glass used in partition walls. Some of them are-
  64. 64. FLOAT GLASS Float glass is also called soda lime glass or clear glass. This is produced by annealing the molten glass and is clear and flat. • It is available in standard thickness ranging from 2mm to 20mm. and has weight range in 6- 26kg/m2. It has too much transparency and can cause glare.
  65. 65. Tinted Glass • Certain additions to the glass batch mix can add color to the clear glass without compromising its strength. • Iron oxide is added to give glass a green tint; sulphur in different concentrations can make the glass yellow, red or black. Copper sulphate can turn it blue. Etc. • Tinted glass contains minerals that color the glass uniformly through its thickness and promote absorption of visible light and infrared radiation
  66. 66. TOUGHENED GLASS • This type of glass is tempered, may have distortions and low visibility but it breaks into small dice- like pieces at modulus of rupture of 3600 psi. Hence it is used in making fire resistant doors etc. • They are available in same weight and thickness range as float glass.
  67. 67. FROSTED GLASS Sandblasted glass is a kind of etched glass, also known as Frosted Glass. Sandblasting uses compressed air to blast fine sand or other very abrasive, high grit substances through a nozzle and at the object desired to be sandblasted. These abrasive substances rapidly discard the surface of the object leaving a clean surface.
  68. 68. • Hollow glass wall blocks are manufactured as two separate halves and, while the glass is still molten, the two pieces are pressed together and annealed. • The resulting glass blocks will have a partial vacuum at the hollow center. • Glass blocks or glass bricks walls provide good architectural effect and also admit light. • They are sound proof, fire proof and heat-proof GLASS BLOCKS
  69. 69. • Hollow glass blocks are translucent units of glass, light in weight and are available in different sizes and shapes and thicknesses. • They are usually square with thickness of 10cm.(14x14cm or 19x19cm) • Jointing edges are painted internally and sanded externally to form key for mortar. • Front or back faces may be either decorative or plain and are sometimes fluted. • Glass blocks are usually laid in cement-lime mortar (1:1:4) using fine sand. • For blocks upto 15cm in height, expanded metal strip reinforcement is placed in every 3rd or 4th course. • If height of block is more than 25cm, reinforcement placed in every course
  70. 70. WOOD • wooden framework either supported on the floorbelow or by side walls. • The framework consists of a rigid arrangement oftimber members which may be plastered or coveredwith boarding etc from both the sides. • not fire-resistant
  71. 71. METAL • METAL STUD PARTITION • Non-load bearing partitions which consist of a framework of metal studding. • Metal studding is lightweight but very strong and stable. • The framework is usually covered with ordinary plasterboard sheets or special fire- resistant sheets which, when finally sealed, offer good sound and fire resistance to the partition. • Often used in public buildings such as offices and hospitals as it is: 1. Quick and easy to erect. 2. Cost-effective. 3. Suitable for all types of buildings as well as residential housing. 4. Available in a variety of finishes to the completed partition
  72. 72. Steel • Single skin partition • Double skin partition
  73. 73. Plaster slab partitions • Are made of burnt gypsum or plaster of paris mixed with sawdust. • 5cm to 10cm thick slabs are prepared in iron or timber moulds. • To form rigid joints suitable grooves are provided in the plaster slabs. • Nails and screws can be easily driven into these slabs.
  74. 74. STRAWBOARD PARTITION • Useful where removal of partitions is frequent. • Made of compressed straw covered thick paper or hardboard. • Easy to construct. • Heat and sound proof partitions. Arts and Cultural Center office at Chulalongkorn University
  75. 75. BRICK NOGGING • It consists of brickwork built within a framework of wooden members. • The framework consists of vertical posts called studs spaced at 60 cm to 150 cm apart and held in position by horizontal members called nogging pieces. • The nogging pieces are housed into the studs at 60 cm to 90cm apart vertically. • The function of the wooden framework is to increase stability of the wall both along the length and height and to make it more right to withstand vibrational effect produced on account of careless opening or closing of the window or door leaves. • The brickwork is built by laying the brick flat or on edge and the surface is plastered from both sides. Thus the size of the studs and nogging depends upon the thickness of partition wall. • For 10cm thick partition wall, the studs and nogging should be 15 cm wide so that after the brickwork is plastered from both the faces, the timber framework may finish flush with the wall face. • This type of partition wall suffers from the drawback of the timber getting delayed. Moreover, the mortar used may not stick well to the timber members and thus the brickwork is likely to become loose after sometime.
  76. 76. ASBESTOS • Partition walls constructed from asbestos cement sheeting or galvanized sheet fixed to wooden or steel members . • • For superior type of asbestos cement sheet partition walls, specially manufactured slabs of the other materials are used. • • Each slab consists of core or corrugated asbestos cement sheet with the plain asbestos cement sheet attached to it on either side
  77. 77. THANK YOU

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