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Eia report (draft final) for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar

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Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar

http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/ngrba/EIA%20Report(DraftFinal).pdf

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Eia report (draft final) for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar

  1. 1. VOYANTS SOLUTIONS PVT. LTD. 403, 4th Floor, BPTP Park Centra, Sector - 30, NH-8, Gurgaon - 122001 Phone - 0124-4598 200 , Telefax - 0124-4019051 E-mail – info@voyants.in, www.voyants.in July 2013 Sen and Lall Consultants Pvt. Ltd. Consultancy Services for EIA study for Proposed River Front Development in Patna Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
  2. 2. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | i Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND ..............................................................................................1 1.1 OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................................2 1.2 PORTFOLIO INVESTMENTS.................................................................................................2 1.3 AIM OF INVESTMENTS .........................................................................................................3 1.4 River Front Management Investments, ESMF........................................................................4 1.5 Patna River Front Development..............................................................................................4 1.5.1 Proposed Developments.....................................................................................................4 1.5.2 Development of Ghats ........................................................................................................5 1.5.3 Community cum cultural centres.........................................................................................8 1.5.4 Landscape work at Precinct Zones.....................................................................................9 1.5.5 City level parks..................................................................................................................10 1.5.6 Improvement of approach roads to the precincts..............................................................10 1.6 Environmental Issues of Patna River Front Development ....................................................12 1.7 PROPOJECT PROPONENT ................................................................................................14 1.8 TECHNICAL CONSULTANT AND ARCHITECT ..................................................................14 1.9 EIA CONSULTANT ...............................................................................................................14 1.10 PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF EIA..........................................................................................13 2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION............................................................................................................16 2.1 EXISTING GHAT CONDITIONS...........................................................................................17 2.2 NEED FOR PATNA RFD ......................................................................................................23 2.3 PROPOSED DEVELOPMENTS ...........................................................................................23 2.3.1 Development of Ghats ......................................................................................................24 2.3.2 Promenades including kiosks (connecting some of the ghats together............................25 2.3.3 Community cum cultural centres.......................................................................................27 2.3.4 Landscape work at Precinct Zones:..................................................................................28 2.3.5 City level parks:.................................................................................................................29 2.3.6 Improvement of approach roads to the precincts..............................................................29 2.4 PROJECT LOCATION ..........................................................................................................31 2.5 ADDITIONAL BENEFIT ........................................................................................................34 2.6 PROJECT COST ..................................................................................................................34 3. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK ........................35 3.1 POLICIES AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF GOVERNMENT OF INDIA (GOI) ......35 3.2 SAFEGUARD POLICIES OF WORLD BANK.......................................................................42 4. DESCRIPTION OF ENVIRONMENT............................................................................................44
  3. 3. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | ii 4.1 PROJECT INFLUENCE AREA .............................................................................................44 4.2 TEAM MOBILIZATION..........................................................................................................44 4.3 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL SCREENING: .....................................................................45 4.4 Project Surroundings.............................................................................................................52 4.5 Baseline Data Collection .......................................................................................................53 4.5.1 Meteorological environment..............................................................................................53 4.5.1.1 Climate ..........................................................................................................................53 4.5.1.2 Ganga Basin Temperature in Patna..............................................................................53 4.5.1.3 Relative Humidity ..........................................................................................................53 4.5.1.4 Rainfall and Precipitation ..............................................................................................53 4.5.1.5 Wind Speed...................................................................................................................54 4.5.1.6 Wind Direction...............................................................................................................54 4.5.2 Physical environment ........................................................................................................54 4.5.2.1 Topography ...................................................................................................................54 4.5.2.2 Geology.........................................................................................................................55 4.5.2.3 Land use........................................................................................................................56 4.5.2.4 Physiography and Soil ..................................................................................................58 4.5.2.5 Seismicity ......................................................................................................................59 4.5.2.6 Hydrology and Drainage ...............................................................................................60 4.5.2.7 Soil Quality ....................................................................................................................61 4.5.2.8 Ambient Air Quality........................................................................................................62 4.5.2.9 Noise Levels..................................................................................................................63 4.5.2.10 Water Quality.................................................................................................................64 4.5.3 ECOLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY......................................................................................66 4.5.3.1 Forest Resource............................................................................................................66 4.5.3.2 Terrestrial Ecology ........................................................................................................70 4.5.3.3 Aquatic Ecology.............................................................................................................77 4.5.3.3.1 Aquatic Profile of the Project Area ................................................................................77 4.5.3.4 Dolphins Habitat in Project Affected Area:....................................................................81 4.6 Traffic survey.........................................................................................................................88 5. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES .................................................................................................89 5.1 Technology Benefits..............................................................................................................99 6. ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL IMPACT AND MITIGATION MEASURES .....100 6.1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................100 6.2 ENVIRONMENTAL SCREENING EXERCISE: ..................................................................100 6.2.1 Environmental Factors: ...................................................................................................100
  4. 4. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | iii 6.2.2 Social Factors:.................................................................................................................100 6.3 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND MITIGATION MEASURES-CONSTRUCTION STAGE 102 6.3.1 Meteorology and Climate ................................................................................................102 6.3.2 Quarries and Crushers....................................................................................................102 6.3.3 Cultural and Heritage Resources:...................................................................................103 6.3.4 Loss of Structures ...........................................................................................................104 6.3.5 Generation of Dust: .........................................................................................................104 6.3.6 Sanitation and Waste Generation: ..................................................................................104 6.3.7 Drainage Channel: ..........................................................................................................105 6.3.8 Loss of vegetation and tree cutting: ................................................................................105 6.3.9 Impacts on Dolphin: ........................................................................................................105 6.4 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND MITIGATION MEASURES-OPERATION STAGE.......106 6.4.1 Environmental Impact: ....................................................................................................106 6.4.2 Mitigation Measure Proposed in Project: ........................................................................109 6.4.3 RISK ASSESSMENT AND SAFETY MEASURES: ........................................................111 7. PUBLIC CONSULTATION & STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION............................................116 7.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................116 7.2 Methods of Public Consultation...........................................................................................116 7.3 Consultation with affected households ...............................................................................117 8. ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN ...................................................................................128 8.1 Specific activities by BUIDCo..............................................................................................128 8.2 Specific activities by Contractor ..........................................................................................128 8.3 Implementation of EMP.......................................................................................................129 8.4 Environmental Monitoring Program ....................................................................................140 8.4.1 Monitoring of Concessionaire / Contractor's Facilities, Plant and Equipment ............140 8.5 Environmental Budget.........................................................................................................140 9. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION...............................................................................147 List of Tables Table 1-1 : Portfolio of Investments ........................................................................................................3 Table 1-2 : List of Ghats..........................................................................................................................5 Table 2-1 : Proposed Ghats for development.......................................................................................24 Table 2-2 : Proposed Project Cost........................................................................................................34 Table 3-1 : Environmental Regulations and Legislations......................................................................36
