1. Objectives of Industrial Safety
The objectives of industrial safety are as follows:
1. Industrial safety is needed to check all the possible chances of accidents for preventing
loss of life and permanent disability of any industrial employee, any damage to
machine and material as it leads to the loss to the whole establishment.
2. It is needed to eliminate accidents causing work stoppage and production loss.
3. It is needed to prevent accidents in industry by reducing any hazard to minimum.
4. It is needed to reduce workman’s compensation, insurance rate and all the cost of
5. It is required to educate all members regarding the safety principles to avoid accidents
6. It is needed to achieve better morale of the industrial employees.
7. It is required to have better human relations within the industry.
8. It is needed to increase production means to a higher standard of living.
ACCIDENTS AND THEIR TYPES
1. Near Accident
An accident with no damage or injury is called near accident.
An accident with very less damage is called trivial.
3. Minor Accident
It is an accident with damage and injury more than trivial.
4. Serious Accident
An accident with heavy damage and lot of injury is called serious accident.
It is an accident with very heavy damage. There may be loss of lives also.
Effect of Accidents
The adverse effects of the accident are given as under—
(A) Effect on the owner of factory
(i) Direct cost of an accident
1. Cost of the compensation paid to the workers.
2. Cost of the money paid for treatment.
3. Cost of the monetary value of damaged tools, equipments and materials.
(ii) Indirect cost of an accident
1. Cost of the lost time of injured worker.
2. Cost of the time lost by other employees.
3. Cost of the delays in production.
4. Cost of the time lost by supervisors, safety engineers etc.
5. Cost of the lowered production due to substitute worker.
2. (B) Effect on worker
1. The industrial workers may get temporary or permanent disability.
2. If the industrial worker dies, his family loses the earner and the compensation
never equals to his earnings.
3. Accident also affects the morale of the employees working in the manufacturing
(C) Effect on society
Work connected with injuries put a considerable burden on society also as given as
1. Cost of accidents is included in the products, so the society has to pay more prices
for the industrial products.
2. If some industrial workers do not come under compensation act, the need for help
from society is much greater.
3. Loss of production hours may causes fewer products in market. So more prices if
demand is more than production.
CAUSES OF ACCIDEENTS
The accidents may take place due to human causes, environmental causes and mechanical
causes. These causes are discussed as under.
1. Accidents may occur while working on unsafe or dangerous equipments or machineries
possessing rotating, reciprocating and moving parts.
2. Accidents occur while operating machines without knowledge, without safety
precautions, without authority, without safety devices.
3. Accidents generally occur while operating or working at unsafe speed.
4. Accidents may occur while working for long duration of work, shift duty etc.
5. Accidents commonly occur during use of improper tools.
6. Accidents may occur while working with mental worries, ignorance, carelessness,
nervousness, dreaming etc.
7. Accidents occur because of not using personal protective devices.
1. Accidents may occur during working at improper temperature and humidity causes
fatigue to the workers so chances of accidents increases with workers having fatigue.
2. The presence of dust fumes and smoke in the working area may causes accidents.
3. Poor housekeeping, congestion, blocked exits, bad plant layout etc. may cause
4. Accidents occur due to inadequate illumination.
5. Improper ventilation in the plant may also leads to industrial accidents.
1. Continued use of old, poor maintained or unsafe equipment may result in accidents.
2. Accidents commonly occur due to use of unguarded or improper guarded machines
3. 3. Unsafe processes, unsafe design and unsafe construction of building structure may
lead to accidents in the plant.
4. Accidents occur due to improper material handling system and improper plant
5. Accidents may occur due to not using of safety devices such as helmets, goggles,
gloves, masks etc.
