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1. WALL INTRODUCTION
• WALL FINISHES
TYPES OF SURFACE FINISHES
• PARTITION WALLS
ON THE BASIS OF DESIGN
ON THE BASIS OF MATERIALS
• It is the final touches placed on a wall to get an
acceptable visual look.
• The finish to a wall can range from simple paint to
expensive wallpaper to elaborate work.
Types of Wall Finishing
Preparation a New Constructed Wall
• Once the masonry is completed and the wall is
properly cured, following materials are
1) Cement Plaster
4) Paint Allow newly plastered surfaces to
mature till the time it completely dries.
Fill and level the minor undulations of
wall by applying putty.
In case of major undulations on the
wall surface, Plaster of Paris (POP)
needs to be applied.
One coat of Primer is recommended on
puttied areas before applying the top
coat. (10-12 hours of drying)
If the primer coat is not applied over
the puttied areas, the top coat can
Previously Painted or Varnished
• The preparation required for previously painted
surfaces is determined by the condition of the
• If the surface is intact and in good condition, it can
generally be painted directly.
• Low sheen or matt surfaces in good condition can be
painted over after they have been cleaned to remove
any dirt, grease or grime that may affect adhesion.
• Glossy surfaces need to be cleaned and then sanded
to a dull finish with a medium grit sandpaper.
• Checks and Measures:
Check the surface for incidence of dampness or
Any loose plaster should be removed from the
wall. Check for loose plaster by tapping on the
walls. A hollow sound indicates loose plaster.
Masonry work is to be undertaken to fill up all
cracks and repair broken plaster.
Please ensure sufficient curing time (7 to 21
days depending on extent of plastering).
Types of Surface Finishing
• Matte Finishes:
• is the least reflective
• has a velvety texture
• helps hides
imperfections in walls
• Semigloss and Finishes:
• have some reflectivity
• offer improved durability
• frequently used in
like kitchens and
bathrooms, where easy
clean up is required.
• Gloss Finishes:
• are the most reflective
• are highly durable and
stand up to multiple
• are traditionally used on
baseboards, moldings, and
• can make a statement, but
Standard Companies of
• Asian Paints
• ICI Dulux
Details Of Various Types of Interior
1) Velvet Touch
• 7 years life
• costs rs.320lit
• covers 180 sq.m. in
2) 3 in 1
• 5 years life
• costs Rs. 250lit
• covers 160 sq.m. in
3)Light n Space
• 3 years life
• Costs 230lit
• covers 120 sq.m. in
• 3 years life
• costs Rs. 180lit
• covers 100 sq.m.
4)Super Coat Interior
• 2 years life
• costs Rs. 110lit
• covers 80 sq.m. in 1litre
• 7 years lifecosts Rs. 310/lit
• covers 160 sq.m. in 1 lit
• 3 years life
• costs Rs. 180/lit
• covers 120 sq.m. in 1 lit
• Asian Paints
• 7 years life
• costs Rs. 300/lit
• covers 170 sq.m. in I litre
2)Asian Premier Emulsion
• 3 years life
• costs Rs. 180/lit
• covers 100 sq.m. in 1 litre
3)Asian Tractor Emulsion
• 2 years life
• costs Rs. 110/lit
• covers 80 sq.m. in 1 lit
• Wallpaper is a kind of material
used to cover and decorate the
interior walls of homes, offices,
cafes, government buildings,
museums, post offices, and
• It is usually sold in rolls and is put
onto a wall using wallpaper paste.
• Used to help cover uneven
surfaces and minor wall defects
thus giving a better surface.
• wallpapers are one of the most
• Wallpaper Adhesive database also
contains no harmful chemical
components for use favorable.
• Benefit of using wallpaper is the
huge variety of decorating options
• Wallpaper is easy to clean.
• For rooms where the walls are
prone to get dirty, wallpaper is a
• wallpaper can hide blemishes in
the wall’s plaster far better than a
coat of paint.