  5. 5. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | iv Table 4-1 : Environment and Social Screening for River Front Development ......................................45 Table 4-2:Proposed Ghats for Developments along river Ganga in Ganga Ghats ..............................52 Table 4-3 :Rainfall and Temperature at Patna in Ganga Basin ............................................................54 Table 4-4 :Land Use Pattern along Ganga river basin .........................................................................56 Table 4-5: Soil Quality Analysis of Proposed Project Site ....................................................................62 Table 4-6: Ambient Air Quality within study area..................................................................................63 Table 4-7: Ambient Noise Level within study area................................................................................64 Table 4-8: Surface Water Quality Analysis Results ..............................................................................65 Table 4-9:: List of National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary located in Bihar.............................................68 Table 4-10: List of trees reported in the project affected area ..............................................................72 Table 4-11: List of Avifauna reported in inner buffer zone....................................................................75 Table 4-12: Species of fishes reported in the study area .....................................................................86 Table 4-13: Traffic Count Survey at Project Influence Area .................................................................88 Table 5-1: With and Without Project Scenario......................................................................................92 Table 6-1: Outcome of Environment and Social Screening................................................................100 Table 6-2: Carrying Capacity Calculation for each of project ghats....................................................112 Table 7-1: Levels of Consultations......................................................................................................116 Table 8-1: Environment Management Plan ........................................................................................130 Table 8-2: Environmental Monitoring Plan..........................................................................................142 Table 8-3: Environmental Budget .......................................................................................................144 List of Figures Figure 2.1: Artists view of Golaghar Patna ...........................................................................................16 Figure 2.2: Sanitation issues along the ghats.......................................................................................18 Figure 2.3: Slums at edge of river Ganga .............................................................................................19 Figure 2.4: Gandhi Ghat (the only developed ghat at moment)............................................................19 Figure 2.5: Adalat Ghat Edge Condition Analysis (Boulder pitching at the edges) ..............................21 Figure 2.6:Edge condition Analysis in Krishna Ghat.............................................................................22 Figure 2.8: Urban Precincts proposed ..................................................................................................26 Figure 2.9: Design of Urban Precinct (3D-View)...................................................................................26 Figure 2.10:View of ghats after the proposed development of urban precinct .....................................27 Figure 2.11:Proposed Community cum Eco-centre at Gai ghat ...........................................................28 Figure 2.12:Restoring the riparian edge and landscaping ....................................................................29 Figure 2.13:Proposed approach road development of Gai ghat...........................................................30
  6. 6. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | v Figure 2.14:Project Location .................................................................................................................32 Figure 2.15:Landuse along project ghats..............................................................................................33 Figure 4.1:Direct Project Influence Area (DPIA) ...................................................................................44 Figure 4.2:Geological Map of Ganga Basin..........................................................................................55 Figure 4.3:Landuse Aspects along the Ganga ghat section in Patna...................................................56 Figure 4.4: DEM Map along the project section in Ganag ghat section in Patna .................................57 Figure 4.5: Land Use along the stretch of river bank to be developed under RFD project in Patna ....57 Figure 4.6: Physiographic map of Bihar along the river Ganga ............................................................58 Figure 4.7: Seismic Hazard Map showing the Project Area (Ganga Ghats) ........................................59 Figure 4.8:Seismic Zonation Map of India ............................................................................................60 Figure 4.9:River Map of Bihar ...............................................................................................................60 Figure 4.10: Drainage Map of Project Area (Ganga Ghats City) ..........................................................61 Figure 4.11: Discharge of Raw Sewage in Ganga river from various points ........................................66 Figure 4.12: Forest cover map of Bihar ................................................................................................67 Figure 4.13: Location of National Park & Sanctuary of Bihar ..............................................................69 Figure 4.14: Photograph of Flora reported in Riparian Habitat.............................................................71 Figure 4.15: Photographs of Trees Reported at Ghat Area..................................................................74 Figure 4.16:Photograph of Animal Reported in study area...................................................................77 Figure 4.17: Map showing Ganga River and its Tributaries..................................................................78 Figure 4.18: Dolphins Movement in Project Study Area .......................................................................82 Figure 4.19: Location were Dolphins are reported................................................................................84 Figure 4.20: Location of Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphins Sanctuary with respect to project site..........85 Figure 4.21: Photographs of Species of Fishes reported during primary survey..................................87 Figure 6.1:Cultural Resources along river Ganga ..............................................................................103 Figure 6.2: Dolphins Movement ..........................................................................................................105 Figure 6.3:Disposal of Pious Refuse...................................................................................................107 List of Annexures Annexure1.1: Guidelines for Existing Quarry Management Annexure1.2: Guidelines for Siting, Operation and Redevelopment of Borrow Areas Annexure 1.3: Guidelines for Siting and Layout of Construction Camp Annexure 1.4: Specific R&R Measures Annexure 1.5: Drawings for Safety Measures Annexure 1.6: Replies to the observations of NMCG and World Bank
  7. 7. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | vi ACRONYMS B.C Before Christ BUIDCo Bihar Urban Infrastructure Development Corporation CPCB Central Pollution Control Board EP Environment Protection ESIA Environment and Social Impact Assessment ESMF Environment and Social Management Framework ESMP Environment and Social Management Plan FGD Focus Group Discussion GAP Ganga Action Plan GoI Government of India MoEF Ministry of Environment and Forest NGRBA National Ganga River Basin Authority NGO Non- Government Organization NPRR National Policy on Resettlement and Rehabilitation NP National Park OP Operational Policy PMG Program Management Group R&R Resettlement and Rehabilitation Framework SC Supervision Consultant SPMG Special Program Management Group ULB Urban Local Body WB World Bank WLPA Wild Life Protection Act WLS Wild Life Sanctuary
  8. 8. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 1 1. INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND River Ganga has a significant economic, environmental and cultural value in India. Rising in the Himalayas and flowing into the bay of Bengal, the river traverses through a course of more than 2500km in the plains of north and eastern India. The Ganga basin (which also extends into parts of Nepal, China and Bangladesh) accounts for about 26 percent of India’s landmass, 30 percent of its water resources and more than 40 percent of its population. Ganga is India’s holiest river and has a cultural and spiritual significance that far transcends the boundaries of the basin. Figure 1. 1The Gangaand its spirituality Increasing population in the basin and haphazard urbanization and industrial growth has significantly impacted the water quality of river Ganga, particularly during the dry season. The primary sources of pollution are untreated sewage and industrial wastewater. Non-point pollution sources from agriculture and livestock, religious activities at various locations along the river, as well as poor solid waste management, also contribute to pollution. In addition, substantial abstraction of water, primarily for irrigation, has led to low flows and associated poor water quality in the critical middle stretch of the river. The previous attempt to clean the river, such as Ganga Action Plan (GAP) launched in 1985 have provided some gains in arresting rate of water quality degradation, but lot more needs to be done.
  9. 9. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 2 Lessons from earlier experience indicate that improving water quality in the Ganga cannot be achieved by plugging the infrastructure gap alone. Any effective initiative will have to adopt a three- pronged approach by (i) establishing a basin-level multi-sectoral strategy for addressing pollution in the river (ii) making relevant institutions operational and effective and (iii) implementing a phased program for Ganga clean up. As a major first step in this direction, the Government of India (GoI) has established the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) for comprehensive management of the river. The NGRBA program will adopt a river basin approach and has been given multi-sectoral mandate to address both water quantity and quality aspects. The NGRBA has resolved that by year 2020 no untreated municipal sewage or industrial effluent will be discharged into river Ganga. 1.1 OBJECTIVE The NGRBA program will finance infrastructure investments to reduce pollution loads at priority on the river. The investments are intended to exemplify, among other attributes, the high standards of technical preparation and implementation, sustainability of operations and public participation. The majority of investments in the NGRBA program are expected to be in the wastewater sector, particularly in wastewater treatment plants and sewerage networks. Investments will also be supported in industrial pollution control and prevention (e.g. common effluent treatment plants), and river front management (e.g. improvement of the built environment along river stretches, improvements of small ghats 1 and electric crematoria and the conservation and preservation of ecologically sensitive sites). Many investments are likely to combine elements of more than one of these sectors.An investment framework has been finalized for the selection of program investments. The objectives of this investments framework are to:  Provide a filter for all the NGRBA investments, for ensuring that the selected investments are well-prepared and amongst the most effective in reducing the pollution loads  Make transparent the decision making process on investment selection; and,  Ensure that the investments are implemented in a sustainable manner. 1.2 PORTFOLIO INVESTMENTS The portfolio of investments to be implemented is given in table 1.1. These investments in the first phase of program is spread across several cities and/or towns within Ganga main stem states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal and may be extended to entire Ganga river basin comprising of 11 states in the later phases. 1 As used in many parts of Northern South Asia and in Indian Subcontinent, the term ghat refers to a series of steps leading down to a body of water, particularly a holy river. In Bengali-speaking regions, this set of stairs can lead down to something as small as a pond or as large as a major river.
