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Anglo saxon period

Important Events during the Anglo Saxon Period

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Anglo saxon period

  2. 2. Anglo-Saxons brief History  This period is traditionally known as the Dark Ages.  It is a time of war, of the breaking up of Roman Britannia into several separate kingdoms, of religious conversion. “Anglo-Saxon England was born of warfare, remained forever a military society, and came to its end in battle.” - J. R. Lander
  3. 3. Pre-Historical/Pre-Roman  The island we know as England - occupied by a race of people called the Celts. Between 800 and 600 B.C., two groups of Celts from southern Europe invaded the British Isles.  One of the tribes was called Brythons or Britons. They actually settled on the largerst island, Britain.  Gaels, settled on the second largest island known to us as Ireland.
  4. 4.  Celts were pagans - believed in “animism,” from the Latin word spirits  farmers and hunters  organized themselves into clans  clans had fearsome loyalty to chieftains  Druids were their priests Role: Go between the gods and the people
  5. 5. Results from Roman Occupation  Military - Strong armed forces  Pushed the Celts into Wales and Ireland  Prevented the Vikings from raiding for several hundred years  Infrastructure - Government fell apart when they left  Language and Writing - Latin official language  Religion - Mainly Christianity
  6. 6. Important Events in the First Anglo- Saxon Period  410-450 – Angles, Saxons, and Jutes (Germanic tribes) invade from Baltic shores of Germany  Anglo-Saxon kingdoms eventually became the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy.  New land: “Angle-land” - small tribal kingdoms - no written language - supported themselves through farming and hunting
  7. 7. Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms Seven Kingdoms  Kent  Essex  Sussex  East Anglia  Northumbria  Mercia  Wessex
  8. 8. Viking Invasions (787-1066)  Were sea-faring (explorers, traders, warriors)  Led to many cultural changes... Viking Ship, dates 825 AD.
  9. 9. Results from Vikings  Politically/Culturally - still unstable - no central government or church  Linguistically -  The English language is “born” and is known as Old English  Lots of dialects of the language due to the seven kingdoms
  10. 10. Norman Invasion (1066)  Battle of Hastings - the Normans (powerful Norman Frenchmen) defeated the English and started a conquest of England  Two most important effects:  French becomes official language of politics and power; thus, enormous influence on Old English  England begins unifying under a French political system, much of which is still with us today
  11. 11. Anglo Saxon King and Warrior
  12. 12. Anglo-Saxon Hall
  13. 13. Anglo-Saxon Farmstead
  14. 14. Sutton Hoo  Burial site discovered in 1939  Important links to Anglo-Saxon world and Beowulf  Remains of a boat were discovered and large burial chamber containing numerous artifacts  Artifacts suggest a distinctly Christian element intermingled with pagan ritual
  15. 15. Constant Conflict  9th Century: Norway invaded Northumbria, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. The Danes of Denmark targeted eastern and southern England
  16. 16. Alfred the Great King of Wessex 871-899  866—resisted Danish intrusion and earned “the great” title  Saxons acknowledged Danish rule in East and North  Danes respected Saxon rule in South  End of 10th Century—Danes want to widen Danelaw  Forced Saxons to select Danish Kings  1042—Kingship returned to Alfred the Great’s descendent Edward  Edward the Confessor died in 1066. His death led to the end of the Anglo-Saxon Period.
  17. 17. Anglo-Saxon Literature  Oral Tradition – poems and songs committed to memory and performed by scops, bards, gleemen, or minstrels.  Written literature began to evolve.  Two important traditions in literature heroic tradition – celebrates heroes elegiac tradition – passing of earlier better times
  18. 18. Anglo-Saxon Literature  Beowulf  Priests and monks were the only ones who could write; stories survival depended upon them. The church was not too eager to preserve literature that was pagan in nature, so historians believe they either ignored it or changed it.