• wallpapers are not particularly
• Approximate limit of life is five
years. They are not durable.
• We cannot use wallpaper in water
• wallpaper is epensive by square
meterage and labour.
• Installing' wallpaper is harder in
order to do than painting.
• Fades in color with time.
TYPES OF WALLPAPER
HAND PRINTED BLOCK
• These exclusive handmade
wallpapers are meticulously cut
by the artist into lino blocks,
either in relief or intaglio. Each
roll is printed by hand with
pigments specially mixed to
create a wide range of
• vinyl wallpapers are true classic
in the world of wallpapers.
• They are washable ,light-resistant,
• Vinyl wallpaper consists of
backing layer, paper, and PVC.
• They have exclusive designs with
• 3 dimensional vinyl wallpaper is
just not pleasing to the eye but
also incredibly tactile and
sensuous to the touch.
• They have strong and bright
colors ,innovative patterns and
• Bright colours ,fine texture.
• It is costly than other types of
wallpaper available in
• Ingrain or wood chip wallpaperis
a decoration material for walls.
• It consists of two layers of paper
with wood fibre in between.
• It can be only applied after several
coats of paints on wall or it can be
only applied on a very smooth
1. Vinyl wallpaper:-
DIMENSIONS:- 120 INCH X 48
PRICE:- RS 2,687
2. Vinyl textured wallpaper:-
DIMENSIONS:- 48 INCH X 48 INCH
PRICE:- RS 863
3. Hand printed wallpaper:-
DIMENSIONS:- 48 INCHX 24 INCH
PRICE :- RS 450
4.Wood chip wallpaper:-
DIMENSION:- 20 INCH X 30 INCH
PRICE :- RS 244
RS.30-40 RS. 1710-
RS. 60-80 RS. 3420-
RS. 85-110 RS. 4848-
RS. 130-150 RS. 7410-
APPLICATION OF WALLPAPER
• First determine how much wallpaper
is needed for the wall measure the
height and the length of the room.
• Choose an appropiate pattern of
wallpaper for the room.
use horizontal patterns to make the
room seems wider.
Use vertical patterns to make ceiling
• Clean the wall throughly.
• Smooth the cracks in the wall.
• Apply primer on wall.
• Apply the wallpaper on it flattened
the wallpaper with the wallpaper
brush and clean it.
• Wood/timber cladding is used in
commercial and domestic buildings
and especially in interiors to infuse
warmth into the space.
• Wood being a lightweight material
eliminates heavy masonry outer walls,
leading to the size and hence cost
reduction of foundations.
• The wide choice of hardwoods,
softwoods or engineered woods
• the ability of the cladding panels to be
pre-fabricated, great thermal and
sound insulation, ease of repair are the
other benefits of wooden cladding.
• PRICES: 100-500 RS/SQ FT
• Used for commercial, industrial,
institutional and residential
applications, GRC (Glass fibre
reinforced concrete) is used as a
cladding material for decorative
• With easy maintenance and
installation and without any
requirement of painting and
plastering, they can be fixed directly
over brickwork or masonry.
• Sizes:costumise range (2450x1200
• A cheaper alternative and
one that has been used for a
long time, brick cladding
repels water and
aesthetically can be
stimulating with its variety
of patterns or courses that it
can run into.
• Stone is a natural and eco-friendly
material and can be seen in interiors too
where walls are highlighted using stone
• There are options of granite, slate, marble,
sandstone, limestone and kota stone as
well as stone veneers.
• Specific stones like Jodhpur stone,
Jaisalmer stone etc are also available.
• The maintenance is simpler with textured
walls requiring only regular vacuuming or
feather dusting to ward off the dust
• stone mosaics, table tops, sandstone,
granite, stone pebbles, cobble stone, stone
chips, stone veneers, semiprecious stones
• Much has been said
about glass its
aesthetics, its ability to
visually enlarging a
space and for admitting
• in market there is
impact resistant glass,
burglar resistant glass.
