Tutor em Excel School of Nursing, Bhavnagar, Gujarat
7 de Jun de 2021

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  2. •One of the most important characteristics of human beings is their capacity to learn. •An individual starts learning immediately after his birth or in a strict sense even earlier in the womb of the mother. •Our personality–our habits, skills, knowledge, attitudes, interests and character is largely the result of learning. •It is the key process in human behavior. All our adaptive as well as maladaptive, our cognitive as well as affective behavior are formed by learning processes. The change in behavior brought about by experience is commonly known as learning.
  3. DEFINITIONS- •The term learning covers every modification in behavior to meet environmental requirements. (Gardner Murphy—1968) •Learning is the acquisition of habits, knowledge and attitudes. It involves new ways of doing things and it operates on an individual’s attempts to overcome obstacles or to adjust to new situations. It represents progressive changes in behavior. It enables him to satisfy interests to attain a goal. (Crow and Crow—1973)
  4. Nature and characteristics of Learning •Learning is a process and not a product. •It involves all those experiences and trainings of an individual (right from his birth) which helps him to produce change in his behavior. •Learning brings changes in the behavior, but it does not necessarily mean these changes always bring improvement or development in the positive direction. •Learning prepares an individual for the necessary adjustment and adaptation. •All learning is purposeful and goal-oriented. In case there is no purpose, there would hardly be any learning.
  5. •Learning is universal and continuous. Every creature that lives learns. In human beings it is not limited to any age, sex, race or culture. It is a continuous never-ending process that goes from womb-to-tomb. • Learning is transferable from one situation to another. • Learning helps in the proper growth and development. • Learning helps in the balanced development of personality. Learning is a process which brings relatively permanent changes in the Behavior of a learner through Experience or Practice.
  6. TYPES OF LEARNING •Stimulus response learning •Perception learning •Verbal learning •Learning of motor skills •Concept learning •Problem solving learning •Attitude learning •Paired associate learning
  7. LEARNER AND LEARNING Who is learner? Everybody on this earth as a living organism may be seen to demonstrate its urge to learn. Our learning helps us – •For seeking harmony with ourself and environment •Developing our abilities & capacities to maximum in contributing to the welfare of ourself, society, humanity •Improving our performance
  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING LEARNING A.FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH LEARNER •Learner’s physical & mental health •Basic potential of the learner- ability to learn things, maturation level, general intelligence, basic interests etc. •The level of motivation •Goals of life •Readiness and will power
  9. B.FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH TYPE OF LEARNING EXPERIENCE •The nature of learning experiences- formal, informal, incidental, well planned, direct & indirect. •Methodology of learning C.FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH AVAILABLE RESOURCES AND EXPERIENCE(MEN & MATERIAL) •Quality of teaching •Availability of appropriate learning materials & facilities •Availability of conducive environment
  10. LAWS OF LEARNING •Law of readiness •Law of effect •Law of exercise/use •Law of frequency •Law of disuse •Law of recency •Law of primacy •Law of purpose •Law of association
  11. THEORIES OF LEARNING Trail and Error theory of learning This theory was propagated by Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949). According to Thorndike, learning consists of making bonds or connections between stimuli and responses. These bonds are made in the nervous system. This experiment sums up following stages of learning- • Drive(Hunger) • Goal (food) • Block (Box) • Random movements • Chance Success • Selection of movement • Fixation
  12. Laws of learning-Law of Readiness, Law of Effect, Law of exercise & law of association. Educational implications of Thorndike’s Theory • When a child is ready to learn, he learns more quickly and effectively(not forced to learn). • The task of the teacher is to motivate the students by arousing their attention, interest and curiosity, so that they want to learn (law of readiness). • Try to strengthen the bonds or connections between stimuli and responses, through repetition, drill and practice. Other- wise, the bonds get weakened through disuse and learning fails to occur (law of practice/exercise). • Learning gives him a sense of satisfaction. The child must be suitably rewarded to make learning effective (law of effect). • The learner should try to see the similarities and dissimilarities between the stimuli. • The learner should be encouraged to perform his task independently.
  13. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING The theory of classical conditioning was proposed by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) a Russian physiologist. A type of learning, in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response.
  14. The experiment brings 4 essential elements of the Conditioning process. Natural Stimulus-Unconditioned stimulus(US)-Food Natural response- Unconditioned Response(UR) Artificial Stimulus-Conditioned stimulus(CS)-Bell Conditioned Response(CR)
  15. Educational Implications of Classical Conditioning Theory- • Fear, love or hatred towards a particular subject is created through conditioning. • Interesting and effective methodology in teaching along with sympathetic treatment can have a desirable impact on the students through the process of conditioning. • The theory of classical conditioning emphasizes that the students should be exposed to positive stimuli in order to develop desirable habits, interests and attitudes in them. • Conditioning can also be used to remove unhealthy attitudes, superstitions and fears from the minds of the students by exposing them to positive stimuli (reconditioning).