  10. 10. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 3 Table 1-1 : Portfolio of Investments S.No Portfolio of Investments Possible portfolio components 1 Sewerage and sanitation systems/sewage treatment plants (new/up gradation)  Provision of an entirely new sewerage network including individual house connections  Extensions to existing sewerage networks in some parts of cities/towns to include areas which are un sewered hitherto or to newly developed areas in the recent years  Entirely new sewage treatment plants/facility  Augmentation of capacities in existing sewage treatment plant/facility  Remodeling/Renovation of existing sewage treatment facilities, resulting in better effluent quality and augmented treatment capacity 2 Solid Waste Management  Engineered landfills with leachate collection and treatment systems  Waste segregation and composting facilities  Waste Processing or Waste to Energy Facilities 3 Industrial Pollution Control Initiatives  Common effluent treatment plant  Common hazardous waste management facilities  Pilot treatment facilities for various industrial sectors  Waste minimization and Clean technology program 4 River front Management initiatives  River front management and beautification  Construction of bathing ghats  Development of crematoria, situated on river banks 1.3 AIM OF INVESTMENTS The portfolio of investments are aimed at preventing the discharge of untreated sewage into river Ganga and thus aiding abatement of river water pollution and improvement in water quality. Consequently, this also contributes to the improvement in the status of environment health and sanitation for the citizens of the concerned cities and towns. The investments to be implemented have its own beneficial as well as adverse impacts. The significance of these impacts depends on the individual project, its size and location. The likely beneficial impacts of the investments include the following:  Improvement in sewage collection and treatment within the cities/towns;  Prevention of storm drains carrying sanitary sullage or dry weather flow;  Prevention of ground water and soil pollution due to infiltration of untreated liquid waste;  Prevention of discharge of untreated sewage into river Ganga;
  11. 11. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 4  Improvement in water quality of river;  Improvement in environmental sanitation health and reduction in associated health hazards within cities/towns;  Improvement in quality of life, human dignity and increased productivity;  Reduced nuisance of open defecation due to low cost sanitation and reduced malarial risks and other health hazards and vector borne diseases; and,  Improved community participation and sense of ownership 1.4 River Front Management Investments River front management is one of the portfolios of investment to be taken up under NGRBA mandate. River front management under NGRBA mandate includes:  River front development schemes;  Beautification of river banks;  Construction of bathing ghats along rivers;  Improvement of lakes and water bodies  Redevelopment of cremation ground These river front management works would be included under one investment. The requirement of land for these works is moderate and much lesser than that is required for other NGRBA investments like sewage treatment or solid waste treatment facility. Although, these facilities are frequently used by the citizens, the location of these investments will not generally involve displacement of people. The proposed Patna River Front Development (RFD) is part of the River front management investments under NGRBA. 1.5 Patna River Front Development 1.5.1 Proposed Developments The proposed Patna river front development project would involve the following projects:  Development of 20 ghats (from Anta ghat to Naujar ghat including change room);  Promenades including kiosks (connecting some of the ghats together);  Community cum cultural centres;  Landscape work in the precinct zones;  City level parks; and,  Improvement of approach roads to the precincts  Development of Crematoria in Gulvi Ghat to an electric crematoria  Development of interceptor drain (total 8 nos.)  Sulabh Toilet Complex
  12. 12. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 5 Details of the developments are given below: 1.5.2 Development of Ghats The proposed 20 ghats considered to be developed under this project given in table 1.2 and shown in figure 1.2 respectively. Table 1-2 : List of Ghats Figure 1.2 Potential of ghat as a public Space Promenades including kiosks (connecting some of the ghats together) The proposed development of promenades are given below and shown in figure 1.3 and 1.4: Ghat Names Anta ghat B.N. College ghat Adalat ghat Mishri ghat T.N. Banerjee ghat Krishna ghat Baharwa ghat Rani ghat Ghagha ghat Raushan ghat Choudharytola ghat Pathri ghat Alamgaunj ghat Naurwa ghat Hanuman ghat Raja ghat Gai ghat Bhadra ghat Mahavir ghat Naujar ghat
  13. 13. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 6 Name of Precinct Connected Ghats Precinct-I Collectorate ghat Anta ghat B.N.College ghat Mahendru ghat till Adalat ghat Precinct-II Adalat ghat To Gandhi ghat Precinct-III Gandhi ghat to Rani ghat Precinct-IV Bhadra ghat Mahavir ghat Naujar ghat Figure 1. 3 Urban Precincts proposed
  14. 14. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 7 Figure 1. 4 Design of Urban Precinct (3D-View) After the development of the urban precincts the view of a ghat is shown in figure 1.5. Figure 1. 5: View of ghats after the proposed development of urban precinct
  15. 15. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 8 1.5.3 Community cum cultural centres Three number of community cum culture centres are proposed as given below and shown in figure 1.6.  Community cum Eco Centre at Collectorate ghat: This centre is facilitated with community landscape court with sit out, eco-centre cum meeting hall, café sitting in the second floor. The total built up area would be 2014 sq.m.  Community cum cultural Centre at Bhadra ghat: This centre will be facilitated with food court and community hall and children centre, multi purpose hall for dance and performance and a promenade view café. The total built up area would be 1273 sq.m.  Dolphin Research Centre at Gai ghat:In the ground floor there will be research centre and in the 1 st floor there will be exhibition hall. The total built up area would be 950 sq.m  Café at Patna College: This centre will be facilitated with café in the ground floor, Reading room and kids reading area in the 1 st floor and Amphitheatre and viewing deck in the 2 nd floor. The proposed built up area is 381 sq.m  Audio-Visual theatre at Gandhi ghat: This centre is facilitated with café in the ground floor, audio-visual hall in the 1 st floor, amphitheater and viewing deck in the 2 nd floor. Toal built up area 381 sq.m. Figure 1. 6: Proposed Community cum Eco-centre at Gai ghat
  16. 16. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 9 1.5.4 Landscape work at Precinct Zones The proposal has also put forward a framework to integrate landscape in to the existing river edge design. The landscape design has listed criteria like edge restoration, bio-diversity for wildlife, methods for carbon reduction , providing Larger open space for people for rituals, activity and exercise, walks, workshops, seminars, shade areas for people, concepts of bio-degradable garbage, flood control through land scape engineering and environmental education. The development on the river edge has to be of a kind that does n’t harm the river ecology.The design solution is a sustainable process. Steps have been taken to put in place on the promenade networkofwastedisposal.Thetexturesanduseofmaterialbesuchthatitwouldbegreenandenvironmentfrien dly. Landscape work has been proposed in four (4) number of precinct zones as given below and shown in figure 1.7: Precinct Landscape Work Landscape Work Landscape Work Precinct-I Collectorate ghat to Anta ghat Anta ghat to B.N college ghat B.N College ghat to Mahendru ghat Precinct-II Mishri ghat to T.N Banerjee ghat T.N Banerjee ghat to Kali ghat Precinct-III Gandhi ghat to Bharva ghat Bharva ghat to Law college ghat Rani ghat to Gulvi ghat Precinct-IV Gai ghat to Naujar ghat The proposal under the landscape works at the precinct zones will include the following aspects:  Riparian edge restoration, planting long edge for biodiversity of wild life, carbon reduction, nutrient exchange along edge  Large open space to facilitate people for rituals, activity and exercise, walks, workshops, seminars, shade areas for people  Nitrogen and Phosphrous reduction through bio-filtration phytorid (from NEERI-CSIR India) from sewage filled discharge  Solid waste management through in-situ aerobic composting (for bio-degradable waste)  Flood control through landscape engineering permanent and temporary  Environmental education
  17. 17. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 10 Figure 1. 7: Restoring the riparian edge and landscaping 1.5.5 City level parks 2 nos. of city level parks are proposed respectively at Patna College ghat and Gai ghat 1.5.6 Improvement of approach roads to the precincts Following approach roads are proposed for improvement:  Approach road to precinct-I  Approach road to precinct-II  Approach road to precinct-III  Approach road to precinct-IV  Approach road to Krishna ghat  Approach road to Choudurytola ghat  Approach to Pathri ghat  Approach to Gai ghat  Approach to Raja ghat A schematic view of proposed development of approach road is given in figure 1.8.
  18. 18. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 11 Figure 1. 8: Proposed approach road development of Gai ghat 1.5.7 Development of Electric Cremetoria at Gulvi Ghat At present the present crematoria uses wood as burning material. This electric crematoria will help in reducing the wood consumption and next it would give more burning facilities. This electric crematoria would help in burning 30 dead bodies in a day. 1.5.8 Development of Sulabh Toilet Complex Sulabh toilet complex are proposed at 3 locations as part of the project namely at Collectorate Ghat, Anta Ghat and Bhadra Ghat. Nearly 600 people are expected to use each of these toilets in a day. 1.5.9 Development of Interceptor Drain The project also envisagesto improve interceptor drains to capture the sewage getting directly disposed to Ganga from the building along the ghat and then finally dispose them off at a city sewer manual to divert the same to a STP. A total 8 such interceptor drains are being proposed.
