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PRACTICAL DESIGN THINKING
UNDERSTAND YOUR AUDIENCE
Tim Evans & Angus Campbell
Before we start 2
Everything is designed,
few things are designed well.
-Brian reed
3
Check out
Doctor as
Designer on
medium
4
One-hundred doctors were recruited to test the device. Only two doctors
(2%) demonstrated all 6 administration steps cor...
5
The Edwards brothers said the device
was special because it was designed by
people who were intimately familiar with
pat...
6
7
“We put ourselves
in the customer’s
shoes and say,
what do we want?”
HOW DO WE SOLVE
PROBLEMS?
A DESIGN BASED APPROACH
1. DEFINE THE PROBLEM
2. LIST POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
3. ANALYSE EACH OPTION
4. PICK THE BEST AVAILABLE
5. IMPLEMENT THE SOLUTI...
Wicked problems
Wikid problems
health care
Wikid problems
education
“We cannot solve the problems we
have created, with the same
thinking we used in creating them.
A. Einstein
So how do we deal with
these wicked problems?
DESIGN

THINKING
Design thinking is…
an approach you can use to
solve wicked problems, pursue
innovation, and send rockets
to the moon
Design thinking has a design base
19
D.School
20
D.School
TENETS OF DESIGN THINKING
EMPATHETIC
21
TENETS OF DESIGN THINKING
STARTS WITH
POSSIBILITIES
24
http://www.core77.com/posts/41855/Is-Design-Thinking-Rocket-Science
TENETS OF DESIGN THINKING
ITERATIVE
28
LETS TALK ABOUT
EMPATHY
CONTEXTUAL
INQUIRY
PERSONAS
AFFINITY
MAPPING
INTERVIEWS
32
D.School
PERSONAS
EMPATHY
What are Personas?
A persona is a “hypothetical archetype” or
character who represents a group of users. It’s
used to unde...
What are Personas?
Personas come in a variety
of forms
35
Foxtel iQ3 : Discover phase findings May 2013 | Commercial in Co...
WHAT ARE PERSONAS?
The level of detail and focus
of a persona depends on the
product or service and our
relationship with ...
37DETAILS
Mailchimp
Personas
38CONTEXT
39MORE DETAILS
Isobar
Persona for
Foxtel
40MORE STATS
41
Who is this user?
What are their goals?
How do they behave?
What do they think?
What are their pain points?
What is the...
PERSONAS 42
Tell me a story, give me the facts
Personas help you design with empathy
WHEN &
HOW TO SELL
PERSONAS
PERSONAS
44WHEN TO USE PERSONAS
To make users part of the design process
As a focal point to galvanise a team
If a team is removed ...
I’M GOING TO NEED YOU TO GO AND
FORGET ABOUT THE PERSONAS
46
Create personas during the research phase to help identify and
empathise with users
47
During ideation and definition use personas to qualify ideas
48
In test and prototype they form a basis for recruitment
49
Personas also form the basis for website and service live
optimisation / customisation
50BUT WAIT THERE’S MORE
Use them as a tool to engage clients with human centred design
Identify opportunity and areas for ...
SOME TIPS ON
CREATION
PERSONAS
52TALK TO THE BOSS
53TALK TO THE FRONT LINE STAFF
54TALK TO THE MARKETING TEAM
55BRING THEM TOGETHER TO TALK ABOUT THE FINDINGS
56CREATE A PLAN
What do we know?
What do we want to find out?
Who are we talking to?
Where will this take place?
How long d...
57ADDING SOME MORE DATA
quantitative qualitative
58TELL ME THE FACTS
quantitative
Data from reportable
sources with numerical
characteristics
59QUANTITIVE DATA
‣ Online Traffic Analytics - Google Analytics / Omnivore
‣ Marketing demographics - Nielsen / Roy Morgan...
60AGENCY REPORTS / WHITE PAPERS
61TELL ME A STORY
Data direct from user
observations and interaction,
usually difficult to measure
numerically
qualitative
62INTERVIEWS
63DIARY STUDIES
64FOCUS GROUPS
65SHADOWING / CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY
Q&A
15Personas
CONTEXTUAL
INQUIRY
PERSONAS
AFFINITY
MAPPING
INTERVIEWS
LETS HAVE A CRACK
15Personas
69THE TASK - METRO 2020
HOLD ON
CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY
EMPATHY
72
73WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW?