However the other general causes of accidents in workshops are listed under:
1. Because of ignorance to work with equipments, hand tools, cutting tools and machine
2. Operating machine and equipments without knowledge.
3. Extra curiosity to work without knowing.
4. Due to poor working conditions.
5. Because of speedy work.
6. Improper method to work.
7. Due to use of improper tools.
8. Because of lack of discipline.
9. Uninterested in work.
10. Due to carelessness.
11. Due to over confidence.
12. Bad working environment.
13. Because of excessive over times duty by industrial workers.
14. Dangerous materials with which to work.
15. Lack of cleanliness.
16. Due to poor planning.
COMMON SAFTY METHODS
The common methods of safety are as follows:
1. Safety by construction or design.
2. Safety by position.
3. Safety by using fixed guards.
4. Safety by using interlock guards.
5. Safety by using automatic guards.
6. Safety by using trip guards.
7. Safety by using distance guards.
8. Safety by workplace layout and proper working conditions.
9. Safety by proper material handling.
10. Safety by using personal protective devices.
Few of the above methods of safety are discussed as under.
The following precautions should be taken for fire prevention:
1. The maximum number of workers and officers should be trained with fire fighting
systems and equipments.
2. Keep all flammable liquids in closed containers or in safe cylinders.
4. 3. Effective fire warning signals.
4. All doors should be opened towards outside the workroom as means of escape in
case of fire.
5. The doors and windows to be used as exit in case of fire should be easily located.
These should be marked with red letters of adequate size.
6. Always select the least flammable liquid that will serve the purpose.
7. One should provide ventilation to prevent any accumulation of vapors.
8. Always provide suitable and adequate means of fire extinguishment.
9. Every operator should be familiar with the location of fire extinguishers and their
10. Proper clearance should always be there in between the heating device and any
11. Electrical wiring should be proper.
12. Always prohibit smoking, open flames and sparks near the flammable materials.
13. A free passageways and easily open-able windows should be always provided.
14. Provide always suitable means for the safe storage and handling of all fuel used.
15. Use of flammable liquids should be minimized
16. Safe disposal for the flammable liquid wastes must be provided.
17. No one is permitted to accumulate fuels or other combustibles near the source of
open fire or spark.
TYPES OF FIRE
There are three major types of fires which are given as under.
Type 1 Fires occurring due burning of ordinary combustible materials such as wood, cloth
and paper. Pouring water is the most effective way for extinguishing this kind of
Type 2 Fires occurring due burning of flammable liquids such as oils, petrol, grease and fat.
For extinguishing, blanket or smother this kind of fire, thus excluding oxygen,
water must never be used.
Type 3 Fires in this category involve live electrical equipment. The extinguishing agent
must be non-conducting of electricity and water must not be used for extinguishing
this kind of fire.
There are five basic kinds of fire extinguishers commonly used which are discussed as
1. Dry Powder Extinguishers
These extinguishers filled with dry powder may be of the gas pressure or stored air pressure
type. They are suitable for use on both Type 2 and Type 3 fires.
2. Foam Extinguishers
These are of two main types commonly called mechanical foam and chemical foam type of fire
5. extinguishers. They are effective against Type 2 fires.
3. Carbon Dioxide Type Fire Extinguishers
These are filled with the carbon dioxide. It is operated by means of a plunger, lever trigger
or by opening a valve. It is fitted with a distinctively shaped discharge horn. This type of fire
extinguisher has only limited effectiveness against Type 1 kind of fires. It is suitable for
extinguishing type 2 and 3 kinds of fires.
4. Water Filled Fire Extinguishers
The soda acid kind is the most common kind of water extinguishers. They are most suitable
for extinguishing fire for type 1. Such fires are resulting from ordinary combustible materials
such as wood cloth and paper.
5. Vaporizing Liquid Type Fire Extinguishers
They may be filled with either carbon tetrachloride (CTC.) or chlorobromethane (CBM) where
as CTC kinds of extinguishers may be of the pump, gas cartridge or stored pressure type. And
CBM may be either gas cartridge or stored pressure. These extinguishers are most effective
against electrical kind of fire (Type 3).
6. Stored Air Pressure Type Extinguishers
In stored air pressure type extinguishers, the container is pressurized with air when the
extinguisher is filled. The extinguisher is trigger operated and operation can be stopped at
any time by releasing the trigger grip. It is suitable for type 1 kind of fire only.
7. Gas Pressure Type Extinguishers
In gas pressure type extinguishers the water is expelled under pressure provided by carbon
dioxide gas released from cartridge filled inside the container. It is suitable for Type 1 kind