  16. Theory of Operant Conditioning (or) Instrumental Conditioning The theory of learning by operant conditioning was given by BF Skinner (1904-1990). Skinner focused on the consequences of rewards in repeating and maintaining behavior. Man is not victim of the environment. A dog or individual does something or behaves in some manner, it operates on the environment and in turn the environment responds to the activity. How the environment responds to the activity, rewarding or not largely determines whether the behavior will be repeated, maintained or avoided.
  17. Based on experiments he concluded that “behaviour is shaped & maintained by its consequences. It is operated by the organism and maintained by its results.” •Reinforcement-The process, by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated . •Reinforcer-Any stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will occur again. •Positive Reinforcer-A stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in a preceding response. • Negative Reinforcer-An unpleasant stimulus, whose removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will occur again in the future.
  18. •Punishment-A stimulus that decreases the probability that a previous behavior will occur again. • Schedules of Reinforcement- Objects or events, which provide reinforcement are called as reinforcers. A.Primary reinforcers are those, which possess inherent reinforcing properties. Ex-food, water, physical comfort, etc. B.Secondary or conditioned reinforcers are those which acquire their reinforcing qualities through close association with a primary reinforcer. Ex-include money, attention, affection and good grades.
  19. •Continuous reinforcement (CR) schedule is 100 percent reinforcement schedule, where every correct response of the individual is rewarded or reinforced. •Fixed-interval (FI) reinforcement schedule, the individual is rewarded for a response only after a set interval of time. Ex-Paying salaries for the work done on a weekly or monthly basis. Conducting examinations periodically for the students. •Fixed-Ratio Reinforcement Schedule •In fixed-ratio (FR) reinforcement schedule, the more they respond, the more reinforcement they receive. Example: Paying employees depending on the number of units they produce or sell.
  20. •Variable-ratio (VR) reinforcement schedule, reinforcement is intermittent and irregular. The individual does not know when he is going to be rewarded and so he remains motivated through out the learning process. The most common example of this schedule is human behavior in gambling. Here rewards are unpredictable and keep the players motivated, though returns are occasional.
  21. Educational Implications of Operant Conditioning Theory 1.The key concept in Skinner’s theory is reinforcement. 2. The principle of operant conditioning may be successfully applied in behavior modification. 3. Operant conditioning emphasizes the importance of schedules in the process of reinforcement of behavior. 4. This theory advocated the avoidance of punishment for unlearning the undesirable behavior and for shaping the desirable behavior. 5.Learning proceeds most effectively - learning material designed to create less opportunity to face failures & more opportunities gaining success. - Feedback - Learning at own place.
  22. Theory of Insightful Learning (Gestalt Psychology) •Gestalt psychology was founded in Germany by Max Wolfgang Kohler and his colleagues. •The word ‘Gestalt’ means Configuration or form or shape or a particular arrangement of elements. •The basic idea behind Gestalt learning is that ‘the whole is more than the sum of its parts’. •Gestalt psychology is primarily concerned with the nature of perception, i.e. perception is always related to the total situation. •Gestalt psychology used the term ”Insight” to describe the perception of the whole situation by learner and his intelligence in responding to the proper relationships.
  23. •Gestalt psychologists tried to interpret learning as a purposive, exploratory and creative process, rather than mere trial and error or even conditioning.
  24. Gestalt psychologists concluded that insight depends on the following factors: •Past experiences •Intelligence •Learning situation •Initial efforts •Repetition and generalization.
  25. Educational Implications of the Theory of Insightful Learning •This theory emphasizes that trial and error learning must be minimized. •The age-old mechanical memorization and drill with lack of basic understanding and use of creative mental abilities, must be stopped. •A subject should not be treated as the mere collection of isolated facts or topics. It should be integrated into a whole. •This theory has brought motivation to the forefront. The child should be motivated by arousing his interest and curiosity, in order to make learning goal-oriented and effective. •The learner must be given plenty of opportunities to use his mental abilities. (classroom and environment)
  26. Humanistic theories of learning This theory was proposed by Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers psychologists belonging to the School of humanism. Maslow Coined the term ‘the third force’ to describe humanistic approach. Maslow proposed 5 sets of basic needs for understanding human motivation to learning.