STEPHEN P. ANDERSON
“It’s all about People, their
Activities, and the Context
of those activiti...
74
Who is this user?
What are their goals?
How do they behave?
What do they think?
What are their pain points?
What is the...
75EXAMPLES
INSERT CHAPTER TITLE 77
INSERT CHAPTER TITLE 78
INSERT CHAPTER TITLE 79
INSERT CHAPTER TITLE 80
81BACK TO THE TASK
Guerrilla research to help understand
consumers in and around Southern Cross
No interactions with users...
CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY
Who do you think we will see?
82
AFFINITY MAPPING
EMPATHY
84AFFINITY MAPPING
85ANALYSING THE DATA
Combine data sets
Group data and look for patterns
Define the user segments
Define measures to be use...
KEY OBJECTIVE
Affinity Mapping
ANALYSIS
AGENDA
10 minutes 1. Group any patterns that emerge.
Understand & Discuss as a gro...
INTERVIEWS
EMPATHY
KEY OBJECTIVES
Face to face interview
INTERVIEWS
AGENDA
10 minutes
DELIVERABLE
Interview notes
7
RESOURCES
‣ Interview tem...
PERSONA CREATION
EMPATHY
KEY OBJECTIVES
Basic Persona Creation
PERSONA CREATION EXERCISE
AGENDA
20 minutes 1. Looking at the templates which one do...
SOME PRO TIPS
EMPATHY
PERSONA PRO TIPS
EMPATHY
93PERSONAS - TRY TO AVOID
‣ Bland personas
‣ Personas which are too stereotypical
‣ No real data
‣ No first hand knowledge...
94INVOLVE THE TEAM AND CLIENT
95USE REAL STORIES
96MAKE THEM PART OF DISCUSSION
97
Personas
Smashing Magazine has some easy to read resources
http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/08/06/a-closer-look-at-...
CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY
PRO TIPS
EMPATHY
99CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY - PRO TIPS
‣ Think about the focus of the inquiry
‣ Involve the team
‣ Think about the time / weather...
100
Contextual Inquiry
Ethnographic Research
http://www.userfocus.co.uk/articles/ethnography.html
Wicked Problems
https://...
AFFINITY MAPPING
PRO TIPS
EMPATHY
102PRO TIPS
Use the post-it app to
capture the data!
‣ Too many people - less than six from across the team is ideal
‣ Too...
103
Affinity Mapping
Service design toolkit
http://www.servicedesigntools.org/tools/23
KJ Mapping
https://www.mindtools.com/...
INTERVIEWS
PRO TIPS
EMPATHY
105PRO TIPS
Every mac comes with
quicktime which you can
use to record and
playback your interviews
‣ Make people comforta...
106
Interviews
Forbes
http://www.forbes.com/sites/shelisrael/2012/04/14/8-tips-on-conducting-great-interviews/#79686f4387a...
CONTEXTUAL
INQUIRY
PERSONAS
AFFINITY
MAPPING
INTERVIEWS
Q&A
15How to create Personas
EL
FIN
15Personas
Design thinking - Empathy
Design thinking - Empathy
Design thinking - Empathy
Design thinking - Empathy
Design thinking - Empathy
Design thinking - Empathy
Design thinking - Empathy
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Design thinking - Empathy

Night Class on Empathy in the design process.

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Design thinking - Empathy

  1. 1. PRACTICAL DESIGN THINKING UNDERSTAND YOUR AUDIENCE Tim Evans & Angus Campbell
  2. 2. Before we start 2 Everything is designed, few things are designed well. -Brian reed
  3. 3. 3 Check out Doctor as Designer on medium
  4. 4. 4 One-hundred doctors were recruited to test the device. Only two doctors (2%) demonstrated all 6 administration steps correctly. 95% of doctors had to read the instructions. In 37% of cases, the demonstration would not have delivered adrenaline to a patient. The most frequent errors were: (57%) not holding the pen in place for >5 seconds (21%) failure to apply pressure to activate (16%) self-injection into the thumb. Mehr S, Robinson M, Tang M. Doctor: how do I use my EpiPen? Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2007;18:448–452 How hard can it be?
  5. 5. 5 The Edwards brothers said the device was special because it was designed by people who were intimately familiar with patients’ needs. “This was something that I knew I was going to carry with me every single day.” Designing with empathy
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. 7 “We put ourselves in the customer’s shoes and say, what do we want?”