• enameled and laminated safety
glass, lacquered glass or even
ceramic printed glass (with
increased resistance to
pressure, impact and
• Glass has also enabled
acoustical comfort and one also
witnesses louver embedded
glass panels that can direct the
sun rays when needed
• Rates: 250-800RS/SQ FT
• SIZES:MAX 2000X4000MM
• Seen mostly in interiors and somewhat in exterior cladding
• uPVC, on account of its water-resistant nature scores as a
good bet in wet areas like kitchens and bathrooms.
• It comes out to be much cheaper (as compared to wood,
fibre cement, stucco, brick and stone sidings) and easier to
install than tiling and exists in a variety of colours and
• The accumulated dirt is easier to clean; however, it remains
a non-friendly environment material.
• Available sizes: Standard lengths: 1,2 m - 2,6 m en 4 m
• Standard widths: 10 cm, 25 cm en 37,5 cm
• 5-9.5MM THICK
• Alternative lengths and widths are available
• RATES:50-300 RS/SQ FT
• Tile cladding comes in various
materials (concrete, granite,
ceramic, brick or glazed tiles,
marble, stainless steel) as well as
various designs (rustic, strip, wave
• Whereas concrete tiles are durable,
fire and water resistant (with usage
both in load-bearing and non-load
• the weather resistant granite tiles
are good for exteriors as well as
• Marble tiles, expensive and
relatively needing more
• Vitrified ceramic tiles have low
water absorption (good for cold
areas) and are resistant to stain
• Mosaic cladding tiles find their
way in bathrooms since they dry
• RATES: RS 28-130 /SQ FT
• The market today has designer
and compressed cement boards,
gypsum boards, calcium silicate
boards, fibre cement boards, e-
boards and even eco- friendly
• These can be finished in various
options. Laminates also remain
an ideal option for interiors.
• Today, high pressure laminates
are used in places like hospitals
where hygiene is most important.
• Metal cladding is generally a favourite with
Aluminium and steel cladding are generally
• Steel is used for exterior as well as interior
surfaces and comes in various finishes like
mirror, hairline, texture, custom and
• Its advantages attractive aesthetics,
durability, resistance to corrosion and flame,
termites and its ability to be carved in different
shapes. It is a good option in high-humidity
• However, its affinity to rust and regular
maintenance have to be kept in mind. Mild
and stainless steel are the two primary forms
employed. While mild steel is used for
cladding, stainless steel is used for
backsplashes and furniture tops.
• In case of aluminium, solid aluminium,
aluminium composite panels (ACP),
extruded aluminium are used in wall
• They are light weight, non-corrosive and
recyclable in nature, have high strength-to-
weight ratio and come in diverse colours and
• Copper, another type of metal cladding is
used for its aesthetics alone.
• Zinc, a very expensive option (and thus not
used to that extent in India) is aesthetically
eye-catching and is durable.
• Titanium Zinc, gaining popularity in India is
said to have a much longer life. Making
buildings practically maintenance free, the
usage of sealants is avoided in this dry joint
INTRODUCTION • A wall panel is single piece of material,
usually flat and cut into a rectangular
shape, that serves as the visible and
exposed covering for a wall. Wall panels
are functional as well as decorative,
providing insulation and soundproofing,
combined with uniformity of
appearance, along with some measure of
durability or ease of replace ability. Wall
paneling is an architectural element
often installed in residential or
• While there is no set size limit for a
piece of material fulfilling these
functions, the maximum practical size
for wall panels has been suggested to be
7metres by 2.4metres, to allow for
ADVANTAGES OF WALL PANELLING
• Wall panelling looks very elegant.
• Panelling offers excellent thermal and acoustic insulation.
• Renovating an old house with flawed walls, the wall panelling can
cover up the flawed plasterwork.
