STATUS AND SCOPE OF LIVESTOCK
SECTOR IN INDIA
• An integral part of human life since the process of civilization
• These activities have contributed not only to the food basket and
draught animal power but also by maintaining ecological balance.
• Socio-economic role in India. Traditional, cultural and religious
beliefs have also contributed in the continuance of these activities.
• The livestock industry is an important part of the global food
system, contributing to poverty alleviation, food security, and
• Livestock play an important part in sustainable food systems—for
example, manure is an important source of natural fertilizer.
• Livestock utilized as draught animals can help enhance production
in areas where automation is limited.
• Higher demand has resulted from increased incomes,
changing diets, and population growth, making the
livestock sector one of the fastest expanding agricultural
sub-sectors in middle- and low-income countries.
• Throughout the livestock supply chain, this creates a
significant potential for smallholders, businesses, and
• it provides important inputs to agriculture, contributes
to household health and nutrition, supplements
earnings, creates jobs, and, finally, serves as dependable
“banks on hooves” in times of need.
STATUS OF LIVESTOCK SECTOR
• Livestock Sector has continuously been growing at Compound Annual
Growth Rate (CAGR) of 7.93% (at constant price) from 2014-15 to
2020-21, which is comparable to CAGR of manufacturing at 4.93%(at
constant price) and Services at 4.82% (at constant price) and in
contrast to Agriculture (Crop Sector) CAGR of 2.05% (at constant
• Agriculture (crop sector) contributed 8.96 % (at constant prices) of
total GVA, whereas livestock sector contributed 4.90% (at constant
prices) of total GVA in 2020-21.
• Agriculture diversification through animal husbandry is one of the
primary drivers of growth in rural incomes and higher public
investment in Livestock Sector is need of the hour for doubling
• The percentage of usually working persons engaged in Animal
Production and Mixed Farming are 2.85 % and 1.58 % respectively
• The Gross Value Added (GVA) of livestock sector is about Rs. 11,14,249 crore
at current prices during FY 2020-21 which is about 30.87% of Agricultural and
Allied Sector GVA and 6.17% of Total GVA.
• Milk production during 2019-20 and 2020-21(Provisional) is 198.44 million
tonnes and 209.96 million tonnes respectively showing an annual growth of
• India is the largest producer of milk globally with 23.67 percent share in total
milk production in the world.
• In India, about 50 percent of milk is consumed on-farm. Dairy is the single
largest agricultural commodity contributing 5 percent of the Indian national
economy and employing more than 8 crore farmers directly. India accounts for
about 7 percent of the global egg production, 2.42 percent of global meat
production, 7.56 percent of global fish production and houses the largest
population of milch animals in the world
9.15 7.22 3.34 2.71 6.41 4.13 0.47
Livestock Sector Statistics of India
Position of India Livestock Sector/Entreprise
Total Livestock Population, Milk Production, Cattle Population,
Buffalo Population, Cara beef Production, Goat Milk Production,
Total Bovine Population
Goat Population (148.88 million), Bristle Production (a pig industry
by-product), Fish Production
Sheep Production (74.26 million), Egg Production
Fourth Chicken Production
Fifth Poultry Meat Production, Poultry Production, Meat production
Eigth Duck Production
Ninth Camel Population, Wool Production
The total livestock population in India was 535.78 million, which include 192.52 million
cattle, 109.85 million buffaloes, 74.26 million sheep, 148.88 million goats, about 9.06
million pigs, 851.81 million poultry population and 0.85 million other livestock population
India has a diverse range of animal breeds, including 43 indigenous cattle, 16 buffaloes, 34
goat, and 43 sheep breeds.
Per capita consumption of various Livestock products
S.No. Livestock Products Per capita Availability ICMR Recommendation
1. Milk 427 g/day 280 g/day
2. Meat 6.52 kg/year 11 kg/year
3. Egg 90 eggs/year 182 eggs/year
4. Wool - -
Comparison with Previous Year
Increase in milk production compared to previous year: 5.81%
Increase in egg production compared to previous year: 6.70%
Increase in meat production compared to previous year: 2.31%
Decrease in poultry meat production compared to previous year: 2.98%
Increase in wool production compared to previous year: 0.46%
Type of animal Average yield
Exotic cow/ Cross-bred cow 8.39 kg/day
Indigenous cow/ Non-descript cow 3.20 kg/day
Buffalo 5.65 kg/day
Goat 0.47 kg/day
Average Yield per In-Milk Animal in 2020-21
Species Percentage of Total Milk
Buffalo indigenous 32.13 per cent
Buffalo non-descript 13.31 per cent
Cow non-descript 11.19 per cent
Cow indigenous 8.82 per cent
Cow cross-bred 29.55 per cent
Cow exotic 2.02 per cent
Goat 2.98 per cent
Species Wise Milk Contribution to Total Milk Production in India
Role of Livestock in National Economy
• Livestock plays an important role in the Indian economy.