  19. 19. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 12 1.5.10 Environmental Awareness The proposed river front development has potential to become one of the recreational and cultural hub of the city and can emerge as lively urban face. This can transform the water front areas from marginal use and connect to main stream, public activity etc. Once such public place is being developed then the necessary environmental awareness and citizen’s responsibility towards the cleanliness of river Ganga is expected to be developed along with increase of tourism. It is expected that the proposed river front development in Patna would enhance the environmental awareness specifically addressing (i) sanitation issues, (ii) prevent disposal of untreated sewage from the houses adjoining the ghats, (iii) prevent uncontrolled disposal of solid waste in the river, (iv) ecological awareness among people and among the fishermen specifically regarding Ganga Dolphin and (v) Open Defecation. The Project also expected to generate awareness among the pilgrims along with various line department health, safety and environmental issues during festivals like Chath and“Ganga Arati”. 1.6 Environment and Social Management Framework (ESMF) An ESMF has been developed for all the NGRBA portfolios of investments. According to ESMF, no such adverse or negative impacts are expected from river front management works until there are no major interferences in the river flow channel hydraulics which can trigger erosion and siltation issues either in situ or elsewhere along the course of the river. Impacts due to such investments could be minimized or mitigated by appropriate interventions and engineering designs. The ESMF of NGRBA for river front management work envisages following Environmental issues in general:  Change in land use and drainage pattern  Change in channel hydraulics, triggering erosion and siltation problems either at in situ or elsewhere along the course of river  Impact due to inadequate solid and liquid waste disposal arrangements  Impact due to inadequate sanitation , health and safety facilities  Impact on river water quality due to proposed amenities  Impact on environmental aesthetics and cultural values However in Patna RFD, the project has been envisaged to take care of the issues in the design stage itself. For example the ecological edge restoration work, development of land scape actually helps in improving the present situation of drainage pattern. The project also envisaged to provide management of solid and liquid waste expected to generate from the project and thereby improving the river water quality. The project also provides various benefits due to such river front development such as:
  20. 20. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 13  Ensuring more safe environment for bathing for children and older people with the implementation of life guard and guard rails;  Opportunities for employment for people who will operate kiosks and other informal economic activities due to development of the ghats as an open public place to the people of Patna;  More efficient management of solid waste and sewerage generated along project ghats;and,  Improvement of safety measures with deployment of efficient exit routes during religious gatherings along the project ghats. 1.7 PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF EIA The present Patna RFD project will be implemented by NGRBA and for that assistance has been sought from World Bank. According to screening study (given in details in chapter-4) and as per NGRBA’s framework the project falls under high impact category and hence an EIA study is required along with specific EMP. Also as per World Bank’s safeguard policy (OP: 4.01: Environment Assessment) an Environmental Assessment may be required if the proposed development work envisages to have some impact (adverse or positive) to surrounding environment. The scope of the EIA study has been finalized based upon the project screening and categorization and is given below:  Project screening and scoping;  Project categorization considering the OP: 4.01 (Environment Assessment);  Detailed assessment of natural habitats in the river and its riparian areas;  Assessment of water quality along the river stretch both through secondary and primary data generation;  Preparation of study area maps for an immediate vicinity of 200m-1km from either side of the river through satellite imagery to understand the details of vegetation and potential of siltation.  Aquatic Ecological assessment of the river at various taxonomy levels for the stretch of ghat development program;  Assessment of existing sewage disposal and proposed improvement mechanism for restricting sewage and other trade effluent disposal (if any) in to the ghat development section;  Assessment of proposed Solid Waste Management System as part of the proposed development;  Assessment of possible impact on river bed due to the proposed engineering measures for ghat development and possible management measures (if any);  Assessment of physical and cultural Resources along the project stretch and assessment of potential beneficial and adverse impact on such resources from the project;  Assessment of possible Environmental Quality measures and monitoring mechanism;  Assessment of possible Environment Management measures and cost;
  21. 21. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 14 1.8 PROPOJECT PROPONENT National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) is the project proponent for this project. 1.9 TECHNICAL CONSULTANT AND ARCHITECT M/s Sen and Lall Consultants Pvt. Ltd. is the technical consultant for this project and M/s NilaA Architecture and Urban Design is the architect consultant for this project for the proposed river front development in Patna including development of 20 ghats, promenade including kiosks, community cum cultural centre, landscape work in the precinct zones, city level parks and development of approach road to the ghats. 1.10 EIA CONSULTANT M/s Voyants Solutions Pvt. Ltd. is the EIA consultant for the project. 1.11 STRUCTURE OF EIA The present EIA report is has been arranged in following chapters. Chapter- 1 Introduction This chapter describes briefly describes the project, NGRBA Portfolios of Investments, the ESMF and need of EIA study. Chapter- 2 Project Description In the chapter the existing conditions of the ghats and proposed developments taken under the projects are described along with the cost summary of total investment under Patna RFD Chapter- 3 Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework This Chapter captures the policy and legal framework of government of India as well the policies of World Bank that are applicable to the project. Chapter-4 Description of Environment Description of the baseline environmental condition including the baseline conditions of river water quality, terrestrial and aquatic ecology, air, noise and soil quality are briefly described in this chapter. Chapter-5 Analysis of Alternative This chapter describes the alternatives considered in the project towards improving the project. Chapter-6 Environmental Impacts and Assessment This chapter provides details of the potential impacts from the project on various environmental factors and mitigation measures proposed for the construction and operation stage
  22. 22. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 15 Chapter-7 Public Consultation This chapter briefly describes the consultation measures carried out with the various sections of common public in and around the project area and the suggestions provided under the consultation are documented. Chapter-8 Environmental Management Plan This chapter envisages the requirement of Environmental Management Plan including the monitoring and supervision framework for the implementation of EMP along with the budget for implementing EMP. Chapter-9 Conclusion and Recommendation This chapter provides the conclusion about the implementation of the project and provides necessary recommendations.
  23. 23. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 16 2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A detailed project report on riverfront revitalization is being prepared to enhance the potential of Patna’s riveredge infrastructure and future decade. This is anunprecedented opportunity to create new public realm facing towards the river that is strongly connected to the city’s urban fabric. The report outlines a set of urban strategies that form the larger civic vision to the water front in the city and illustrates the detail proposal in ghat precincts. Our attempt has been to provide proposal that workscollaborativelywithArchitectureandEngineering,UrbandesignandEcologyandLandscapeDesign.T hestudyspannedoveralengthof7kmofthewaterfrontstartingatCollectorateghatanddowntherivertillGanga Setuandbeyond upto Naujar ghat. Figure 2.1: Artists view of Golaghar Patna The history of Patna spans three millennia and has the distinction of being associated with two most ancient religions of the world, namely, Buddhism and Jainism. The state has seen the rise and fall of mighty empires of the Mauryas and the Guptas. The Patna was originally known as Patliputra in the Mauryan empire. From this city the famed emperor Chandragupta ruled a vast empire from Bay of Bengal to Afghanistan. This state has also produced several eminent world class scholars namely:  Aryabhatt-Famous mathematician and astronomers  Chanakya-Master of State Craft and Guru of Chandragupta Maurya It is believed that Patliputra was among the largest cities of the world between 300 and 195B.C.
  24. 24. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 17 Celebration of religious festivals: The famous ChhathPuja of Eastern India is celebrated in Patna with great gaiety on river Ganga’s banks. More than five lakhs devotees offer Puja to Sun God on the occasion of Chhath Puja in the month of October. On this occasion lakhs of people trek to Ganges and after holy dip in the Ganges worship Sun God. Recently Ganga Aarti has started at 2 nos. ghats, namely Gandhi ghat and Bhadra ghat. The Tourism Department is conducting these on weekly basis and already has emerged an attractive weekly event of city. Such programs can create enormous awareness for cleanliness of river Ganges. 2.1 EXISTING GHAT CONDITIONS During the visit of the project team of VSPL to assess the existing conditions of the ghats the following point emerges:  Sanitation: At present the existing facilities at the ghats are quite poor. Practically there is no change room or toilet facility in the ghats. Disposal of raw sewage from buildings, slums are very common along with open defecation along the edge. Further there are dairy units along the ghat the waste is directly disposed to river Ganga (Refer Figure 2.2). ThemightyriverGangesisanintrinsicpartof lifeofPatna. Thisbeinganhistoricalcitythesettlementsstartedrightafter river’sbankedgeandconsequentlytheriver’sedge remainedunattended.Thegreatpotentialof riverfrontdevelopmenteludedthe peopleofPatna.NowwiththisdecisionofBiharGovt.todeveloptheGangariverfront,a greatopportunityfor Urbantransformationofcityhas emerged. The benefitsofthisriverfrontdevelopmentare immense.Afewsalientbenefits arespecifiedbelow. The spread of Patna along river Ganga The spread of Patna city in and around Gandhi Maidan
  25. 25. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 18 Disposal of sewage from building lines along ghat to river ganga Domesticated animal and dairy units along ghat, disposal of animal waste to river Ganga Open Defecation along edges of river Ganga Direct disposal of solid waste from the slum/colnies along the river bank into river Ganga Figure 2.2: Sanitation issues along the ghats  Festivals and Safety: The ghats are neither big enough to accommodate thousands of Devotees during Chhat festival. There are high chances of accident if any mishap happens with the devotees. In fact the same thing happened on 19 th of November 2012 when during Chatt festival 17 people killed due to stampede at the Adalatgaunj Ghat in Patna.  Encroachments: Illegal colonies, slums and encroachment are observed along the ghat especially to name Bhadra ghat where high density of slum observed. The colonies are developed so close to the bank that during monsoon chances of drowning and unsafe condition prevails. (Refer figure 2.3).