• They provide a clean finish, smooth and pleasant to touch as well
• Better Durability. Wall panels typically enjoy a long life, even with
minimal upkeep. What isn’t obvious, though, is that they can also
help to extend the life of your walls themselves. By protecting your
walls from wear and tear, they ensure that important structural
components of your home can live even longer.
• Wood may be the most traditional material used for wall panels
and the first one that comes to mind, but it’s certainly not the only
one available. MDF (medium density fiberboard) is one of the
most common composite materials, as it has the benefit of
flexibility when it comes to multiple textures, designs, and
patterns. Melamine is another common option that allows for
some of the more innovative wall décor and high impact prints.
Polyurethane panels provide a surface for some of the most
advanced designs and materials on the market today.
Numerous Design Choices
Many reflect natural wood grain. Others use faux materials to mimic
limestone, granite, marble, stone, and even bark. You can even
design custom panels printed with leather, snakeskin, or three-
dimensional textures. With design choices this diverse, you can
introduce a natural or high-end design aesthetic into your home
without using labor intensive or high-cost materials.
Wallpaper and basic painted walls may seem like simple solutions
for walls, but they often require continual maintenance.
While both of these methods can attract scratches, marks, and
indentations, wall panels actually resist impact.
That means that with wall panels, you can rest easy without having
to do frequent touch ups or wall repairs.
• Easy Installation
• When it comes to wall panels, installation is much easier than it
• In fact, unlike other types of wall decor materials, you don’t
even have to worry about grout lines, exposed adhesive, or other
remnants of installation.
• Many contemporary wall panels feature a tongue and groove
system or clip and rail system, which makes installation almost
as easy as fitting together the pieces of a puzzle.
• Wall panels even offer the extra benefit of concealing wires,
cables, and built-in wall components that are better left unseen.
• If ordered raw, panels can be screwed (and glued if preferred)
directly to the walls, screw holes puttied, then sanded and
painted. If ordered finished, the panels can be mounted with
aluminum brackets or split battens. We can supply 5mm thick x
2mt long aluminum mounting brackets.
• Using aluminum Z brackets to fix finished panels to the walls is
• Low profile with a gap of approximately 5mm between wall and
wall panels.Lightweight and strong. Easily removable. The
dimensions of the Z brackets are 5mm thick x 46mm wide x
• Wall panels can be installed using nails and adhesives.
WALL PANELLING IN
• In the home, wall panels are usually
used for visual appeal.
• Something less extensive than paneling
or wainscoting, faux finishes or even
faux panels may work well in
• A faux finish can be used to create the
look of wood, stone or fabric panels.
• Wall panelling that is commonly used
for living rooms are decorative panels
which are available in different colours,
size and style.
• While that type of decorative wall
panelling is good for common interior
areas, such as the living or dining room,
there are other types that are more suited
for kitchens or bathrooms.
• These are coated with protective layers that can stand up to high
levels of moisture.
• Other types of temporary wall panels are employed in the home.
Many homeowners do not want or cannot afford modular panels,
but they may use fabric panels to quickly and inexpensively give
a basement, attic or garage a finished look. These are made from
heavy fabric such as canvas, and can be easily hung in a matter of
hours to cover unfinished ceilings and walls, giving any space a
clean, refined look.
WALL PANELLING IN OFFICE SETTING
• In the business setting, there are portable or temporary wall
panels that can be used to divide a space into cubicles.
• Modular panels may be constructed of wood or metal and are
often covered with textured materials, fabrics, paneling or
wallpaper to make them more aesthetically pleasing.
• There are also acoustical and sound absorbing versions that are
perfect for the studio.
WALL PANELLING IN MUSEUMS AND
• Wall panels serve many functions, from providing descriptions
of exhibits in museums and galleries to hiding away
electronics such as stereo speakers.
• As a decor element, they are an excellent way to break up wall
• This can be achieved by paneling the upper or lower half of
the wall, installing wainscoting, creating a faux finish, or one
of several other methods.
• DECORATIVE WALL PANELS
• Decorative wall panels are available in
many different materials. They are often
used to change the look of the wall, but
may also be installed to help protect the
wall from damage.