  27. Cognitive Theory of Learning Observational Learning • Learning through imitation (social learning theory). • According to psychologist Albert Bandura and colleagues (1977), a major part of human learning consists of observational learning; learning through observing the behavior of another person called a model. • According to Bandura, observational learning takes place in 4 steps: 1.Paying attention and perceiving the most critical features of another person’s behavior 2.Remembering the behavior 3.Reproducing the action 4.Being motivated to learn and carry out the behavior.
  28. Learning Process According to HP Smith the learning process involves following steps: Motive: These are the dynamic forces that energize behavior and compel the individual to act. Goal: The setting of goal helps in making the learning purposeful and interesting. The goal attracts the individual to learn. Block to the attainment of the goal: If the individual faces no difficulty in attaining the goal, he will not change his present behavior; this means there is no necessity to learn. Reinforcement: If the response is successful in action in satisfying the need, that response is reinforced and on subsequent occasions the individual will tend to repeat it.
  29. •Integration: In this process the individual integrates the successful responses with the individual’s previous learning, so that it becomes a part of a new functional whole. •Learning situation: The quality, speed and effectiveness of learning depends much upon the kind of learning situation and environment available to the learner.
  30. Transfer of learning Definitions • Transfer refers to the transfer of knowledge, training and habits acquired in one situation to another situation. (Sorenson—1948) • The carry-over of the habits of thinking, feeling or working, of knowledge or of skills from one learning area to another is usually referred to as the transfer of training. (Crow and Crow—1973) Types • Positive Transfer-Transfer is said to be positive, when something previously learned benefits performance or learning in a new situation. • Negative Transfer-When something previously learnt hinders performance or learning in a new situation. • Zero Transfer-In case the previous learning makes no difference at all to the performance or learning in a new situation.
  31. Factors influencing learning- •When both the stimuli and responses in tasks are similar, learning of one facilitates the learning of the other. •When both stimuli and responses are different, the learning of one has no effect on the learning of other. •Maximum negative transfer is observed, when the stimuli are the same but the responses are different. • Degree of transfer is closely related to the learner’s intelligence. •Proper study habits have to be developed so that students try to see the relationship between various situations and try to apply what they know to other situations.
  32. Theories of Transfer of Learning The Theory of Identical Elements or Identical Components- This theory propagated by Thorndike, the transfer positive or negative from one situation to another is possible to the extent there are common or identical elements in the situations. Theory of Generalization- This theory proposed by Charles Judd, According to the theory of generalization, transfer occurs, when a person learns a principle or an idea in one situation and then is able to apply it in another situation. Transposition Theory of Transfer Transposition theory of transfer has been propagated by Gestalt field psychologists; they emphasized the role of insight in the mechanism of transfer of learning. Theory of Mental discipline (Faculty theory)- It’s the oldest of all transfer theories. This theory believes that mind is composed of so many independent faculties like memory, attention, imagination, reasoning, Judgement etc.
  33. Educational Implications of Transfer of Learning • Emphasizing the similarities between the current subject and the situations, to which the new learning will transfer. • Transfer takes place because of similarity of content, technique, method or generalization.(Transfer of learning does not take place automatically.) We have to teach keeping transfer of learning in mind. • Specific facts must be taught, with arriving at meaningful generalization. • Teachers should provide varied experiences. As much as possible learning experiences must be made similar to life-like situations. • Emphasis should be given on developing ideas and attitudes. • Teachers are ordinarily advised not to present in close succession methods or ideas, which might easily be confused and thus cause negative transfer.
  34. How to achieve maximum Positive Transfer? •What one already knows should form a base for one’s present learning. •While engaging in learning, the learner should try to have integration of the theoretical studies with practical experiences. •Learning should be properly correlated with life experiences, environmental surroundings and other areas of study and knowledge. •The learner should identify identical components between the two learning situations. •The learner should avoid rote learning. He must develop the habit of learning through proper understanding and insight. •The learner try to take help of multi-media.
  35. •Learner should never hesitate to utilize the learning of one field in the learning of other fields. •Instead of learning discrete and isolated facts, the learner should concentrate on the learning of the principles, generalizations and rules. •Learner should try to gain proper knowledge and insight into making distinctions between positive and negative transfer of his learning. •As far as possible, he should try to learn through his own efforts.
  36. Study Habits One’s habitual way of doing his study in a particular way and style may be termed as his study habit. Good study habits for the intended learners- 1.Establishing proper time schedule for studying. 2.Observing desirable healthy habits for carrying out study in the planned time. •Attention to study material. •Try to follow the Learning principle. •Span of time. •Body posture and positions.
  37. Implications for Nurses •Wide useful implications for nurses both at personal & professional levels. •Help to know the secrets of successful learning. •Try to play a role of appropriate observer and imitator of her role models. •Use of learning theories and transfer of learning in the for the care and treatment of patients.