  26. 26. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 19 Figure 2.3: Slums at edge of river Ganga  Safety issues during Night time: There are hardly any light in the ghats making it really unsafe to women and general public as well. Women are not seen in the ghats after 4 p.m. On the contrary at Gandhi Ghatwhich has been developed for recreational purpose notices presence of women even after 9 p.m. This shows that if there is proper ghat developed people will use it. Figure 2.4:Gandhi Ghat (the only developed ghat at moment)  Edge Restoration:. Stone pitching has been observed along the river bank. This is a practice being done to restore the banks from erosion but it does not exist more than 2-3 years and every time such types of edge restoration work without any kind of landscaping or green area reduces the ecological activities in the river edges and thus impacts the food chain (Figure 2.4)  Unsafe Ghats-No clear entry exit route: At present the ghats are very narrow and each step height are very steep (avg. 10-13 inch) especially as observed in Mishri Ghat. Almost all the ghats do have some temple and devotees go for puja. The steep steps may be ok for youth
  27. 27. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 20 and adult but for children, women and aged persons these kind of steps are not very safe option. Further the steps are slippery due to water and may cause accident. Further, there is no such demarked entry or exit route to the ghats from the banks which also create lot of unsafe condition during mass gathering like chatt festival etc.  Present Initiative of Bihar Government: It would also be very pertinent to mention that at present the river front development/ management report has been worked upon from Collectorate ghat only. The reason is that till last year Ganges course had swerved away from Patna City and rejoined at Collectorate ghat only. Form here the river again runs along the city river banks.
  28. 28. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 21 Figure 2.5:Adalat Ghat Edge Condition Analysis (Boulder pitching at the edges)
  29. 29. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 22 Figure 2.6:Edge condition Analysis in Krishna Ghat
  30. 30. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 23 2.2 NEED FOR PATNA RFD Development of River front has emerged as lively Urban Core of cities - their socio-cultural, and recreation centres. Patna is also trying to improve the waterfront use from marginal and neglect into the mainstream of public life. Today everyone recognizes the value of waterfronts for recreation and ecological reasons. Projects for improvement of river water quality by preventing disposal of sewage directly into the river by collection of sewage and its treatment before disposal into water body are being prepared separately. After several discussions with the government agencies and NGRBA the need for the river front development in Patna along river Ganga was taken in to consideration mainly for the following reasons: Upgradation of Ghats acutely needed: At present the existing facilities at the ghats are quite poor. Practically there is no change room or toilet facility in the ghats. The ghats are also not big enough to accommodate thousands of Devotees during Chhat festival. There is hardly any ghat where Visitors to Patna can go for an enjoyable glimpse of river Ganges. Environmentalawareness: The proposed river front development has potential to become one of the recreational and cultural hub of the city and can emerge as lively urban face. This can transform the water front areas from marginal use and connect to main stream, public activity etc. Once such public place is being developed then the necessary environmental awareness and citizen’s responsibility towards the cleanliness of river Ganga is expected to be developed along with increase of tourism. It is expected that the proposed river front development in Patna would enhance the environmental awareness specifically addressing (i) sanitation issues, (ii) prevent disposal of untreated sewage from the houses adjoin the ghats, (iii) prevent uncontrolled disposal of solid waste in the river, (iv) ecological awareness among people and among the fishermen specifically regarding Ganga Dolphin and (v) Open Defecation. The Project also expected to generate awareness among the pilgrims as well as with the line department regarding the health, safety and environmental issues during mass gathering of people during famous chatt festival and “Ganga Arati” along Ganga ghats. Ghats Landscaping : Atpresentonly stone pitching work has been observed along the banks which are generally need to be repeated for every 2-3 years of time. This generally reduces the ecological activities along the banks. The proposed project is proposed with ecological edge restoration work along the banks. 2.3 PROPOSED DEVELOPMENTS The proposed Patna river front development project would involve the following projects:  Development of 20ghats (from Anta ghat to Naujar ghat including change room);
  31. 31. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 24  Promenades including kiosks (connecting some of the ghats together);  Community cum cultural centres;  Landscape work in the precinct zones;  City level parks; and,  Improvement of approach roads to the precincts  Development of Crematoria in Gulvi Ghat to an electric crematoria  Development of interceptor drain (total 8 nos.)  Sulabh Toilet Complex Details of the developments are given below: 2.3.1 Development of Ghats The proposed 20ghats considered to be developed under this project given in table 2.1 and shown in figure 2.2 respectively. Table 2-1 : Proposed Ghats for development Ghat Names Anta ghat B.N. College ghat Adalat ghat Mishri ghat T.N. Banerjee ghat Krishna ghat Baharwa ghat Rani ghat Ghagha ghat Raushan ghat Choudharytola ghat Pathri ghat Alamgaunj ghat Naurwa ghat Hanuman ghat Raja ghat Gai ghat Bhadra ghat Mahavir ghat Naujar ghat
  32. 32. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 25 Figure 2.7 Potential of ghat as a public Space 2.3.2 Promenades including kiosks (connecting some of the ghats together) The proposed development of promenades are given below and shown in figure 2.7 and 2.8: Name of Precinct Connected Ghats Precinct-I Collectorate ghat Anta ghat B.N.College ghat Mahendru ghat till Adalat ghat Precinct-II Adalat ghat To Gandhi ghat Precinct-III Gandhi ghat to Rani ghat Precinct-IV Bhadra ghat Mahavir ghat Naujar ghat
  33. 33. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 26 Figure 2.8: Urban Precincts proposed Figure 2. 9: Design of Urban Precinct (3D-View)
  34. 34. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 27 After the development of the urban precincts the view of a ghat is shown in figure 2.10. Figure 2.9:View of ghats after the proposed development of urban precinct 2.3.3 Community cum cultural centres Three number of community cum culture centres are proposed as given below and shown in figure 2.11.  Community cum Eco Centre at Collectorate ghat: This centre is facilitated with community landscape court with sit out, eco-centre cum meeting hall, café sitting in the second floor. The total built up area would be 2014 sq.m.  Community cum cultural Centre at Bhadra ghat: This centre will be facilitated with food court and community hall and children centre, multi purpose hall for dance and performance and a promenade view café. The total built up area would be 1273 sq.m.  Dolphin Research Centre at Gai ghat:In the ground floor there will be research centre and in the 1 st floor there will be exhibition hall. The total built up area would be 950 sq.m  Café at Patna College: This centre will be facilitated with café in the ground floor, Reading room and kids reading area in the 1 st floor and Amphitheatre and viewing deck in the 2 nd floor. The proposed built up area is 381 sq.m  Audio-Visual theatre at Gandhi ghat: This centre is facilitated with café in the ground floor, audio-visual hall in the 1 st floor, amphitheater and viewing deck in the 2 nd floor. Total built up area 381 sq.m.