• Wainscoting is one of the most
commonly used wall panels. It is made
from wood or synthetic materials
patterned with carvings and
designs. Wainscot is usually installed on
the lower half of a wall, but heights and
styles may vary.
• Pre-fabricated panels may be used.
Other common materials used for
decorative paneling include laminate,
stainless steel and plastics.
• Tileboard panels are made from melamine or resin and are used
to mimic the look of ceramic tile.
• They are textured and colored to look like tile, and are attached
to a moisture-resistant surface.
• These panels are an affordable alternative to ceramic and are
much easier to install.
• Tileboard panels also do not have grout lines, which make for
easier cleaning, as there is nowhere for trapped dirt to
• UTILITY PANELLING
• Utility paneling, often called pegboard,
is made from perforated hardboard and
is used for its function and appearance.
• These panels contain rows of small
holes that can be used to hang objects
from nails or pegs.
• They are frequently used in kitchens or
garages, as well as in commercial
• Utility paneling is available in standard
white or natural wood finishes and also
in custom colors. These panels can be
installed over the entire wall or just in
small areas as needed.
• ACOUSTICAL PANELS
• Acoustical panels are used to control
noise levels in a space and to block
noise transfer through walls.
• They're made from foam or wood cores
wrapped with a layer of vinyl or fabric.
These panels are available in a wide
variety of colors and textures to match
the room's decor.
• The panels help absorb sound and are
commonly used n schools, auditoriums
• Acoustical panels can be installed
temporarily using clips or magnets, or
with nails or adhesive for more
• INTERLOCKING PANELS
• These panels are popular because they are extremely easy to
install and maintain.
• No grout is necessary for installation, and they are waterproof
for optimal upkeep.
• They can also be fitted over existing surfaces, such as
bathroom or kitchen tile.
• They come in many colors and designs to fit the tastes of
• WALLBOARD PANELS
• These panels are designed to give a look of the natural stones
(marble, granite and travertine) and be conveniently
lightweight and durable.
• They can be fashioned to fit many different projects, including
the paneling of shower floors, tub or shower walls, shelves,
hot tub decks, and more. They are incredibly diverse and long
• DESIGNER PANELS
• These panels are created to mimic expensive designs like
brick, ceramic, stone, and metal, but act as a more affordable
• They are coated with quality Tuff for durability, maintenance,
and long-lasting beauty.
• SLATE VENEER PANELS
• Slate Veneer is known for being incredibly lightweight,
making it easy to transport and install at home.
• It is also extremely flexible to fit the shape of wall.
• Despite being light and flexible, however, slate veneer is also
• It is waterproof to prevent damage from showering, or other
causes of moisture, and built to last.
TYPES OF PARTITION WALL
• Movable partitions are walls that open to join two or more
rooms into one large floor area. These include:
• Sliding—a series of panels that slide in tracks fixed to the
floor and ceiling, similar sliding doors
• Sliding and folding doors —similar to sliding folding doors,
these are good for smaller spans
• Folding partition walls - a series of interlocking panels
suspended from an overhead track that when extended
provide an acoustical separation, and when retracted stack
against a wall, ceiling, closet, or ceiling pocket.
• Screens—usually constructed of a metal or timber frame
fixed with plywood and chipboard and supported with legs
for free standing and easy movement
• Glass partition walls are constructed using
glass sheets or hollow blocks.
• There are various types Of glass used in
partition walls. Some of them are-
Float glass is also called soda lime glass or clear
glass. This is produced by annealing the molten
glass and is clear and flat.
• It is available in standard thickness ranging
from 2mm to 20mm. and has weight range in 6-
26kg/m2. It has too much transparency and can
• Certain additions to the glass batch
mix can add color to the clear glass
without compromising its strength.
• Iron oxide is added to give glass a
green tint; sulphur in different
concentrations can make the glass
yellow, red or black. Copper
sulphate can turn it blue. Etc.