• The Livestock sector in India contributes 4.11% GDP and 25.6% of
total Agriculture GDP.
• About 20.5 million people depend upon livestock for their
• Livestock contributed 16% to the income of small farm
households as against an average of 14% for all rural households.
• Livestock provides livelihood to two-third of the rural
• It also provides employment to about 8.8 % of the population in
India. India has vast livestock resources.
• The farmers in India maintain mixed farming system
i.e. a combination of crop and livestock where the
output of one enterprise becomes the input of another
enterprise thereby realize the resource efficiency
• Livestock as a source of production inputs for
agricultural development to be sustainable
• Livestock as an energy source
• Dung for fuel
• Biogas production
• Livestock as a source of fertilizer and soil conditioner
• Livestock-recycled secondary products, household
and industrial wastes
• Utilization of marginal lands and crop residues by
Livestock as an energy source
• Bovines, equines, camelids, and elephants are all utilized as
draught animals for a range of tasks, including pulling
agricultural implements, pumping irrigation water, and skidding
in the woods.
• Animal power is a renewable energy source in many developing
• A total of 400 million animals are currently employed for
• Only draught animals and manual tools are used to farm 52% of
the cultivated area in developing countries (excluding China).
• The number of cattle and buffaloes utilized for draught as well
as meat and milk production has increased by 23% in the last ten
Dung for fuel
• Cow dung is highly valued as a cooking and heating fuel,
minimizing the need for wood or fossil fuels.
• It is the primary source of fuel for millions of farmers’ homes.
• Every year, 300 million tonnes of dung are utilized for fuel in
• Women earn money by collecting and drying dung for cooking.
• It can also be used as a direct ingredient in plaster and other
building materials, and its ash can be utilized as fertilizer.
For Biogas Production
• For farmers in tropical climates, biogas production from manure is an
ideal option for fossil fuel or fuel wood.
• Eliminates the need for wood gathering and fuel purchases.
• It is user-friendly due to its convenience and improved hygiene, and it
also delivers a variety of services, including illumination, hot water,
• Biogas can also be utilized to power equipment like water pumps.
• Effluent from bio digesters can be recycled as fertilizer, fish feed, or
utilized to grow azolla and duckweed, with even greater outcomes
than the original manure.
• Bio digestion has positive public-health aspects, particularly where
toilets are coupled with the bio digester, and the anaerobic conditions
kill pathogenic organisms as well as digest toxins, for example,
Livestock as a source of fertilizer and soil
• Nutrient recycling is an important part of any long-term farming
• Nutrient recycling is made possible by combining animals and crops.
• Crop leftovers, such as cereal straws, maize and sorghum stovers, and
groundnut haulms, are fed to animals. The manure produced can be
used as fertilizer right away.
• However, the chemical content of manure differs depending on the
animal species (poultry manure appears to be a more efficient
fertilizer than cow manure) and the animal’s diet.
• Manure offers significant organic matter to the soil, which helps to
maintain its structure, water retention, and drainage ability, in addition
to providing direct plant nutrients.
• Manure is so valuable that some farmers keep livestock just for the
purpose of producing it.
Utilization of marginal lands and crop
residues by livestock
• Sheep as weed cleaner
• A holistic approach to resource management is
Crop residues, such as straw, are more
efficiently utilized through ruminant feeding, including
the production and use of manure and possibly biogas,
rather than by burning them, creating pollution and
contributing to global warming, or ploughing them
back into the soil to improve its structure and water
retention. Several hundred million head of cattle and
buffaloes are fed throughout the year on rice and cereal
SCOPE FOR LIVESTOCK SECTOR
• Sustained income and economic growth.
• Changing lifestyle.
• Improvement in transportation and storage practices and rise of supermarkets.
• Increase in consumption of animal food products.
• Between 1991-92 and 2008-09; India’s per capita income grew at an annual rate
• 4.8% and urban population at a rate of 25%.
• By the end of 12th plan (2012-2017) demand, for milk is expected to increase to
• 141million tons and for meat, egg fish together to 15.8%million tons.
This can be achieved by:-
• Improvement of negative/slow growth rate of various species
• To improve the lower productivity of livestock species
• To improve the farming pattern and differences between marginal, small,
medium and large farmers wrt farming patterns
• Improving awareness among livestock owners
• Use of modern and innovative technologies for livestock production
Some Full Forms
• IVRI: Indian Veterinary Research Institute,
Barrilley, Uttar Pradesh.
• NDRI: National Dairy Research Institute,
• NDDB: National Dairy Development Board,
• AMUL: Anand Milk Union Limited, Gujrat.