  35. 35. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 28 Figure 2.10:Proposed Community cum Eco-centre at Gai ghat 2.3.4 Landscape work at Precinct Zones: The proposal has also put forward a framework to integrate landscape in to the existing river edge design. The landscape design has listed criteria like edge restoration, bio-diversity for wildlife, methods for carbon reduction , providing Larger open space for people for rituals, activity and exercise, walks, workshops, seminars, shade areas for people, concepts of bio-degradable garbage, flood control through land scape engineering and environmental education. The development on the river edge has to be of a kind that doesn’t harm the river ecology. The design solution is a sustainable process. Steps have been taken to put in place on the promenade network of waste disposal. The textures and use of material be such that it would be green and environment friendly. Landscape work has been proposed in four (4) number of precinct zones as given below and shown in figure 2.12: Precinct Landscape Work Landscape Work Landscape Work Precinct-I Collectorateghat to Anta ghat Anta ghat to B.N college ghat B.N College ghat to Mahendru ghat Precinct-II Mishri ghat to T.N Banerjee ghat T.N Banerjee ghat to Kali ghat
  36. 36. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 29 Precinct-III Gandhi ghat to Bharva ghat Bharva ghat to Law college ghat Rani ghat to Gulvi ghat Precinct-IV Gai ghat to Naujar ghat The proposal under the landscape works at the precinct zones will include the following aspects:  Riparian edge restoration, planting long edge for biodiversity of wild life, carbon reduction, nutrient exchange along edge  Large open space to facilitate people for rituals, activity and exercise, walks, workshops, seminars, shade areas for people  Nitrogen and Phosphrous reduction through bio-filtration phytorid (from NEERI-CSIR India) from sewage filled discharge  Solid waste management through in-situ aerobic composting (for bio-degradable waste)  Flood control through landscape engineering permanent and temporary  Environmental education Figure 2.11:Restoring the riparian edge and landscaping 2.3.5 City level parks: 2 nos. of city level parks are proposed respectively at Patna College ghat and Gai ghat 2.3.6 Improvement of approach roads to the precincts Following approach roads are proposed for improvement:  Approach road to precinct-I  Approach road to precinct-II  Approach road to precinct-III
  37. 37. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 30  Approach road to precinct-IV  Approach road to Krishna ghat  Approach road to Choudurytola ghat  Approach to Pathri ghat  Approach to Gai ghat  Approach to Raja ghat A schematic view of proposed development of approach road is given in figure 2.13. Figure 2.12:Proposed approach road development of Gai ghat 2.5.8 Development of Electric Cremetoria at Gulvi Ghat At present the present crematoria uses wood as burning material. This electric crematoria will help in reducing the wood consumption and next it would give more burning facilities. This electric crematoria would help in burning 30 dead bodies in a day. 2.5.9 Development of Sulabh Toilet Complex Sulabh toilet complex are proposed at 3 locations as part of the project namely at Collectorate Ghat, Anta Ghat and Bhadra Ghat. Nearly 600 people are expected to use each of these toilets in a day. 2.5.10 Development of Interceptor Drain The project also envisages to improve interceptor drains to capture the sewage getting directly
  38. 38. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 31 disposed to Ganga from the building along the ghat and then finally dispose them off at a city sewer manual to divert the same to a STP. A total 8 such interceptor drains are being proposed. 2.5.10 Environmental Awareness The proposed river front development has potential to become one of the recreational and cultural hub of the city and can emerge as lively urban face. This can transform the water front areas from marginal use and connect to main stream, public activity etc. Once such public place is being developed then the necessary environmental awareness and citizen’s responsibility towards the cleanliness of river Ganga is expected to be developed along with increase of tourism. It is expected that the proposed river front development in Patna would enhance the environmental awareness specifically addressing (i) sanitation issues, (ii) prevent disposal of untreated sewage from the houses adjoining the ghats, (iii) prevent uncontrolled disposal of solid waste in the river, (iv) ecological awareness among people and among the fishermen specifically regarding Ganga Dolphin and (v) Open Defecation. The Project also expected to generate awareness among the pilgrims along with various line department health, safety and environmental issues during festivals like Chath and“Ganga Arati”. 2.4 PROJECT LOCATION The proposed project site is located along the river Ganga starting from Collectorate ghat and spread beyond the Ganga setu. Few of the ghats are proposed to be connected through promenade and would also involve landscape work. The location map of the proposed project site is provided in Figure 2.14 and existing landuse along the ghats are shown in Figure 2.15.
  39. 39. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 32 Figure 2.13:Project Location
  40. 40. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 33 Figure 2.14:Landuse along project ghats
  41. 41. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 34 2.5 ADDITIONAL BENEFIT ‘Chaht Festival’ is the most important festival of Bihar. Millions of devotees congregate on bank of river Ganga for taking a dip and also undertake other religious rituals. The celebration of Chhat festival would become much more comfortable to these devotees by construction of walkway and the socio-cultural centres. This will also help in developing tourist attraction as Ganga Arati can be organized on regular basis at 2 – 3 ghats as is done in other religious cities like Varanasi, Haridwar etc. This will also help develop ecological awareness to prevent the pollution of the river. The Promenades will provide an alternative passage for people to travel from one ghat to the other directly without getting on to the main road. This will greatly reduce traffic on main road and reduce misery of people in traffic, particularly during festival times. The Promenades will reduce the distance to be travelled and time required for going from one ghat to the other substantially. The Promenades will also provide a panoramic view of the river banks and ghats to the visitors. 2.6 PROJECT COST The proposed cost for the project is given in table 2.2. Table 2-2 : Proposed Project Cost S.No Description of Item Cost (INR Lakh) 1 Development of 20ghats (from Anta ghat to Naujar ghat including change room) 8929.37 2 Promenades including kiosks (connecting ghats together) 8751.07 3 Community cum cultural centres 1660.04 4 Landscape work in the precinct zones 425.60 5 City level parks 833.14 6 Improvement of approach roads to the precincts 262.11 7 Development of Gulvi ghat 750.77 8 Interceptor Drain 326.97 9 Sulabh Toilet Complex 36.96 10 Information Education and communication campaign 75.00 11 ESMP Cost 511.89 12 Add contingency (8%) 1764.08 Total 24327.00
  42. 42. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 35 3. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK The policies, regulations and administrative framework within which the project is to be implemented with respect to environmental management and protection are reviewed in this section. The review includes the sector-specific Environmental and Policies and Regulations of the Government of India, National policies regarding socio-economic issues and the Administrative framework of various agencies, such as the Ministry of Environment and Forest, the Pollution Control Boards and other bodies associated with the implementation of the proposed project. The following laws and regulations are application to the environment and social aspects of the proposed ghat development program:  Policy and regulatory framework of Govt. of India  Environmental Policy of the respective State Governments  Legislations applicable to the construction activities The Project is seeking financing from World Bank and hence their environmental and social safeguards are also applicable to this Project. The categorization of the project as per World Bank guideline is detailed in Chapter-4. 3.1 POLICIES AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF GOVERNMENT OF INDIA (GOI)  Constitutional Provisions The Constitution of India, in Article 48, of Directive Principles of the State, states that “the state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard forests and wildlife of the country”. Further Article 51-A (g), of fundamental duties, emphasizes that, “It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures”. These two provisions of the constitution are the guiding principles for the environmental legislation in India. The Government of India has laid down various policy guidelines, regulations, acts and legislations pertaining to sustainability and protection of the environment and its various components. The statutory requirements for the proposed project are discussed briefly in the following paragraphs.  The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 The Environment (Protection) Act, popularly known as EP Act, is an umbrella legislation that supplements existing environmental regulations. Empowered by the EP Act, the Ministry of Environment and Forests
  43. 43. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 36 (MoEF), the Government of India has issued the following notifications regulating the siting of industry and operations, procuring clearance to establish industries and development of projects with appropriate Environmental Impact studies, coastal zone regulations and many other aspects of environment through notifications.  Environment Impact Assessment Notification 14 th September 2006: This kind of project on river front development does not fall under Environmental clearance requirements as per the EIA notification 2006 of MoEF. Even the total covered built up area for the project is 10,000 sq.m and hence according to the EIA notification, the project does not trigger the requirement of prior environmental clearance under category 8(a) 2 also. Hence the project does not require environmental clearance as per the rule of Govt. of India. The key environmental laws and related regulations are given in table 3.1. The key environmental regulations can also be accessed at www.MoEF.nic.in/rules-and-regulations Table 3-1 : Environmental Regulations and Legislations S.N o Act/Rules Purpose Applicabilit y (Yes/No) Reasons for Applicability Authority 1. Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 with Amendments Made in 1988 The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 has been formulated in order to provide the conservation of forests and for matters connected therewith or No As diversion of reserved / protected forest land is not involved.All the trees along the banks will be saved Forest Department, State Govt. and MoEF, GoI 2 As per 8(a) if the project built up area is more than 20,000 sq.m then only it triggers the requirement of environmental clearance.