• Tinted glass contains minerals that
color the glass uniformly through
its thickness and promote
absorption of visible light and
• This type of glass is
tempered, may have
distortions and low visibility
but it breaks into small dice-
like pieces at modulus of
rupture of 3600 psi. Hence it
is used in making fire
resistant doors etc.
• They are available in same
weight and thickness range as
Sandblasted glass is a
kind of etched glass, also
known as Frosted Glass.
compressed air to blast
fine sand or other very
abrasive, high grit
substances through a
nozzle and at the object
desired to be
rapidly discard the
surface of the object
leaving a clean surface.
• Hollow glass wall blocks are
manufactured as two separate
halves and, while the glass is still
molten, the two pieces are
pressed together and annealed.
• The resulting glass blocks will
have a partial vacuum at the
• Glass blocks or glass bricks
walls provide good architectural
effect and also admit light.
• They are sound proof, fire proof
• Hollow glass blocks are translucent units of glass, light in weight
and are available in different sizes and shapes and thicknesses.
• They are usually square with thickness of 10cm.(14x14cm or
• Jointing edges are painted internally and sanded externally to form
key for mortar.
• Front or back faces may be either decorative or plain and are
• Glass blocks are usually laid in cement-lime mortar (1:1:4) using
• For blocks upto 15cm in height, expanded metal strip reinforcement
is placed in every 3rd or 4th course.
• If height of block is more than 25cm, reinforcement placed in every
• wooden framework either supported on the
floorbelow or by side walls.
• The framework consists of a rigid arrangement
oftimber members which may be plastered or
coveredwith boarding etc from both the sides.
• not fire-resistant
• METAL STUD PARTITION
• Non-load bearing partitions which consist of a framework of
• Metal studding is lightweight but very strong and stable.
• The framework is usually covered with ordinary plasterboard
sheets or special fire- resistant sheets which, when finally
sealed, offer good sound and fire resistance to the partition.
• Often used in public buildings such as offices and hospitals
as it is: 1. Quick and easy to erect. 2. Cost-effective. 3.
Suitable for all types of buildings as well as residential
housing. 4. Available in a variety of finishes to the
• Single skin partition
• Double skin partition
Plaster slab partitions
• Are made of burnt gypsum or plaster of paris
mixed with sawdust.
• 5cm to 10cm thick slabs are prepared in iron or
• To form rigid joints suitable grooves are
provided in the plaster slabs.
• Nails and screws can be easily driven into
• Useful where removal of partitions is frequent.
• Made of compressed straw covered thick paper or hardboard.
• Easy to construct.
• Heat and sound proof partitions.
Arts and Cultural Center office at Chulalongkorn University
• It consists of brickwork built within a framework of wooden members.
• The framework consists of vertical posts called studs spaced at 60 cm to
150 cm apart and held in position by horizontal members called nogging
• The nogging pieces are housed into the studs at 60 cm to 90cm apart
• The function of the wooden framework is to increase stability of the wall
both along the length and height and to make it more right to withstand
vibrational effect produced on account of careless opening or closing of the
window or door leaves.
• The brickwork is built by laying the brick flat or on edge and the surface is
plastered from both sides. Thus the size of the studs and nogging depends
upon the thickness of partition wall.
• For 10cm thick partition wall, the studs and nogging should be 15 cm wide
so that after the brickwork is plastered from both the faces, the timber
framework may finish flush with the wall face.
• This type of partition wall suffers from the drawback of the timber getting
delayed. Moreover, the mortar used may not stick well to the timber
members and thus the brickwork is likely to become loose after sometime.
• Partition walls constructed
from asbestos cement
sheeting or galvanized sheet
fixed to wooden or steel
• • For superior type of
asbestos cement sheet
partition walls, specially
manufactured slabs of the
other materials are used.
• • Each slab consists of core or
corrugated asbestos cement
sheet with the plain asbestos
cement sheet attached to it on