  8. 8. HOW DO WE SOLVE PROBLEMS? A DESIGN BASED APPROACH
  9. 9. 1. DEFINE THE PROBLEM 2. LIST POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS 3. ANALYSE EACH OPTION 4. PICK THE BEST AVAILABLE 5. IMPLEMENT THE SOLUTION
  10. 10. Wicked problems
  11. 11. Wikid problems health care
  12. 12. Wikid problems education
  13. 13. “We cannot solve the problems we have created, with the same thinking we used in creating them. A. Einstein
  14. 14. So how do we deal with these wicked problems?
  15. 15. DESIGN
 THINKING
  16. 16. Design thinking is… an approach you can use to solve wicked problems, pursue innovation, and send rockets to the moon
  17. 17. Design thinking has a design base
  18. 18. 19 D.School
  19. 19. 20 D.School
  20. 20. TENETS OF DESIGN THINKING EMPATHETIC 21
  21. 21. TENETS OF DESIGN THINKING STARTS WITH POSSIBILITIES 24
  22. 22. http://www.core77.com/posts/41855/Is-Design-Thinking-Rocket-Science
  23. 23. TENETS OF DESIGN THINKING ITERATIVE 28
  24. 24. LETS TALK ABOUT EMPATHY
  25. 25. CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY PERSONAS AFFINITY MAPPING INTERVIEWS
  26. 26. 32 D.School
  27. 27. PERSONAS EMPATHY
  28. 28. What are Personas? A persona is a “hypothetical archetype” or character who represents a group of users. It’s used to understand their goals, behaviours, attitudes and context in which they operate. 34
  29. 29. What are Personas? Personas come in a variety of forms 35 Foxtel iQ3 : Discover phase findings May 2013 | Commercial in Confidence 212 Massive Interactive Pty Ltd.5 Viewing By myself With others Open to new experiences Timid Adventurous Information Seeking Sit back Hunt it out Organisation Too much work Will spend time Learning By accident Play until get it Technology I own The basics All the latest Tech Ability Luddite Wired Social Networks Not for me Awesome Wealth Struggling Affluent Challenges Is often distracted, concentration is low, wont read or seek out information Is capable and will play around until she figures it out if the perceived value is high enough. Stumbles on new content through friends and ads. Discovering & Learning Decision Making Technology Will wait, not in a rush for the newest technology as it out- dates quickly. Waits for contracts to run out before upgrading Uses skype to talk to her parents. I record too much I’ll often record so much that I don’t have time to watch it all, I think when am I going to catch up on all of this. I’m not sure when my episodes are on. Sometimes I miss the start of my favourite shows as I don’t know when they are on. I’ll be chatting with a girlfriend and they start talking about the new episodes and I’m thinking how did I miss this. It’s all about the kids at the moment! I’m busy looking after the kids. I don’t want to spend a lot of time and effort finding something to watch. I’ll record a show, to watch later when the kids are in bed, that way I can skip the ads . It’s cheaper at the DVD store When my husbands home we will go to the DVD store and rent a film as its $2 rather than pay $6 with Foxtel. We had the movie channel and let it go as it was too expensive and not enough choice. Kellie: Help me make the right choice “Sometimes I’ll record a show and forget to press +20 and it doesn’t record the end, it’s another thing to remember” Doesn’t have time to think about what to watch. Recording shows that won’t get watched. Missing the start of new season episodes. Resistance to paying more Has to think carefully about her spending as money is tight, likes a bargain or special offer. Makes all the day to day household decisions. Wants to avoid effort will use the EPG for laziness. Kellie is married to Pete, they have two children Chloe 5 and Josh 3. They are currently renting but are hoping to buy something within the next year as Kellie