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One-hundred doctors were recruited to test the device. Only two doctors
(2%) demonstrated all 6 administration steps correctly. 95% of doctors
had to read the instructions.
In 37% of cases, the demonstration would not have delivered adrenaline
to a patient.
The most frequent errors were:
(57%) not holding the pen in place for >5 seconds
(21%) failure to apply pressure to activate
(16%) self-injection into the thumb.
Mehr S, Robinson M, Tang M. Doctor: how do I use my EpiPen? Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2007;18:448–452
How hard can it be?
The Edwards brothers said the device
was special because it was designed by
people who were intimately familiar with
“This was something that I knew I was
going to carry with me every single day.”
Designing with empathy
What are Personas?
A persona is a “hypothetical archetype” or
character who represents a group of users. It’s
used to understand their goals, behaviours,
attitudes and context in which they operate.
What are Personas?
Personas come in a variety
Foxtel iQ3 : Discover phase findings May 2013 | Commercial in Confidence 212 Massive Interactive Pty Ltd.5
By myself With others
Open to new experiences
Sit back Hunt it out
Too much work Will spend time
By accident Play until get it
Technology I own
The basics All the latest
Not for me Awesome
Is often distracted, concentration
is low, wont read or seek out
Is capable and will play around
until she ﬁgures it out if the
perceived value is high enough.
Stumbles on new content
through friends and ads.
Discovering & Learning
Will wait, not in a rush for the
newest technology as it out-
Waits for contracts to run out
Uses skype to talk to her parents.
I record too much
I’ll often record so much that I
don’t have time to watch it all, I
think when am I going to catch
up on all of this.
I’m not sure when my
episodes are on.
Sometimes I miss the start of my
favourite shows as I don’t know
when they are on. I’ll be chatting
with a girlfriend and they start
talking about the new episodes
and I’m thinking how did I miss
It’s all about the kids at the moment!
I’m busy looking after the kids.
I don’t want to spend a lot of time
and eﬀort ﬁnding something to
watch. I’ll record a show, to watch
later when the kids are in bed, that
way I can skip the ads .
It’s cheaper at the DVD store
When my husbands home we will
go to the DVD store and rent a ﬁlm
as its $2 rather than pay $6 with
Foxtel. We had the movie channel
and let it go as it was too expensive
and not enough choice.
Kellie: Help me make the right choice
“Sometimes I’ll record a show and
forget to press +20 and it doesn’t
record the end, it’s another thing
Doesn’t have time to think about
what to watch.
Recording shows that won’t get
Missing the start of new season
Resistance to paying more
Has to think carefully about her
spending as money is tight, likes a
bargain or special oﬀer.
Makes all the day to day household
Wants to avoid eﬀort will use the
EPG for laziness.
Kellie is married to Pete, they have two children Chloe 5 and Josh 3. They are
currently renting but are hoping to buy something within the next year as Kellie
really likes the area, it has a good school and plenty of parks for the kids.
Pete travels away for work so Kellie spends a lot of time at home with just the
kids. She likes to have the TV on as background company when Pete is away, it
keeps her from feeling lonely.
Kellie has been with Foxtel for 4 years, she expects Foxtel to oﬀer her more
choice for her money especially as money is tight at the moment and they have
after all spent lots of money with Foxtel.
Occupation: Home maker
Location: Maitland, NSW
Reduce her channels to what is in her package.
Make free content more obvious.
Reminders notiﬁcations - start dates for new seasons.
Being rewarded for loyalty as a long term subscriber.
Favourite Channels Favourite Brands & Apps
WHAT ARE PERSONAS?
The level of detail and focus
of a persona depends on the
product or service and our
relationship with our team
44WHEN TO USE PERSONAS
To make users part of the design process
As a focal point to galvanise a team
If a team is removed from the users
When there are multiple user types
I’M GOING TO NEED YOU TO GO AND
FORGET ABOUT THE PERSONAS
Create personas during the research phase to help identify and
empathise with users
During ideation and deﬁnition use personas to qualify ideas
In test and prototype they form a basis for recruitment
Personas also form the basis for website and service live
optimisation / customisation
50BUT WAIT THERE’S MORE
Use them as a tool to engage clients with human centred design
Identify opportunity and areas for innovation
Provide focus on core features to ensure speed to market
Measure effectiveness of current and future solutions
55BRING THEM TOGETHER TO TALK ABOUT THE FINDINGS
56CREATE A PLAN
What do we know?
What do we want to ﬁnd out?
Who are we talking to?
Where will this take place?
How long do we have?
What will the outcomes be?
57ADDING SOME MORE DATA
58TELL ME THE FACTS
Data from reportable
sources with numerical
‣ Online Traffic Analytics - Google Analytics / Omnivore
‣ Marketing demographics - Nielsen / Roy Morgan
‣ Australian Bureau of Statistics
‣ Survey respondents
‣ Social media analysis
‣ Google insights
‣ Harvard business review / Gartner
Face to face interview
‣ Interview template
1. Find out as much as you can about your
designated user onto the interview sheet
2. Use 5x Why’s exercise
Basic Persona Creation
PERSONA CREATION EXERCISE
20 minutes 1. Looking at the templates which one do we
feel is best suited?
2. Generate personas based on data at hand
‣ Sticky notes
Smashing Magazine has some easy to read resources
Interaction design foundation has the most exhaustive explanation
Cooper was a keen proponent for personas as part of goal directed design
99CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY - PRO TIPS
‣ Think about the focus of the inquiry
‣ Involve the team
‣ Think about the time / weather and other influencing factors
‣ Record and photograph everything
‣ Overlay information on a map
This is a tool widely used
in service design and
less so in traditional UX
Use the post-it app to
capture the data!
‣ Too many people - less than six from across the team is ideal
‣ Too few people - cannot do this by yourself
‣ Everyone should contribute
‣ Read the notes, talk about why they’re placing them
‣ Iteration is key, this should be performed at least two to
‣ The output is subjective use it as such
Service design toolkit
Every mac comes with
quicktime which you can
use to record and
playback your interviews
‣ Make people comfortable, make it natural
‣ Don’t use leading questions
‣ Don’t ask Yes/No questions
‣ Really listen to what people say - use silence as a tool
‣ Be mindful of your questions around sensitive matters
‣ Have a theory you want to explore
‣ Probe your questions / key points beforehand
‣ Record and review
Cognitive Bias and interview technique