  44. 44. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 37 S.N o Act/Rules Purpose Applicabilit y (Yes/No) Reasons for Applicability Authority ancillary or incidental thereto. 2 Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 has been formulated in order to protect the wild life in sanctuaries and National Park. No/Yes This act is not applicable as no sanctuary / national park exists within 10 km radius of project site. The vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary is more than 160km from project site Chief Conservator Wildlife, Wildlife wing, state forest department, MoEF, GoI 3 Land Acquisition Act, 1894 (As amended) Sets out rule for acquisition of land by govt. No No private land acquisition is involved. Revenue Department, State Government 4 The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 To control air pollution by controlling emission of air pollutants as per the prescribed Yes This act will be applicable during the construction stage SPCB
  45. 45. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 38 S.N o Act/Rules Purpose Applicabilit y (Yes/No) Reasons for Applicability Authority standards. 5 Water Prevention and Control of (Pollution) act, 1974 To control water pollution by controlling discharge of pollutants as per the prescribed standards Yes This act is mainly active during the construction stage SPCB 6 The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000 The standards for noise for day and night have been promulgated by the MoEF for various land uses. Yes This act will be applicable for all construction equipments deployed at worksite SPCB 7 Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 To manage collection, transportation, segregation, treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste No/Yes This rule is not applicable to the project as such. However, waste generated during construction and operation stage (by regular ghat users) MoEF, CPCB, SPCB
  46. 46. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 39 S.N o Act/Rules Purpose Applicabilit y (Yes/No) Reasons for Applicability Authority are to be addressed 8 The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958 Conservation of cultural and historical remains found in India No The proposed development is not in close proximity to any ancient monument declared protected under this act. Archaeological Dept., GoI, Indian Heritage Society and Indian National Trust for Art and Culture Heritage (INTACH) 10 Public Liability Act and Insurance act 1991 This act details out the requirement of protection from hazardous materials and accidents and sets the guideline how to store the hazardous materials. No Largely no such hazardous waste is being expected from ghat development project hence this act is not applicable. Contractor need to abide by this act if they store emulsions etc. SPCB
  47. 47. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 40 S.N o Act/Rules Purpose Applicabilit y (Yes/No) Reasons for Applicability Authority 11 Explosives Act, 1984 This act details out the requirement for safe transportation, storage and use of explosive materials. No No such blasting is involved in the project and storage of diesel, oil and lubricants will be not that significant to trigger this act Chief Controller of Explosives 12 Minor Mineral and Concession Rule For opening new quarry No Only licensed quarry will be used and no new quarry site will be used for minor minerals like stone, soil, river sand etc. District Controller 13 The Mining Act The mining act has been notified for safe and sound mining activity No As the aggregate materials will be sourced from vendors and no new mining site is to be used for the project. Dept. of Mining, State Govt. 14 National Forest policy, 1988 To maintain ecological stability through preservation No No such eco- sensitive feature is present in the project stretch as Forest Department, State Govt. and MoEF, GoI
  48. 48. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 41 S.N o Act/Rules Purpose Applicabilit y (Yes/No) Reasons for Applicability Authority and restoration of biological diversity such. Other applicable acts and rules mostly related to the construction activities are given below:  Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1970 Engagement of labour and basic facility to be provided and labour licence to be obtained. This act will be applicable for engagement of labour.  Minimum Wages Act, 1948 The employer is supposed to pay not less than the minimum wages fixed by appropriate government as per provisions of the act. This act will be applicable for engagement of labour.  The building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act 1996 ad the Cess Act of 1996 All the establishments who carry on any building or other construction work employ 10 or more workers are covered under this Act; the employer of the establishment is required to provide safety measures at the building or construction work and other welfare measures, such as canteens, first-aid facilities, ambulance, housing accommodation for workers near the workplace etc.) This act will be applicable for engagement of labour.  Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 2000 Whereas it is expedient to prohibit engagement of child in factory, mining and similar other risky work and to make necessary provision for health. Child’s safety and services and facilities while engaging them in other work. This act will be applicable to make sure not to engage any child labour.
  49. 49. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 42 3.2 SAFEGUARD POLICIES OF WORLD BANK The proposed ghat development project may trigger the following operational policies of World Bank: World Bank classifies supported projects into three categories namely: Category-A: A proposed project is classified as Category A if it is likely to have significant adverse environmental impacts that are sensitive, diverse, or unprecedented. These impacts may affect an area broader than the sites or facilities subject to physical works. EA for a Category A project examines the project's potential negative and positive environmental impacts, compares them with those of feasible alternatives (including the "without project" situation), and recommends any measures needed to prevent, minimize, mitigate, or compensate for adverse impacts and improve environmental performance. For a Category A project, the borrower is responsible for preparing a report, normally an EIA (or a suitably comprehensive regional or sectoral EA) that includes, as necessary, elements of the other instruments as given below: Depending on the project, a range of instruments can be used to satisfy the Bank's EA requirement: environmental impact assessment (EIA), regional or sectoral EA, strategic Safeguard Policies Triggered by the Project Yes No Environmental Assessment (OP/BP 4.01) [x] [ ] Natural Habitats (OP/BP 4.04) [x ] [] Pest Management (OP 4.09) [ ] [x] Physical Cultural Resources (OP/BP 4.11) [x] [ ] Involuntary Resettlement (OP/BP 4.12) [x] [ ] Indigenous Peoples (OP/BP 4.10) [ ] [x] Forests (OP/BP 4.36) [ ] [x] Safety of Dams (OP/BP 4.37) [ ] [x] Projects in Disputed Areas (OP/BP 7.60) [ ] [x] Projects on International Waterways (OP/BP 7.50) [ ] [x]
  50. 50. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 43 environmental and social assessment (SESA), environmental audit, hazard or risk assessment, environmental management plan (EMP) and environmental and social management framework (ESMF). EA applies one or more of these instruments, or elements of them, as appropriate. When the project is likely to have sectoral or regional impacts, sectoral or regional EA is required. Category-B: A proposed project is classified as Category B if its potential adverse environmental impacts on human populations or environmentally important areas--including wetlands, forests, grasslands, and other natural habitats--are less adverse than those of Category A projects. These impacts are site-specific; few if any of them are irreversible; and in most cases mitigatory measures can be designed more readily than for Category A projects. The scope of EA for a Category B project may vary from project to project, but it is narrower than that of Category A EA. Like Category A EA, it examines the project's potential negative and positive environmental impacts and recommends any measures needed to prevent, minimize, mitigate, or compensate for adverse impacts and improve environmental performance. The findings and results of Category B EA are described in the project documentation (Project Appraisal Document and Project Information Document of World Bank). Category-C: A proposed project is classified as Category C if it is likely to have minimal or no adverse environmental impacts. Beyond screening, no further EA action is required for a Category C project. The project categorization has been detailed in Chapter-4 after project screening.
  51. 51. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 44 4. DESCRIPTION OF ENVIRONMENT 4.1 PROJECT INFLUENCE AREA In Patna River Front Development (RFD) all the development work are associated with the right bank of river Ganga. Hence the influence area considered for the EIA study is mainly concentrated within the right bank and the ghat sections. In general 500m lateral distance from the right bank side has been considered as Direct Project Influence Area (DPIA) and 1 km lateral distance from the right bank side has been considered as Indirect Project Influence Area (IPIA). Figure 4.1:Direct Project Influence Area (DPIA) 4.2 TEAM MOBILIZATION The reconnaissance survey was carried out between 31 st august and 1 st of September 2012 for the purposed of proposed EIA study, site assessment, proposed ghat development works and fixation of monitoring locations. Further, environmental quality monitoring team carried out environmental monitoring and generated baseline data between 12 th of September till 22 nd of September 2012.Further Focus group
  52. 52. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 45 Discussion was also held in this period during the visit and deployment schedule of human resources considered for the project are also planned. FGDs were also undertaken with various stakeholders as detailed below: FGD-1 : Local vegetable seller and boatman at Anta ghat FGD2 : Local ghat Users in Mahendru ghat and Collectorate ghat FGD3 : Slum population along river Ganga between Misri to Dr. T.N.Banerjee ghat FGD4 : Common ghat users coming to ghat for passing time during evening period at Gandhi ghat and Kali ghat FGD5 : Relatives who gather in the funeral at the crematorium at Baikuntha Dham ghat FGD6 : General Public discussion may be at some tourist place of the city (like Golaghar or Gandhi Maidan to know their perception about ghat development work) FGD7 : Local fishermen for understanding their livelihood and possibility of any impact on them. FGD8 : Discussion with local fishermen for discussion as part of river Dolphin, its observation frequency, poaching provisions and use of its oil for fishing etc. 4.3 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL SCREENING: The details of environment and social screening details is shown in table 4.1 as given below: Table 4-1 : Environment and Social Screening for River Front Development Environment and social information format for screening Project Title: River front development in Patna Implementing Agency: National Ganga River Basin Authority Project Cost:150 Crores Project Components: Ghat development, Project Location(Area/District) S.No Screening Criteria Assessment of Category(High/Low) Explanatory note for categorization 1 Is the project in an eco-sensitive area or adjoining an eco- sensitivearea?(Yes/No Low as the stretch does not fall under any eco-sensitive zone declared by Govt. of India. The project area does The project area does not fall under any protected or conserved area under forest act or wildlife protection act (both terrestrial and
  53. 53. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 46 Environment and social information format for screening Project Title: River front development in Patna Implementing Agency: National Ganga River Basin Authority Project Cost:150 Crores Project Components: Ghat development, Project Location(Area/District) S.No Screening Criteria Assessment of Category(High/Low) Explanatory note for categorization ).If yes, which is the area? Elaborate impact accordingly. not fall under any kind of environmental sensitive zone (such as wildlife sanctuary, national park). The area though is a habitat for Gaga dolphin but their concentrated mostly in the left bank and Patna RFD will be constructed in right bank. aquatic). 2 Will the project create significant /limited/no social impacts?  Land acquisition resulting in loss of income from agricultural land, plantation or other existing land use.  Land acquisition resulting in relocation of households.  Any reduction of This project will create limited social impact. No agricultural land or plantation used for livelihood present there. No private land acquisition is involved, only some squatter may need to be displaced. Except some slum population (who are encroacher) no such impact envisaged Not going to be affected. All the temples will be existing The project does not have much of a social impact due to:  As it is only a RFD work and does not involve any private land acquisition  The work is limited only at the slope protection part where only few encroachment has been observed between misri ghat and T.N.Banerjee ghat  Some dairy units are adjoined along with cow shelters along the bank who may need to shifted to some other place.