really likes the area, it has a good school and plenty of parks for the kids. Pete travels away for work so Kellie spends a lot of time at home with just the kids. She likes to have the TV on as background company when Pete is away, it keeps her from feeling lonely. Kellie has been with Foxtel for 4 years, she expects Foxtel to offer her more choice for her money especially as money is tight at the moment and they have after all spent lots of money with Foxtel. Age: 28 Occupation: Home maker Location: Maitland, NSW Needs: Reduce her channels to what is in her package. Make free content more obvious. Reminders notifications - start dates for new seasons. Being rewarded for loyalty as a long term subscriber. Favourite Channels Favourite Brands & Apps
  30. 30. WHAT ARE PERSONAS? The level of detail and focus of a persona depends on the product or service and our relationship with our team and client. 36
  31. 31. 37DETAILS Mailchimp Personas
  32. 32. 38CONTEXT
  33. 33. 39MORE DETAILS Isobar Persona for Foxtel
  34. 34. 40MORE STATS
  35. 35. 41 Who is this user? What are their goals? How do they behave? What do they think? What are their pain points? What is the context in which they operate? PERSONAS HELP INFORM
  36. 36. PERSONAS 42 Tell me a story, give me the facts Personas help you design with empathy
  37. 37. WHEN & HOW TO SELL PERSONAS PERSONAS
  38. 38. 44WHEN TO USE PERSONAS To make users part of the design process As a focal point to galvanise a team If a team is removed from the users When there are multiple user types
  39. 39. I’M GOING TO NEED YOU TO GO AND FORGET ABOUT THE PERSONAS
  40. 40. 46 Create personas during the research phase to help identify and empathise with users
  41. 41. 47 During ideation and definition use personas to qualify ideas
  42. 42. 48 In test and prototype they form a basis for recruitment
  43. 43. 49 Personas also form the basis for website and service live optimisation / customisation
  44. 44. 50BUT WAIT THERE’S MORE Use them as a tool to engage clients with human centred design Identify opportunity and areas for innovation Provide focus on core features to ensure speed to market Measure effectiveness of current and future solutions
  45. 45. SOME TIPS ON CREATION PERSONAS
  46. 46. 52TALK TO THE BOSS
  47. 47. 53TALK TO THE FRONT LINE STAFF
  48. 48. 54TALK TO THE MARKETING TEAM
  49. 49. 55BRING THEM TOGETHER TO TALK ABOUT THE FINDINGS
  50. 50. 56CREATE A PLAN What do we know? What do we want to find out? Who are we talking to? Where will this take place? How long do we have? What will the outcomes be?
  51. 51. 57ADDING SOME MORE DATA quantitative qualitative
  52. 52. 58TELL ME THE FACTS quantitative Data from reportable sources with numerical characteristics
  53. 53. 59QUANTITIVE DATA ‣ Online Traffic Analytics - Google Analytics / Omnivore ‣ Marketing demographics - Nielsen / Roy Morgan ‣ Australian Bureau of Statistics ‣ Survey respondents ‣ Social media analysis ‣ Google insights ‣ Harvard business review / Gartner
  54. 54. 60AGENCY REPORTS / WHITE PAPERS
  55. 55. 61TELL ME A STORY Data direct from user observations and interaction, usually difficult to measure numerically qualitative
  56. 56. 62INTERVIEWS
  57. 57. 63DIARY STUDIES
  58. 58. 64FOCUS GROUPS
  59. 59. 65SHADOWING / CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY
  60. 60. Q&A 15Personas
  61. 61. CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY PERSONAS AFFINITY MAPPING INTERVIEWS
  62. 62. LETS HAVE A CRACK 15Personas
  63. 63. 69THE TASK - METRO 2020
  64. 64. HOLD ON
  65. 65. CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY EMPATHY
  66. 66. 72
  67. 67. 73WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW? STEPHEN P. ANDERSON “It’s all about People, their Activities, and the Context of those activities.”