  54. 54. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 47 Environment and social information format for screening Project Title: River front development in Patna Implementing Agency: National Ganga River Basin Authority Project Cost:150 Crores Project Components: Ghat development, Project Location(Area/District) S.No Screening Criteria Assessment of Category(High/Low) Explanatory note for categorization access to tradition and river dependent communities (to river and areas where they earn for their primary or substantial livelihood).  Any displacement or adverse impact on tribal settlements(S).  Any specific gender issues. and associated livelihood of priests, ritual related livelihood will continue Not envisaged No as such This could be the only impact from the project. The project thus does not involve much of social impact and the category of impact may be considered as low. 3 Will the project creates significant/limited/no environmental impacts during the construction stage?(Significant/limit ed/no impacts)  Clearance of vegetation /tree There will be some limited environmental impacts during construction stage as given below:  Not applicable  This will be taken care and proper storage of material Limited environmental impact is envisaged and with set control measures most of the impacts will be minimized at the contractor’s level only.
  55. 55. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 48 Environment and social information format for screening Project Title: River front development in Patna Implementing Agency: National Ganga River Basin Authority Project Cost:150 Crores Project Components: Ghat development, Project Location(Area/District) S.No Screening Criteria Assessment of Category(High/Low) Explanatory note for categorization cover  Direct discharge of construction run off, improper storage and disposal of excavation spoils, waste and other construction materials adversely affecting water quality and flow regimes.  Flooding of adjacent area  Improper storage and handling of substances leading to contamination of soil and water  Elevated noise and dust emission  Disruption to traffic movements  Damage to existing infrastructure, will be made and discharge of debris will be reduced  Chances of flooding is very less. Design is being made with high flood data  Proper storage of materials will be made along the bank  Required precaution to be taken to minimize the impact  Will be limited only to approach roads being considered for improvement  Very minimum and care shall be taken to avoid the same  Construction sites will be restored  This will be checked in
  56. 56. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 49 Environment and social information format for screening Project Title: River front development in Patna Implementing Agency: National Ganga River Basin Authority Project Cost:150 Crores Project Components: Ghat development, Project Location(Area/District) S.No Screening Criteria Assessment of Category(High/Low) Explanatory note for categorization public utilities, amenities etc.  Failure to store temporary construction sites  Possible conflicts with and /or disruption to local community  Health risks due to unhygienic conditions at works camps  Safety hazards during construction. detailed during FGD and ESIA. However during screening, it is understood that people welcome such project  Health and Safety norms will be set in the ESIA with monitoring mechanism to follow the same 4 Will the project create significant /limited /no environmental impacts during the operation stage?(Significant/Limi ted/No impacts)  Flooding of adjacent area The project may create limited environmental impacts during the operation stage as:  Chances of flooding to adjacent areas are less due to more bank protection/stabilization  Effluent from the project Chances of these impacts are less with the appropriate implementation of the program. However some safety risks and health hazard risk is there during the peak time of festivals. During that time emergency preparedness on the part of Bihar Govt, NGOs and EMP
  57. 57. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 50 Environment and social information format for screening Project Title: River front development in Patna Implementing Agency: National Ganga River Basin Authority Project Cost:150 Crores Project Components: Ghat development, Project Location(Area/District) S.No Screening Criteria Assessment of Category(High/Low) Explanatory note for categorization  Impacts to water quality due to effluent discharge  Gas emission  Safety hazards will be taken care through sulabh toilet/mobile toilet and interceptor drains  Chances of gas emission is negligible from the project  Proper protection in the river front where the promenade or road is given shall be made to avoid un avoidable circumstances/accidents etc.  No such impact is envisaged on gangetic dolphin in the right bank side as they are more concentrated in the left bank side of river where depth is available for their movement. The project includes riparian edge restoration as compared to stone pitching as being carried out present days for bank stabilization. implementation team of NGRBA need to take necessary step
  58. 58. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 51 Environment and social information format for screening Project Title: River front development in Patna Implementing Agency: National Ganga River Basin Authority Project Cost:150 Crores Project Components: Ghat development, Project Location(Area/District) S.No Screening Criteria Assessment of Category(High/Low) Explanatory note for categorization Hence this will create more natural habitat than at present. Thus impact if on dolphin from the present project (if any) is positive during the operation stage. 5 Do projects of this nature/type require prior environmental clearance either from the MoEF or from the relevant state Government department?(MoEF /relevant state Government department/No clearance at all) Not applicable as per the EIA notification 2006 6 Does the project involve any prior clearance from the MoEF or state Forest department for either the convention of Forest land or for tree Cutting?(Yes/NO) No clearance is required from MoEF and no tree cutting would be involved and hence no clearance from forest department will be required. The project area does not fall under any notified eco-sensitive zone and hence no prior environmental clearance is required.
  59. 59. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 52 Environment and social information format for screening Project Title: River front development in Patna Implementing Agency: National Ganga River Basin Authority Project Cost:150 Crores Project Components: Ghat development, Project Location(Area/District) S.No Screening Criteria Assessment of Category(High/Low) Explanatory note for categorization 7 Please attach photographs and location maps along with this complete Environmental format for screening. Attached separately with the form Overall Assessment Moderate After overall assessment of the project, this project can be considered as having moderate impact on Environment and Socio-economic environment. Hence as per the NGRBA framework (page 92, section 4.4.1 of NGRBA framework) projects with high and moderate impacts are being kept in high impact project category. Accordingly this project falls under high impact category as per the NGRBA framework. 4.4 Project Surroundings The proposed project is river front development in Ganga Ghats including development of 20 ghats(total length of 6.50 km), promenade including kiosks, community cum cultural centre, landscape work in the precinct zones, city level parks and development of approach road to the ghats. The photographs of the ghats along River Ganga with name have been provided in the Table 4-2. Table 4-2:Proposed Ghats for Developments along river Ganga in Ganga Ghats Ghat Names Anta ghat B.N. College ghat Adalat ghat Mishri ghat T.N. Banerjee ghat Krishna ghat Baharwa ghat Rani ghat
  60. 60. Project : Environmental Impact Assessment Study for proposed river front development of 20 Ghats along river Ganga in Patna, Bihar EIA-Ver2.0 P a g e | 53 Source: Feasibility Study 4.5 Baseline Data Collection The baseline environmental setting has been studied using secondary data as well as primary data to understand the present environmental scenario of the proposed location. Primary data hasbeen collected at site during post monsoon season in the month of September , 2012 by Mitra S. K. Pvt. Ltd, Recognized by NABL and MoEF. 4.5.1 Meteorological environment 4.5.1.1 Climate The project ghats are within 1 km from Patna City. The climate in Patna is characterized by quite hot summers to moderately cold winters. The day temperature generally ranges from 21.1ºC (Avg.) in January to 38.7ºC (Avg.) in May and night temperature from 7.3ºC (Avg.) in December to 27.7ºC in May/June (Avg.). The summer begins in April and peaks in June/July with the temperature soaring up to 43°C (Max) till the moisture laden monsoon wind bring some much-needed relief to the parched fields. The rains last through August & September and continue into early October. 4.5.1.2 Ganga Basin Temperature in Patna In the Ganga basin the mean maximum and mean minimum temperature as recorded in Patna is respectively 31.9°Cand 20.8°C (Refer Table 4-3). 4.5.1.3 Relative Humidity The relative humidity near the Ganga ghats is round 80 to 93 %. 4.5.1.4 Rainfall and Precipitation The weather in the Ganga Ghats in Patna is characterized by a distinct wet season during the period of south west monsoon (June to September). The air temperature starts falling with the onset of the Ghagha ghat Raushan ghat Choudharytola ghat Pathri ghat Alamgaunj ghat Naurwa ghat Hanuman ghat Raja ghat Gai ghat Bhadra ghat Mahavir ghat Naujar ghat

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