  68. 68. 74 Who is this user? What are their goals? How do they behave? What do they think? What are their pain points? What is the context in which they operate? THINGS TO LOOK FOR
  69. 69. 75EXAMPLES
  70. 70. INSERT CHAPTER TITLE 77
  71. 71. INSERT CHAPTER TITLE 78
  72. 72. INSERT CHAPTER TITLE 79
  73. 73. INSERT CHAPTER TITLE 80
  74. 74. 81BACK TO THE TASK Guerrilla research to help understand consumers in and around Southern Cross No interactions with users shadowing / observation only 15 minutes
  75. 75. CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY Who do you think we will see? 82
  76. 76. AFFINITY MAPPING EMPATHY
  77. 77. 84AFFINITY MAPPING
  78. 78. 85ANALYSING THE DATA Combine data sets Group data and look for patterns Define the user segments Define measures to be used Discuss and refine Conduct additional research
  79. 79. KEY OBJECTIVE Affinity Mapping ANALYSIS AGENDA 10 minutes 1. Group any patterns that emerge. Understand & Discuss as a group 7 Affinity map ‣ Sticky notes ‣ Sharpies
  80. 80. INTERVIEWS EMPATHY
  81. 81. KEY OBJECTIVES Face to face interview INTERVIEWS AGENDA 10 minutes DELIVERABLE Interview notes 7 RESOURCES ‣ Interview template ‣ Sharpies 1. Find out as much as you can about your designated user onto the interview sheet 2. Use 5x Why’s exercise
  82. 82. PERSONA CREATION EMPATHY
  83. 83. KEY OBJECTIVES Basic Persona Creation PERSONA CREATION EXERCISE AGENDA 20 minutes 1. Looking at the templates which one do we feel is best suited? 2. Generate personas based on data at hand DELIVERABLE Persona draft 7 RESOURCES ‣ Sticky notes ‣ Sharpies
  84. 84. SOME PRO TIPS EMPATHY
  85. 85. PERSONA PRO TIPS EMPATHY
  86. 86. 93PERSONAS - TRY TO AVOID ‣ Bland personas ‣ Personas which are too stereotypical ‣ No real data ‣ No first hand knowledge Smashing magazine have a couple of good persona guides
  87. 87. 94INVOLVE THE TEAM AND CLIENT
  88. 88. 95USE REAL STORIES
  89. 89. 96MAKE THEM PART OF DISCUSSION
  90. 90. 97 Personas Smashing Magazine has some easy to read resources http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/08/06/a-closer-look-at-personas-part-1/ http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/08/13/a-closer-look-at-personas-part-2/ Interaction design foundation has the most exhaustive explanation https://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/personas.html Cooper was a keen proponent for personas as part of goal directed design http://www.dubberly.com/articles/alan-cooper-and-the-goal-directed-design-process.html OTHER RESOURCES
  91. 91. CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY PRO TIPS EMPATHY
  92. 92. 99CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY - PRO TIPS ‣ Think about the focus of the inquiry ‣ Involve the team ‣ Think about the time / weather and other influencing factors ‣ Record and photograph everything ‣ Overlay information on a map This is a tool widely used in service design and less so in traditional UX
  93. 93. 100 Contextual Inquiry Ethnographic Research http://www.userfocus.co.uk/articles/ethnography.html Wicked Problems https://www.wickedproblems.com/4_methods_for_research.php OTHER RESOURCES
  94. 94. AFFINITY MAPPING PRO TIPS EMPATHY
  95. 95. 102PRO TIPS Use the post-it app to capture the data! ‣ Too many people - less than six from across the team is ideal ‣ Too few people - cannot do this by yourself ‣ Everyone should contribute ‣ Read the notes, talk about why they’re placing them ‣ Iteration is key, this should be performed at least two to three times. ‣ The output is subjective use it as such
  96. 96. 103 Affinity Mapping Service design toolkit http://www.servicedesigntools.org/tools/23 KJ Mapping https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_86.htm Postit app http://www.post-it.com/3M/en_US/post-it/ideas/plus-app/?WT.mc_id=www.post-it.com/app OTHER RESOURCES
  97. 97. INTERVIEWS PRO TIPS EMPATHY
  98. 98. 105PRO TIPS Every mac comes with quicktime which you can use to record and playback your interviews ‣ Make people comfortable, make it natural ‣ Don’t use leading questions ‣ Don’t ask Yes/No questions ‣ Really listen to what people say - use silence as a tool ‣ Be mindful of your questions around sensitive matters ‣ Have a theory you want to explore ‣ Probe your questions / key points beforehand ‣ Record and review
  99. 99. 106 Interviews Forbes http://www.forbes.com/sites/shelisrael/2012/04/14/8-tips-on-conducting-great-interviews/#79686f4387a1 Ten tips http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/10-things/10-tips-on-conducting-effective-interviews/ Cognitive Bias and interview technique http://www.hkr.se/pagefiles/35002/gordonwillis.pdf Bias! http://imgur.com/U4PJGuo OTHER RESOURCES
  100. 100. CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY PERSONAS AFFINITY MAPPING INTERVIEWS
  101. 101. Q&A 15How to create Personas
  102. 102. EL FIN 15Personas

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